You are previewing Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era.
O'Reilly logo
Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era

Book Description

Advances in digital technologies have provided ample positive impacts to modern society; however, in addition to such benefits, these innovations have inadvertently created a new venue for criminal activity to generate. Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era is an essential reference for the latest research on the utilization of online tools by terrorist organizations to communicate with and recruit potential extremists and examines effective countermeasures employed by law enforcement agencies to defend against such threats. Focusing on perspectives from the social and behavioral sciences, this book is a critical source for researchers, analysts, intelligence officers, and policy makers interested in preventive methods for online terrorist activities.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. List of Reviewers
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
    1. ORGANISATION OF THE BOOK: SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS
    2. REFERENCES
    3. ENDNOTE
  9. Acknowledgment
  10. Section 1: Exploitation of the Internet by Violent Extremists
    1. Chapter 1: Understanding the Psychology of Persuasive Violent Extremist Online Platforms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSUASIVE FEATURES OF VIOLENT EXTREMIST ONLINE PLATFORMS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTE
    2. Chapter 2: Persuasion and Propaganda in War and Terrorism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROPAGANDA AS HUMAN COMMUNICATION
      3. PROPAGANDA: HISTORICAL EXAMPLES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. PERSUASIVENESS OF ONLINE VIOLENT TERRORIST MESSAGES AND THEIR IMPACT
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 3: Social Media and the Use of Discursive Markers of Online Extremism and Recruitment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SHIFT TOWARDS SOCIAL MEDIA
      4. DISCURSIVE MARKERS
      5. DISCURSIVE MARKERS FROM A LONGITUDINAL STUDY ON FACEBOOK
      6. MODELS OF ONLINE RADICALISATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FOCUS OF THE PRESENT PAPER
      5. METHOD
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 5: Using the Internet to Plan for Terrorist Attack
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRACING TERRORIST ACTIVITY ONLINE
      4. USING THE INTERNET TO PREPARE FOR TERRORIST ATTACKS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
  11. Section 2: Understanding the “Person” within Online Violent Extremism
    1. Chapter 6: Understanding Personality and Person-Specific Predictors of Cyber-Based Insider Threat
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL APPROACH
      3. NURSE ET AL.’S (2014) MODEL FOR CHARACTERISING INSIDER ATTACKS
      4. MOORE ET AL.’S (2011) MODEL OF INSIDER IP THEFT
      5. RELATING CYBER-BASED INSIDER THREAT AND THREATS FROM RADICALISATION
      6. GUIDELINES FOR INVESTIGATING CYBER-BASED INSIDER THREAT FROM A PERSONALITY PERSPECTIVE
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 7: Getting out of the Armchair
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EPISTEMOLOGY OF TIPPING POINTS
      4. AN ILLUSTRATION OF TIPPING POINTS IN FOREIGN FIGHTER RADICALISATION
      5. WHAT CAUSES ATTITUDINAL SHIFTS?
      6. HOW THE INTERNET CONTRIBUTES TO ATTITUDINAL SHIFTS
      7. IDENTIFYING THE ELUSIVE ‘TIPPING POINT’ IN RADICALISATION
      8. INCORPORATING TIPPING POINTS INTO EXTREMISM RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS
      9. ISIS AND ITS POSITIONING AND MARKET SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR PERSUASIVE ONLINE MESSAGING
      10. JIHADI MESSAGING USING TIPPING POINTS
      11. EXTREMISTS LEVERAGING ON THE INHERENT ADVANTAGE OF THE ONLINE REALM
      12. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF TIPPING POINTS IN COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM (CVE) ONLINE
      13. CONCLUSION: RE-WORKING COUNTER-NARRATIVE STRATEGIES BASED ON TIPPING-POINTS
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 8: Why Is ISIS so Psychologically Attractive?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INDIVIDUAL MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
      4. ORGANISATIONAL MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
      5. IMPLICATIONS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 9: Psychological Effects of the Threat of ISIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF HOME-GROWN RADICALISED INDIVIDUALS
      4. ACTION: ENGAGING IN NEGATIVE ACTIVISM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 10: Western Female Migrants to ISIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
      4. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN RADICALISATION AND GENDER DYNAMICS
      5. HOW THE INTERNET FACILITATES MIGRATION TO ISIS TERRITORY
      6. THE ROLE OF WOMEN WITHIN ISIS TERRITORY: WIVES, PROPAGANDA DISSEMINATORS AND ASYMMETRICAL THREAT
      7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 11: An Internet-Mediated Pathway for Online Radicalisation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EXPLOITATION OF THE INTERNET BY VIOLENT EXTREMISTS
      4. UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOUR OF ACTORS IN INTERNET-MEDIATED RADICALISATION
      5. TOWARDS A MODEL FOR INTERNET-MEDIATED RADICALISATION: RECRO
      6. THE REFLECTION PHASE: TRIGGERS, NEEDS, AND VULNERABILITIES
      7. THE EXPLORATION PHASE: MAKING SENSE OF NEW INFORMATION
      8. THE CONNECTION PHASE: THE INFLUENCE OF THE ONLINE COMMUNITIES
      9. THE RESOLUTION PHASE: RE-TRIGGERING THE NEED FOR ACTION
      10. THE OPERATIONAL PHASE: PREPARING AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE CAUSE BOTH ONLINE AND OFFLINE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTE
