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Color Management & Quality Output

Book Description

We have all felt the frustration of wasting time, paper, and effort when our prints or web images don't match the images we see on our monitors. Fortunately, you're holding the resource that will help solve these problems. This book guides you through the hardware settings and software steps you'll need to post professional images and make stunning prints that showcase your artistic vision. In Color Management & Quality Output, Tom P. Ashe, a color expert and gifted teacher, shows you how to color manage your files from input all the way through output, by clearly explaining how color works in our minds, on our monitors and computers, and through our printers.         

You'll learn to:

  • properly calibrate your monitor
  • understand Adobe Photoshop color settings
  • build and evaluate color profiles for all your devices
  • navigate the print menu in both Photoshop and Lightroom
  • appreciate the differences between inkjet prints and C-prints
  • optimize sharpening for a variety of print media
  • understand how and why to use RIPs
  •  communicate with creative professionals, clients, and output service providers to ensure the highest quality results

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Titles in The Digital Imaging Masters Series
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Bound to Create
  7. Dedication
  8. Table of Contents
  9. Foreword
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. Introduction
  12. Section 1 Color & Color Management
    1. 1 Color & Color Vision
      1. Light
        1. The Temperature of Light Sources
        2. Continuous versus Non-Continuous Light Sources
      2. The Object or Stimulus
      3. The Observer
        1. Color Blindness and Color Deficiency
        2. Testing Color Vision
      4. Metamerism and Metameric Failure
    2. 2 Color Measurement, Reproduction & Management
      1. Describing and Remembering Color
      2. Munsell Color System
        1. Hue
        2. Value
        3. Chroma
      3. Color Measurement and Color Models
        1. CIE-xy Chromaticity Diagram
        2. CIE-LAB
      4. Color Measurement Devices
        1. Densitometers
        2. Colorimeters
        3. Spectrophotometers
        4. Colorimetry versus Spectrophotometry
      5. Additive and Subtractive Color Reproduction
        1. Additive Color Mixing Theory
        2. Maxwell's Triangle
        3. Subtractive Color Mixing Theory
        4. What about the K in CMYK?
      6. Color Gamut Mismatch
      7. Color Management
        1. Pantone Swatchbook
        2. Closed-Loop Color Management Systems
        3. Open & ICC-Based Digital Color Management
        4. Calibration versus Profiling
        5. Inside the ICC System
    3. 3 Evaluating Image Quality, Print Quality & Test Pages
      1. Evaluation Lighting
      2. Analyzing Print and Image Quality
        1. Neutrality and Color Balance
        2. Lightness and Darkness
        3. Contrast
        4. Saturation
        5. Highlight, Shadow, & Color Details
        6. Tonal Quality and Smoothness of Gradations
        7. Color Rendering and Reproduction
      3. Creating a Test Page
        1. Skin Tones
        2. Neutrals
        3. Memory Colors
        4. Saturated Colors with Detail
        5. Highlight and Shadow Details
        6. Color References (X-Rite ColorChecker)
        7. Creating Grayscale, Grayscale Steps, and Spectrum Gradations
        8. Grayscale, Grayscale Steps, and Spectrum Gradations
        9. Space for Labels
        10. Your Own Images
    4. 4 Display Environments, Technologies, Calibration & Profiling
      1. Simultaneous Contrast
      2. The Work Environment
        1. Recommendations for a Color-Correction Environment
      3. Setting Desktop and Application Interfaces to Middle Gray
      4. Display Technologies
        1. Cathode Ray Tubes
        2. Liquid Crystal Displays
      5. Choosing a Display
        1. Matrix Type
        2. Backlight
        3. Response Time
        4. Resolution
        5. Gamut
        6. Horizontal/Vertical Viewing Angle
        7. Uniformity
        8. Bit-Depth of the Internal Processor
        9. Hood and Integrated Calibration and Profiling Software
        10. Price
      6. Calibration and Profiling of Displays
