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Cognitive Radio Technology, 2nd Edition

Book Description

This book gives a thorough knowledge of cognitive radio concepts, principles, standards, spectrum policy issues and product implementation details. In addition to 16 chapters covering all the basics of cognitive radio, this new edition has eight brand-new chapters covering cognitive radio in multiple antenna systems, policy language and policy engine, spectrum sensing, rendezvous techniques, spectrum consumption models, protocols for adaptation, cognitive networking, and information on the latest standards, making it an indispensable resource for the RF and wireless engineer.

The new edition of this cutting edge reference, which gives a thorough knowledge of principles, implementation details, standards, policy issues in one volume, enables the RF and wireless engineer to master and apply today’s cognitive radio technologies.

Bruce Fette, PhD, is Chief Scientist in the Communications Networking Division of General Dynamics C4 Systems in Scottsdale, AZ. He worked with the Software Defined Radio (SDR) Forum from its inception, currently performing the role of Technical Chair, and is a panelist for the IEEE Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing Industrial Technology Track. He currently heads the General Dynamics Signal Processing Center of Excellence in the Communication Networks Division. Dr. Fette has 36 patents and has been awarded the "Distinguished Innovator Award".



* Foreword and a chapter contribution by Joe Mitola, the creator of the field
* Discussion of cognitive aids to the user, spectrum owner, network operator
* Explanation of capabilities such as time – position awareness, speech and language awareness, multi-objective radio and network optimization, and supporting database infrastructure
* Detailed information on product implementation to aid product developers
* Thorough descriptions of each cognitive radio component technology provided by leaders of their respective fields, and the latest in high performance analysis – implementation techniques
* Explanations of the complex architecture and terminology of the current standards activities
* Discussions of market opportunities created by cognitive radio technology