  12. Section 3: Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalisation
    1. Chapter 12: Framing the Challenges of Online Violent Extremism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 4 P’S FRAMEWORK: POLICE COMPASS
      4. DEFINING ‘VIOLENT EXTREMISM’: PROBLEMATIC CHALLENGES
      5. DEFINING ‘RADICALISATION’: COMPLEX CHALLENGES
      6. DEFINING THE ‘DIGITAL ERA’: CHANGING CHALLENGES
      7. DARK NET: THE UNDERBELLY OF CYBERSPACE
      8. POLICING DIGITAL ERA: COMMUNICATION INTERCEPTION TECHNOLOGIES
      9. OPERATIONALISING 4P’S FRAMEWORK: PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 13: Towards a Comprehensive Approach to Combating Violent Extremist Ideology in the Digital Space
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: THE COUNTER-IDEOLOGICAL RESPONSE (CIR) MODEL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 14: Countering Online Violent Extremism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HUMAN CASUALTIES FROM CRISES FEED RADICALISATION
      4. SCANDALS AND MISINFORMATION ADVERSELY AFFECT STATE CREDIBILITY AS WELL
      5. COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND COUNTER-MESSAGING EFFORTS UNDERMINED
      6. POSITIVE STATE ACTION AT THE MACRO LEVEL
      7. POSITIVE STATE ACTION AT THE MICRO LEVEL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    4. Chapter 15: Building National Resilience in the Digital Era of Violent Extremism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIOLENT EXTREMISM IN THE DIGITAL ERA
      4. RESILIENCE AS A STRATEGY FOR COUNTER VIOLENT EXTREMISM
      5. ASSUMPTIONS TO CONSIDER IN THE EVENT OF A VIOLENT EXTREMIST ATTACK
      6. STRATEGIES TO BUILD NATIONAL RESILIENCE IN THE DIGITAL ERA OF VIOLENT EXTREMISM
      7. THE SYSTEMS OF A NATION: CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE IN A DIGITAL AGE
      8. THE PEOPLE OF A NATION: PEOPLE’S RESILIENCE IN A DIGITAL AGE
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 16: Social Media Analytics for Intelligence and Countering Violent Extremism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL MEDIA DATA COLLECTION
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYTICAL TOOLS
      5. FUTURE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYTICS: OPERATIONAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 17: “On the Internet, Nobody Knows You're a Dog”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ISSUES OF BEING ‘ONLINE’
      4. RISK ASSESSMENT, EXTREMISM AND THE INTERNET: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS
      5. RISK ASSESSMENT AND VIOLENT EXTREMISM
      6. EXTREMISM ONLINE
      7. RISK ASSESSMENT ONLINE
      8. INTEGRATING THE THREE SPHERES: THE ONLINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF VIOLENT EXTREMISTS
      9. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
    7. Chapter 18: Detecting Linguistic Markers of Violent Extremism in Online Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. WARNING BEHAVIOURS
      6. DETECTING WARNING BEHAVIOURS
      7. RELATED WORK
      8. IMPLEMENTATION OF LINGUISTIC MARKERS FOR DETECTING WARNING BEHAVIOURS
      9. TRIANGULATION WARNING BEHAVIOURS
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 19: Internet Use and Violent Extremism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RISK ASSESSMENT, CYBER ELEMENTS AND VIOLENT EXTREMISM
      4. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR VIOLENT EXTREMISM
      5. RISK ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES AND CYBER-LANGUAGE ANALYSIS
      6. DEFINING AND DIFFERENTIATING RISK AND THREAT
      7. CYBER-ACTIVITY AND THE CYBERA TOOL FOR RISK ASSESSMENT
      8. CASE ILLUSTRATION
      9. BENEFITS AND CAVEATS OF STRUCTURED PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT CYBER-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT (CYBERA AND VERA-2)
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 20: A Supplementary Intervention to Deradicalisation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHEN PEOPLE GO ONLINE
      4. WHEN VIOLENT EXTREMISTS GO ONLINE
      5. WHAT IS DERADICALISATION?
      6. RE-THINKING DERADICALISATION
      7. APPLYING ONLINE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY TO DERADICALISATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
  13. Section 4: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 21: Cyberterrorism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ISSUES SURROUNDING CYBERTERRORISM
      4. CYBERTERRORISM CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: SIMILAR FEATURES FROM CYBER THREATS AND TERRORISM
      5. THE FOUR-STEP CYBERTERRORISM ATTACK SEQUENCE
      6. POTENTIAL INTERVENTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 22: Death by Hacking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF KINETIC CYBER
      4. VULNERABILITIES THAT ENHANCE THE THREAT OF KINETIC CYBER
      5. A COMPARISON BETWEEN A TYPICAL CYBER ATTACK AND A KINETIC CYBER ATTACK
      6. POSSIBLE OFFENDER PROFILES: MOTIVATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF VIOLENT EXTREMISTS WHO MIGHT ENGAGE IN KINETIC CYBER
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    3. Chapter 23: Spear Phishing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS SPEAR PHISHING?
      4. CURRENT APPROACHES USED TO STOP SPEAR PHISHING
      5. WHY DO PEOPLE GET PHISHED?
      6. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEALING WITH SPEAR PHISHING RELATED CYBER CRIME
      7. REFERENCES
  14. Section 5: Summary and Future Directions
    1. Chapter 24: What We Know and What Else We Need to Do to Address the Problem of Violent Extremism Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIMARY PREVENTION CONSIDERATIONS
      4. SECONDARY PREVENTION CONSIDERATIONS
      5. TERTIARY INTERVENTIONS CONSIDERATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  15. Compilation of References
  16. About the Contributors