        1. Colorimeters and Spectrophotometers
        2. Luminance
        3. Contrast
        4. White Point
        5. TRC or Gamma
        6. Software Options
      7. Digital Projector Technologies
      8. Calibration and Profiling of Digital Projectors
        1. Display and Projector Quality Verification
      9. Display and Projector Profiles at the System Level
    5. 5 Input Profiling, Scanners & Digital Cameras
      1. Scanner Profiling-Photographic Transparencies and Prints
      2. IT8 Targets
      3. Scanner Settings
      4. IT8 Reference Files
      5. Better IT8 Reference Files and Targets for Better Profiles
      6. Scanning Color Negatives
      7. Digital Camera Profiling
      8. Targets
      9. Building the Digital Camera Profile
      10. Applications for Profiling Digital Cameras
      11. This is a Very Specific Profile
      12. DNG Profiles
    6. 6 Color in Photoshop & Lightroom
      1. Adobe Photoshop's Color Settings
        1. RGB Working Color Spaces
        2. Creating a Custom RGB Color Space
        3. Showing the Document Profile
      2. Assign Profile or Convert to Profile
        1. Assign Profile
        2. Practical Reasons to Assign a Profile
        3. Convert to Profile
        4. Color Engine or CMM
        5. Rendering Intent
        6. Black Point Compensation (BPC)
        7. Dither
        8. Practical Reasons to Convert to a Profile
        9. An Analogy
      3. Embedding Profiles
      4. Color in Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
        1. Raw File Format
        2. Color Processing in Lightroom
        3. Image Editing in Lightroom
        4. Benefits of Editing the Raw Image in Lightroom
    7. 7 Basic Color Correction & Image Rendering
      1. Color Correction Philosophies
      2. Color Correction in Adobe Photoshop
        1. The Info and Histogram Panels
        2. Cached Data Warning
        3. Adjustment Layers
        4. Setting White and Black Points Using a Levels Adjustment Layer
        5. Correcting Color Casts and Improving Contrast with Curves
        6. Making Local Adjustments Using Layer Masks
      3. Color Correction in Adobe Photoshop Lightroom's Develop Module
        1. White Balance
        2. Basic Tone and Presence
        3. Tone Curve
        4. Hue, Saturation, and Luminance (HSL)
        5. Before and After View
      4. Rendering Our Images
    8. 8 Output Profiling & Soft Proofing
      1. Building Custom Inkjet Printer/Paper Profiles
        1. Optimize the Printer and Printer Driver
        2. Output Profile or Printer Profile or Printer/Media Profile?
        3. Head Alignment
        4. Print the Output-Profiling Patches
        5. More is Not Always Better
        6. Leave the Scale Alone
        7. Measure the Output-Profiling Patches
        8. Wait
      2. When to Build a New Custom Inkjet Printer/Paper Profile
        1. Photo Black (PK) versus Matte Black (MK) Ink
      3. Generic versus Custom Profiles
        1. Generic Printer Profiles versus Generic RGB Profile
      4. Installing ICC Profiles for Use in Adobe Applications
        1. Possible Reason for Missing Profile in Adobe Applications
      5. Using Printer/Paper Profiles in Adobe Photoshop
        1. Print with Photoshop Print Settings Window
        2. Soft Proof the Image
        3. Gamut Warning
        4. Convert to Profile
      6. Using Printer/Paper Profiles in Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
        1. Convert to Profile
        2. Print
        3. Soft Proof
    9. 9 Output Profile Optimization & Editing
      1. Printer Profiling Packages
      2. Measurement Devices
        1. Spectrophotometers with and without UV Cutoff Filters
      3. Number of Patches
      4. Printer Configurations and Number of Inks Supported
      5. Output Profile Optimization Features
        1. Customized Lighting Condition
        2. Profile Settings
        3. Iterative Profile Optimization
        4. Optical Brightener Compensation
      6. Output Profile Editing
        1. To Edit or Not to Edit?
        2. Output Profile Editing Options
        3. Output Profile-Editing Tools
        4. Profile Editors or Software Containing Profile Editors
    10. 10 Color Utilities & Troubleshooting
      1. Color Utilities
        1. ColorSync Utility
        2. What About Windows?
