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Coastal Environments and Global Change

Book Description

The coastal zone is one of the most dynamic environments on our planet and is much affected by global change, especially sea-level rise. Coastal environments harbour valuable ecosystems, but they are also hugely important from a societal point of view. This book, which draws on the expertise of 21 leading international coastal scientists, represents an up-to-date account of coastal environments and past, present and future impacts of global change. The first chapter of the book outlines key principles that underpin coastal systems and their behaviour. This is followed by a discussion of key processes, including sea level change, sedimentation, storms, waves and tides, that drive coastal change. The main part of the book consists of a discussion of the main coastal environments (beaches, dunes, barriers, salt marshes, tidal flats, estuaries, coral reefs, deltas, rocky and glaciated coasts and coastal groundwater), and how these are affected by global change. The final chapter highlights strategies for coping with coastal change.

Readership: final year undergraduate and postgraduate-level students on coastal courses in a wide range subjects, including geography, environmental management, geology, oceanography and coastal/civil engineering. The book will also be a valuable resource for researchers and applied scientists dealing with coastal environments.

Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/masselink/coastal

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright page
  4. Contributors
  5. 1 Introduction to Coastal Environments and Global Change
    1. 1.1 Setting the scene
      1. 1.1.1 What is the coastal zone?
      2. 1.1.2 Coastal zone and society
      3. 1.1.3 Scope of this book and chapter outline
    2. 1.2 Coastal morphodynamics
      1. 1.2.1 Research paradigm
      2. 1.2.2 Coastal morphodynamic systems
      3. 1.2.3 Morphodynamic feedback
      4. 1.2.4 Coastal evolution and stratigraphy
    3. 1.3 Climate change
      1. 1.3.1 Quaternary climate change
      2. 1.3.2 Present and future climate change
    4. 1.4 Modelling coastal change
      1. 1.4.1 Need for adequate models
      2. 1.4.2 Conceptual models
      3. 1.4.3 Empirical models
      4. 1.4.4 Behaviour-oriented models
      5. 1.4.5 Process-based morphodynamic models
      6. 1.4.6 Physical models
    5. 1.5 Summary
    6. Key publications
    7. References
  6. 2 Sea Level
    1. 2.1 Introduction
      1. 2.1.1 What is sea level?
      2. 2.1.2 Processes affecting sea level
      3. 2.1.3 Observing sea level
      4. 2.1.4 Chapter outline
    2. 2.2 Quaternary sea-level change
      1. 2.2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2.2 Sea-level observations
      3. 2.2.3 Interpretation of the observations
    3. 2.3 Recent and future sea-level change
      1. 2.3.1 Introduction
      2. 2.3.2 Sea-level observations
      3. 2.3.3 Interpretation of the observations
      4. 2.3.4 Estimating future sea levels
    4. 2.4 Summary
    5. Key publications
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  7. 3 Environmental Control
    1. 3.1 Geology and sediments: setting boundary conditions for coasts
      1. 3.1.1 Coastal diversity: a heritage of geology and sediments
      2. 3.1.2 Spatial and temporal scales: from global tectonics to local geological controls
    2. 3.2 Geology and coasts
      1. 3.2.1 The pervasive role of plate tectonics
      2. 3.2.2 The role of Quaternary ice sheets and isostatic rebound on high-latitude coasts
      3. 3.2.3 Water loading of continental shelves
      4. 3.2.4 Lithology, sediment texture and coasts
      5. 3.2.5 Other regional to local boundary conditions: coastal orientation and gradient
    3. 3.3 Sediments and coasts
      1. 3.3.1 Coastal sediment stacking over time: sequence stratigraphy and sea-level change
      2. 3.3.2 Sediment accommodation space
