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Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics and Photovoltaics

Book Description

Capturing the most up-to-date research in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) devices, this book is written in an accessible style by the world's leading experts. The application of CQDs in solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has developed rapidly over recent years, promising to transform the future of clean energy, communications, and displays. This complete guide to the field provides researchers, students and practitioners alike with everything they need to understand these developments and begin contributing to future applications. Introductory chapters summarise the fundamental physics and chemistry, whilst later chapters review the developments that have propelled the field forwards, systematically working through key device advances. The science of CQD films is explained through the latest physical models of semiconductor transport, trapping and recombination, whilst the engineering of organic and inorganic multilayered materials is shown to have enabled major advances in the brightness and efficiency of CQD LEDs.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Colloidal Quantum Dot Optoelectronics and Photovoltaics
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. List of contributors
  7. Preface
  8. 1 Engineering colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, surface chemistry, and self-assembly
    1. 1.1 Colloidal synthesis of inorganic nanocrystals and quantum dots
      1. 1.1.1 Introductory remarks: history and terminology
      2. 1.1.2 Basics of the surfactant-assisted colloidal synthesis of NC quantum dots
    2. 1.2 Long-range ordered NC solids
      1. 1.2.1 Single-component NC superlattices
      2. 1.2.2 Multicomponent NC superlattices
      3. 1.2.3 Shape-directed self-assembly of NCs
    3. 1.3 Surface chemistry – a gateway to applications of NCs
      1. 1.3.1 Organic capping ligands
      2. 1.3.2 Complete removal of organic ligands and inorganic surface functionalization
    4. References
  9. 2 Aqueous based colloidal quantum dots for optoelectronics
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Aqueous colloidal synthesis of semiconductor NCs
      1. 2.2.1 ZnX NCs
      2. 2.2.2 Alloyed ZnSe based NCs
      3. 2.2.3 CdX NCs
      4. 2.2.4 Core/shell CdTe based NCs
      5. 2.2.5 Alloyed CdTe based NCs
      6. 2.2.6 CdSe, CdSe/CdS NCs
      7. 2.2.7 HgX and PbX NCs
        1. 2.2.7.1 HgX NCs
        2. 2.2.7.2 PbX NCs
    3. 2.3 Assemblies and functional architectures of NCs
      1. 2.3.1 LbL assembly technique
      2. 2.3.2 Assembly of NCs on micro- and nano-beads
      3. 2.3.3 Covalent coupling of NCs
      4. 2.3.4 Controllable aggregation
      5. 2.3.5 Nanowires and nanosheets
      6. 2.3.6 Nanocrystal based gels and aerogels
    4. 2.4 Conclusions and outlook
    5. References
  10. 3 Electronic structure and optical transitions in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Foundational concepts
    3. 3.3 A simple model
    4. 3.4 Experimental evidence for quantum confinement
    5. 3.5 Engineered quantum dot structures
    6. 3.6 Advanced theoretical treatments
    7. 3.7 Atomistic approaches
    8. 3.8 Current challenges and future outlook
    9. References
  11. 4 Charge and energy transfer in polymer/nanocrystal blends: physics and devices
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 A brief history of QD/polymer optoelectronics
      1. 4.2.1 Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) – size-tunable emission across the spectrum
      2. 4.2.2 Quantum dot photovoltaics (QD-PV) and photodetectors – converting photons to electrons
        1. 4.2.2.1 QD-PVs
        2. 4.2.2.2 Quantum dot photodetectors
    3. 4.3 The QD–organic interface – ligands and more
      1. 4.3.1 Ligands
      2. 4.3.2 Energetics
        1. 4.3.2.1 Charge transfer and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in QD-LEDs
        2. 4.3.2.2 Type II heterojunctions and charge transfer in QD-PVs
    4. 4.4 Conclusion and future outlook
    5. References
  12. 5 Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots and electronically coupled quantum dot arrays for application to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Relaxation dynamics of photogenerated electron–hole pairs in QDs
      1. 5.2.1 Transient absorption spectroscopy (TA)
    3. 5.3 Multiple exciton generation (MEG)
      1. 5.3.1 MEG in QDs
      2. 5.3.2 MEG controversy and role of photocharging
      3. 5.3.3 MEG efficiency and comparison to impact ionization in bulk semiconductors
    4. 5.4 QD solar cells
      1. 5.4.1 MEG photocurrent and determination of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in QD solar cells
    5. 5.5 QD arrays
      1. 5.5.1 MEG in PbSe QD arrays
    6. 5.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  13. 6 Colloidal quantum dot light emitting devices
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Why QDs for LEDs?