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Chapter 1. History and Background of Cognitive Radio Technology
    1. 1.1. The Vision of Cognitive Radio
    2. 1.2. History and Background Leading to Cognitive Radio
    3. 1.3. A Brief History of Software Defined Radio
    4. 1.4. Basic SDR
    5. 1.5. Cognitive Radio
    6. 1.6. Spectrum Management
    7. 1.7. US Government Roles in Cognitive Radio
    8. 1.8. How Smart Is Useful?
    9. 1.9. Organization of This Book
  7. Chapter 2. Communications Policy and Spectrum Management
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Cognitive Radio Technology Enablers
    3. 2.3. New Opportunities in Spectrum Access
    4. 2.4. Policy Challenges for Cognitive Radios
    5. 2.5. Telecommunications Policy and Technology Impact on Regulation
    6. 2.6. Global Policy Interest in Cognitive Radios
    7. 2.7. Summary
    8. 2.8. Exercises
  8. Chapter 3. The Software-Defined Radio as a Platform for Cognitive Radio
    1. 3.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. Hardware Architecture
    3. 3.3. Software Architecture
    4. 3.4. SDR Development and Design
    5. 3.5. Applications
    6. 3.6. Development
    7. 3.7. Cognitive Waveform Development
    8. 3.8. Summary
  9. Chapter 4. Cognitive Radio: The Technologies Required
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Radio Flexibility and Capability
    3. 4.3. Aware, Adaptive, and Cognitive Radios
    4. 4.4. Comparison of Radio Capabilities and Properties
    5. 4.5. Available Technologies for Cognitive Radios
    6. 4.6. Funding and Research in Cognitive Radios
    7. 4.7. Timeline for Cognitive Radios
    8. 4.8. Update of CR-Specific Technologies
    9. 4.9. Summary
  10. Chapter 5. Spectrum Awareness and Access Considerations
    1. 5.1. Dynamic Spectrum Awareness and Access Objectives
    2. 5.2. Prior Work in Spectrum Awareness and Access
    3. 5.3. Some End-to-End DSA Example Implementations
    4. 5.4. Dynamic Spectrum Awareness
    5. 5.5. Front-End Linearity Management
    6. 5.6. Dynamic Spectrum Access Objectives
    7. 5.7. Spectral Footprint Management Objectives
    8. 5.8. Implications on Network-Level Decision Making
    9. 5.9. Summary
  11. Chapter 6. Cognitive Policy Engines
    1. 6.1. The Promise of Policy Management for Radios
    2. 6.2. Background and Definitions
    3. 6.3. Spectrum Policy
    4. 6.4. Antecedents for Cognitive Policy Management
    5. 6.5. Policy Engine Architectures for Radio
    6. 6.6. Integration of Policy Engines into Cognitive Radio
    7. 6.7. The Future of Cognitive Policy Management
    8. 6.8. Summary
  12. Chapter 7. Cognitive Techniques: Physical and Link Layers
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Optimizing Physical and Link Layers for Multiple Objectives under Current Channel Conditions
    3. 7.3. Defining the Cognitive Radio
    4. 7.4. Developing Radio Controls (Knobs) and Performance Measures (Meters)
    5. 7.5. Multiobjective Decision-Making Theory and Its Application to Cognitive Radio
    6. 7.6. The Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm for Cognitive Radios
    7. 7.7. Advanced Genetic Algorithm Techniques
    8. 7.8. Need for a Higher-Layer Intelligence
    9. 7.9. How the Intelligent Computers Operate
    10. 7.10. Summary
  13. Chapter 8. Cognitive Techniques: Position Awareness
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Radio Geolocation and Time Services
    3. 8.3. Network Localization
    4. 8.4. Additional Geolocation Approaches
    5. 8.5. Network-Based Approaches
    6. 8.6. Boundary Decisions
    7. 8.7. Example of Cellular Phone 911 Geolocation for First Responders
    8. 8.8. Interfaces to Other Cognitive Technologies
    9. 8.9. Summary
  14. Chapter 9. Cognitive Techniques: Three Types of Network Awareness
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Applications and Their Requirements
    3. 9.3. Network Awareness: Protocols
    4. 9.4. Situation-Aware Protocols in Edge Network Technologies
    5. 9.5. Network Awareness: Node Capabilities and Cooperation
    6. 9.6. A Distributed System of Radios—The Radio Team
    7. 9.7. Network Awareness: Node Location and Cognition for Self-Placement
    8. 9.8. Summary
    9. 9.9. Exercises
  15. Chapter 10. Cognitive Services for the User
    1. 10.1. Introduction
    2. 10.2. Speech and Language Processing
    3. 10.3. Concierge Services
    4. 10.4. Summary
  16. Chapter 11. Network Support: The Radio Environment Map
    1. 11.1. Introduction
    2. 11.2. REM: The Vehicle for Providing Network Support to CRs