        3. ColorSync Apple Scripts
        4. X-Rite ColorMunki ColorPicker
        5. X-Rite i1 Share
        6. X-Rite i1Profiler
        7. Older Software and Hardware and the Mac OS
        8. PANTONE Color Manager
        9. X-Rite ColorPort
        10. CHROMIX ColorThink Pro
      2. Troubleshooting
        1. Identify the Symptom(s)
        2. Start with the Basics
        3. Investigate
        4. Understand Process and Workflow Components
        5. Isolate and Test the Components
        6. Duplicate the Symptom(s)
        7. Determine a Solution
        8. Verify the Solution
        9. Troubleshooting Examples
    11. 11 Raster Image Processors
      1. Bitmap (Raster) and Vector Graphic Files
      2. What is a RIP?
      3. How is a RIP Different from a Driver?
      4. The Main Benefits of and Reasons for Having a RIP
        1. Processing More File Types and Formats
        2. Print Quality and Accuracy
        3. Improved Workflow and Automation
        4. Proofing, Verification, and Halftone Dot Simulation
        5. Package Printing and Optimizing Paper Usage
        6. Black-and-White Printing
        7. Ink Limiting
        8. Calibration and Linearization
        9. Bypassing Imaging Software/Printer Driver/Operating System Problems
      5. Ways Color Management Hardware and Software Interact with RIPs
        1. Support for Measurement Devices
        2. Support for Custom Profiles
        3. Ability to Turn OFF ICC Profiles
        4. Output Color Space(s) RGB/CMYK
        5. Linearization Function
        6. Ink Limiting Function
      6. Comparison of RIPs
        1. ColorBurst RIP X-Proof
        2. Paper Manufacturer Profiles and the RIP
        3. ColorByte Software Imageprint RIP
        4. EFI ColorProof XF
        5. Device Link Profiles
        6. GMG ColorProof, DotProof, and FlexoProof
  13. Section 2 Digital Printmaking & Output
    1. 12 Digital Output Technologies & Print Labeling
      1. Criteria for Comparison
        1. Longevity
        2. Variety of Surfaces
        3. Halftone versus Continuous Tone
        4. Speed
        5. Size Options
        6. Optimal Volume
        7. Cost
        8. Dynamic Range/Gamut/Aesthetics
      2. Inkjet
      3. Photographic
        1. Chromogenic (C-Prints)
        2. Silver Dye Bleach or Dye Destruction
        3. Silver Gelatin or Black-and-White
      4. Dye-Sublimation/Thermal Dye Transfer
      5. Fuji Pictrography
      6. Electrophotographic or Electrostatic
      7. Traditional Graphic Arts Printing Press
      8. Hybrid
      9. Labeling Prints
        1. Inkjet Prints
        2. Photographic Digital Prints
    2. 13 Inkjet Printing
      1. Different Types of Inkjet Printers
        1. Continuous Inkjet
        2. Piezoelectric Drop-on-Demand
        3. Thermal Drop-on-Demand
      2. Ink Technologies
        1. Aqueous Dye
        2. What is the Difference between a Dye and a Pigment?
        3. Aqueous Pigment
        4. Solvent and UV-Curable
        5. Paper and Media technologies
        6. Uncoated Papers
        7. Coated Matte and Fine-Art Papers
        8. How do You Find the Coated Side of Matte or Fine-Art Papers?
        9. Resin Coated Papers
        10. Baryta Papers
        11. Canvas Media
        12. Polyester and Vinyl Media
        13. Fabrics
        14. Metal and Rigid Media
      3. Printing with Irregular, Thick, or Rigid Media
        1. Finding and Setting the Thickness of the Paper
      4. Choosing Media for Printing
    3. 14 Black-and-White Digital Printmaking
      1. Problems of Printing Black-and-White Inkjet Prints
        1. Lack of Neutrality
        2. Cross Curves
        3. Metameric Failure
        4. Halftone Dots
        5. Dynamic Range
      2. Black-and-White Digital Printing Methods
      3. Image Tinting and Toning
        1. Tinting in the Black-and-White Adjustment Panel
        2. Toning the image with RGB Curves
        3. Converting to Duotone, Tritone, or Quadtone
      4. Improving Black-and-White Inkjet Prints
        1. RIPs and Gray Profiles
        2. Epson's Advanced Black-and-White Printing Mode
        3. Near-Neutral and Neutral Ink-Sets
      5. Digital Photographic Black-and-White Prints
        1. Digital C-Prints
        2. Resin-Coated (RC) Silver Gelatin Prints
        3. Fiber-Based Silver Gelatin Prints
    4. 15 Resizing & Sharpening