      1. 6.2.1 Saturated colors
      2. 6.2.2 Solution processable
      3. 6.2.3 Stability
    3. 6.3 QD and device physics influencing LED performance
      1. 6.3.1 Quantifying the luminescence efficiency
      2. 6.3.2 QD surface states
      3. 6.3.3 QD charging
      4. 6.3.4 Charge transport in QD films
      5. 6.3.5 Field driven luminescence quenching
      6. 6.3.6 Isolating the effects of charge and field
    4. 6.4 Characterizing QD-LEDs
    5. 6.5 QD-LEDs based on optical downconversion
    6. 6.6 QD-LEDs based on organic charge transport layers
      1. 6.6.1 Deposition of QDs: spin casting, phase separation, and microcontact printing
      2. 6.6.2 Operation of colloidal QD-LEDs
    7. 6.7 QD-LEDs with inorganic charge transport layers
      1. 6.7.1 Reasons for inorganic charge transport layers
      2. 6.7.2 Fabrication of all inorganic QD-LEDs
      3. 6.7.3 Operation of QD-LED with inorganic charge transport layers
      4. 6.7.4 Improving the efficiency of QD-LEDs with inorganic charge transport layers
    8. 6.8 Future work
    9. References
  14. 7 Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Applications of top-surface photodetectors
      2. 7.1.2 Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) for light detection
    2. 7.2 Fundamentals of photodetectors
      1. 7.2.1 Types of photodetectors
      2. 7.2.2 Figures of merit
    3. 7.3 Prior art in solution-processed photodetectors
    4. 7.4 Solution-processed QD photoconductors
      1. 7.4.1 Photoconductive gain and noise in PbS QD photodetectors
      2. 7.4.2 Visible-wavelength and multispectral photodetection
      3. 7.4.3 Control of temporal response in photoconductive detectors via trap state engineering
    5. 7.5 CQD based phototransistors
    6. 7.6 CQD photodiodes
    7. 7.7 Conclusions – summary
    8. References
  15. 8 Optical gain and lasing in colloidal quantum dots
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Optical properties of colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots
    3. 8.3 Carrier dynamics in colloidal quantum dots
      1. 8.3.1 Auger recombination
      2. 8.3.2 Poisson statistics and state filling
    4. 8.4 Gain in solid state nanocrystal quantum dot films
      1. 8.4.1 Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)
      2. 8.4.2 Variable strip length (VSL) for optical gain measurements
      3. 8.4.3 Experimental techniques for waveguide loss measurement in colloidal quantum dot films
      4. 8.4.4 Modal gain in visible colloidal quantum dots based on cadmium chalcogenides
      5. 8.4.5 Modal gain in infrared colloidal quantum dots based on lead chalcogenides
    5. 8.5 Spectral and temporal characteristics of optical gain in nanocrystal quantum dots
      1. 8.5.1 Visible colloidal quantum dots based on cadmium chalcogenides
      2. 8.5.2 Infrared colloidal quantum dots based on lead chalcogenides
    6. 8.6 Colloidal nanocrystal lasers
      1. 8.6.1 Microcapillary resonators
      2. 8.6.2 Microsphere resonators
      3. 8.6.3 Distributed feedback resonators
      4. 8.6.4 Microtoroid resonators
      5. 8.6.5 Other resonators
    7. 8.7 Future prospects
      1. 8.7.1 Single exciton gain
    8. References
  16. 9 Heterojunction solar cells based on colloidal quantum dots
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Chemistry of CQDs for solar cells
    3. 9.3 Physics of CQDs for solar cells
      1. 9.3.1 Electronic structure evolution in low dimensional systems
      2. 9.3.2 Fundamentals of light–matter interactions in QDs
      3. 9.3.3 Selection rules and the complications of H
    4. 9.4 Optical and electronic properties of CQD films for solar cells
    5. 9.5 Device physics and design of CQD heterojunction solar cells
    6. 9.6 Technology and scientific outlook
    7. References
  17. 10 Solution-processed infrared quantum dot solar cells
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Infrared CQDs for the full absorption of solar spectrum
      1. 10.2.1 Bandgap engineering for the broadband solar spectrum match
      2. 10.2.2 Light absorption in CQD film
    3. 10.3 Semiconductor solar cell fundamentals
      1. 10.3.1 Fundamentals of p–n junction
      2. 10.3.2 Fundamentals of solar cells
      3. 10.3.3 Implications for CQD solar cell optimization
    4. 10.4 Electrical properties of CQD films
      1. 10.4.1 Measurements of electrical properties of CQD films
      2. 10.4.2 Transport in CQD film
      3. 10.4.3 CQD passivation
      4. 10.4.4 CQD film doping
      5. 10.4.5 Dielectric constant of CQD film
    5. 10.5 Progress in CQD solar cell performance
      1. 10.5.1 Schottky solar cells
      2. 10.5.2 Heterojunction solar cells
    6. 10.6 Device stability
    7. 10.7 Perspectives and conclusions
    8. References
  18. 11 Semiconductor quantum dot sensitized TiO2 mesoporous solar cells
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Mesoscopic PbS quantum dot/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells
      1. 11.2.1 Solid-state PbS/TiO2 heterojunction solar cell
    3. 11.3 QD/TiO2 mesoporous solar cell using the SILAR process
    4. 11.4 Cobalt complex-based redox couples in CQD-TiO2 mesoporous solar cells
    5. References
  19. Index