    3. 11.3. Obtaining Cognition with REM: A Systematic Top-Down Approach
    4. 11.4. High-Level System Design of REM
    5. 11.5. Network Support Scenarios and Applications
    6. 11.6. Example Applications of REM to Cognitive Wireless Networks
    7. 11.7. Summary and Open Issues
  17. Chapter 12. Cognitive Research: Knowledge Representation and Learning
    1. 12.1. Introduction
    2. 12.2. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
    3. 12.3. Machine Learning
    4. 12.4. Implementation Considerations
    5. 12.5. Summary
  18. Chapter 13. The Role of Ontologies in Cognitive Radios
    1. 13.1. Overview of Ontology-Based Radios
    2. 13.2. Knowledge-Intense Characteristics of Cognitive Radios
    3. 13.3. Ontologies and Their Roles in Cognitive Radio
    4. 13.4. A Layered Ontology and Reference Model
    5. 13.5. Examples
    6. 13.6. Open Research Issues
    7. 13.7. Summary
  19. Chapter 14. Cognitive Radio Architecture
    1. 14.1. Introduction
    2. 14.2. CRA-I: Functions, Components, and Design Rules
    3. 14.3. CRA-II: The Cognition Cycle
    4. 14.4. CRA-III: The Inference Hierarchy
    5. 14.5. CRA-IV: Architecture Maps
    6. 14.6. CRA-V: Building the CRA on SDR Architectures
    7. 14.7. Cognition Architecture Research Topics
    8. 14.8. Industrial-Strength CR Design Rules
    9. 14.9. Summary and Future Directions
    10. 14.10. Exercises
  20. Chapter 15. Cognitive Radio Performance Analysis
    1. 15.1. Introduction
    2. 15.2. The Analysis Problem
    3. 15.3. Traditional Engineering Analysis Techniques
    4. 15.4. Applying Game Theory to the Analysis Problem
    5. 15.5. Relevant Game Models
    6. 15.6. Summary
  21. Chapter 16. Cognitive Radio in Multiple-Antenna Systems
    1. 16.1. Introduction
    2. 16.2. Multiple-Antenna Techniques
    3. 16.3. Cognitive Capability in an MA System
    4. 16.4. Application to Next-Generation Wireless Communications
    5. 16.5. Summary
  22. Chapter 17. Cognitive Radio Policy Language and Policy Engine
    1. 17.1. Introduction
    2. 17.2. Benefits of a Policy-Based Approach
    3. 17.3. neXt-Generation Spectrum Policy Architecture
    4. 17.4. Policy Language and Engine Design
    5. 17.5. SRI Spectrum Policy Language
    6. 17.6. SRI Policy Engine
    7. 17.7. SRI Policy Engine Demonstration
    8. 17.8. Lessons Learned and Future Work
    9. 17.9. Summary
  23. Chapter 18. Spectrum Sensing Based on Spectral Correlation
    1. 18.1. Introduction
    2. 18.2. The Statistical Nature of Communication Signals
    3. 18.3. Spectrum Sensing Based on Spectral Correlation
    4. 18.4. Application to Modern Communication Signals
    5. 18.5. Summary
  24. Chapter 19. Rendezvous in Cognitive Radio Networks
    1. 19.1. Introduction
    2. 19.2. The Use of Control Channels
    3. 19.3. Blind Rendezvous
    4. 19.4. Link Maintenance and the Effect of Primary Users
    5. 19.5. Summary
  25. Chapter 20. Spectrum-Consumption Models
    1. 20.1. Introduction
    2. 20.2. Reconciling DSA and Spectrum Management
    3. 20.3. The Location-Based Method to Specify RF Spectrum Rights
    4. 20.4. Optimized Data Structures for the LBSR
    5. 20.5. Constructing Rights
    6. 20.6. Applications
    7. 20.7. Future Research and Work
    8. 20.8. Summary
  26. Chapter 21. Protocols for Adaptation in Cognitive Radio
    1. 21.1. Introduction
    2. 21.2. Modulation
    3. 21.3. Error-Control Codes
    4. 21.4. Performance Measures for a Code-Modulation Library
    5. 21.5. Special Subsets of the Code-Modulation Library
    6. 21.6. Receiver Statistics
    7. 21.7. Initial Power Adjustment
    8. 21.8. Adaptive Transmission
    9. 21.9. Protocol Throughput Performance for Dynamic Channels
    10. 21.10. Summary
  27. Chapter 22. Cognitive Networking
    1. 22.1. Introduction
    2. 22.2. Current CN Research
    3. 22.3. Research Holes and Future Directions
    4. 22.4. Summary
  28. Chapter 23. The Role of IEEE Standardization in Next-Generation Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access Developments
    1. 23.1. Introduction
    2. 23.2. Definitions and Terminology
    3. 23.3. Overview of the IEEE Standards Activities
    4. 23.4. IEEE 802 Cognitive Radio-Related Activities
    5. 23.5. IEEE SCC41: Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks
    6. 23.6. Potential for New Products and Systems
    7. 23.7. Summary
  29. Chapter 24. The Really Hard Problems
    1. 24.1. Introduction
    2. 24.2. Discussion and Summary of CR Technologies
    3. 24.3. Services Offered to Wireless Networks Through Infrastructure
  30. Glossary
  31. Index