      1. Sizing Images for Output
      2. Sizing Images in Adobe Photoshop
        1. Pixel Dimensions
        2. Document Dimensions
        3. Constrain Proportions
        4. What do We Mean by Resolution in Sizing the Image and How do We Choose the Correct Image Resolution?
        5. Resample Algorithm
      3. 10% Iterative Method for Increasing Image Size
      4. Third Party Image Sizing Software
      5. Image Enlargement Factors and Considerations
        1. Point of Failure
        2. Viewing Distance
        3. Depth of Field
      6. Types of Sharpening
      7. Output Sharpening Methods
        1. Unsharp Mask Filter
        2. Smart Sharpen Filter
        3. High Pass Filter
        4. Pixel Genius PhotoKit Output Sharpener
        5. Nik Software Sharpener Pro
        6. Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
      8. Testing Sharpening
    5. 16 Collaboration with Printmakers & Service Bureaus
      1. Collaboration in Fine-Art Digital Printmaking
        1. How Do We Define an Artistic Collaboration?
        2. Benefits of Collaborative Printmaking
      2. Contemporary Collaborative Fine-Art Digital Printmakers and Studios
        1. Nash Editions
        2. Adamson Editions Atelier
        3. Singer Editions
        4. Cone Editions Press
        5. Laumont Photographics
        6. Ribuoli Digital
        7. Authentic Vision
      3. Communicating with Collaborators, Clients, and Service Bureaus
      4. Printing with a Lab or Service Bureau
      5. Questions to Ask
    6. 17 CMYK Output: Printing Presses & Short Run Photo Books
      1. Converting to CMYK
        1. CMYK Conversion in the Past
        2. There Is No Generic CMYK
        3. Conversion to CMYK Limits the Color Gamut
        4. Client Unfamiliarity with CMYK
      2. CMYK Color Separations
        1. Paper Type
        2. Ink Type and Colors
        3. Dot Gain
        4. Black Generation
        5. Ink Limits
      3. Standard CMYK Spaces and Specifications
      4. Short Run Digital Printing and Publishing
      5. Working with Short Run Digital Publishers and Printers
        1. Blurb
        2. Lulu
        3. HP MagCloud
        4. Pikto
        5. Modern Postcard
        6. 4over4.com
    7. 18 Color-Managing in Adobe InDesign, Illustrator & PDFs
      1. Synchronizing Color in the Adobe Creative Cloud
      2. Color in Adobe Illustrator
      3. Color in Adobe InDesign
        1. Color Settings in InDesign
        2. Basic Color Structure of InDesign Documents
        3. Soft Proofing in InDesign
        4. Printing from InDesign and Illustrator
      4. Portable Document Format (PDF)
        1. Standard PDF Formats
        2. Major Benefits of PDF
      5. Creating PDF Files
        1. Apple Macintosh OS X
        2. Adobe PDF Driver
        3. Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator
        4. Adobe InDesign
        5. Adobe PostScript and Acrobat Distiller
      6. Analyzing PDF Settings and Files
      7. Producing PDF Files for Electrophotographic Short Run Books and Offset Postcards
    8. 19 Preparing Files for the Web & Tablets
      1. Why is Adrienne's Face so Red?
      2. Two Basic Steps to Prepare Images for the Web
      3. How Browsers Should Work
        1. Apple Safari
        2. Google Chrome
        3. Microsoft Windows Internet Explorer
        4. Mozilla Firefox
      4. Color on Apple iPads
        1. Building a Profile for iPads and Other Tablet Computers
      5. Color from Presentation Applications
    9. 20 Digital Print Permanence & Longevity
      1. Factors that Affect Print Longevity
        1. Materials
        2. Ultraviolet Radiation
        3. Temperature
        4. Humidity/Moisture Sensitivity
        5. Pollutants
      2. Testing and Measuring Materials for Print Longevity
    10. 21 Print Treatments, Editions & Documentation
      1. Print Finishing Treatments
      2. Protection of the Photograph
        1. Light and UV Radiation
        2. Pollutants
        3. Handling
        4. Humidity and Moisture
      3. Print Finishing Techniques
        1. Before Print Finishing
        2. Lacquers and Fixatives
        3. Mounting
        4. Matting and Framing
        5. Lamination
        6. Face-Mounting
      4. Aesthetic Enhancement
      5. Editioning in Fine-Art Digital and Photographic Printmaking
      6. Documenting Prints
  14. Index