      3. 3.3.3 Terrigenous sediment supply
      4. 3.3.4 Sediment redistribution from river-mouth to coast
      5. 3.3.5 Carbonate sediments
      6. 3.3.6 Sediment supply from soft cliffs
      7. 3.3.7 Longshore sediment transport
      8. 3.3.8 Sediment supply from the inner continental shelf
      9. 3.3.9 Boulders on the shore: an enigmatic issue
    4. 3.4 Human impacts on sediment supply to coasts
    5. 3.5 Climate change, geology and sediments
    6. 3.6 Summary
    7. Key publications
    8. References
  8. 4 Drivers
    1. 4.1 Physical drivers of the coastal environment
    2. 4.2 Waves
      1. 4.2.1 Importance and definitions
      2. 4.2.2 Wave theories
      3. 4.2.3 Wave generation
      4. 4.2.4 Wave propagation and shoaling
      5. 4.2.5 Wave measurement
      6. 4.2.6 Long waves
      7. 4.2.7 Wave climate and response to global climate change
    3. 4.3 Tides
      1. 4.3.1 Tidal characteristics
      2. 4.3.2 Equilibrium tides
      3. 4.3.3 Dynamical considerations
      4. 4.3.4 Tidal analysis and prediction
      5. 4.3.5 Tidal currents
      6. 4.3.6 Global change effects on tides
    4. 4.4 Summary
    5. Key publications
    6. References
  9. 5 Coastal Hazards
    1. 5.1 Coastal hazards
      1. 5.1.1 Coastal vulnerability to storm and tsunami hazards
      2. 5.1.2 Assessing risk
    2. 5.2 Extratropical storms and tropical cyclones
      1. 5.2.1 The anatomy of storms and cyclones
      2. 5.2.2 Vulnerable coasts and the storm cycle
      3. 5.2.3 Disequilibrium in the storm cycle
    3. 5.3 Tsunamis
      1. 5.3.1 Tsunamis in the ocean
      2. 5.3.2 Tsunamis at the coast
      3. 5.3.3 Tsunami drawdown
      4. 5.3.4 Tsunami warning systems
    4. 5.4 Overwash
      1. 5.4.1 Overwash impacts
      2. 5.4.2 Washover deposits
    5. 5.5 Palaeostudies of coastal hazards
      1. 5.5.1 Reviewing historical documents
      2. 5.5.2 Using the geological record
      3. 5.5.3 Overwash studies: successes and limitations
    6. 5.6 Integrating hazard studies with coastal planning
    7. 5.7 Cyclones in a warmer world
    8. 5.8 Summary
    9. Key publications
    10. References
  10. 6 Coastal Groundwater
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The subterranean estuary
    3. 6.3 Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)
      1. 6.3.1 Measurement of SGD
      2. 6.3.2 SGD in the global hydrological cycle
    4. 6.4 Controls on SGD variability
      1. 6.4.1 Spatial variations
      2. 6.4.2 Temporal variations
    5. 6.5 Human influences
    6. 6.6 Influence of global climate change
    7. 6.7 Summary
    8. Key publications
    9. References
  11. 7 Beaches
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Setting
      2. 7.1.2 Scales of nearshore morphology
      3. 7.1.3 Scope of this chapter
    2. 7.2 Nearshore hydrodynamics
      1. 7.2.1 Wave breaking
      2. 7.2.2 Wave-generated nearshore currents
    3. 7.3 Surf-zone morphology
      1. 7.3.1 Intertidal sandbars
      2. 7.3.2 Subtidal sandbars: cross-shore migration
      3. 7.3.3 Subtidal sandbars: alongshore non-uniform dynamics
    4. 7.4 Anthropogenic activities
    5. 7.5 Climate change
      1. 7.5.1 Potential future impacts
      2. 7.5.2 Quantification of climate change impacts: future directions
    6. 7.6 Summary
    7. Key publications
    8. References
  12. 8 Coastal Dunes
    1. 8.1 Conditions for dune formation
      1. 8.1.1 Aeolian transport
      2. 8.1.2 Potential for dune building
      3. 8.1.3 Processes of dune formation
      4. 8.1.4 Dune fields
    2. 8.2 Dunes as habitat
    3. 8.3 Dunes in developed areas
      1. 8.3.1 Degradational activities
      2. 8.3.2 Value of dunes
    4. 8.4 Dune restoration and management
      1. 8.4.1 Favouring dune building by natural aeolian processes
      2. 8.4.2 Depositing fill directly
      3. 8.4.3 Using sand fences
      4. 8.4.4 Using vegetation
      5. 8.4.5 Restricting negative human actions
      6. 8.4.6 Maintaining dune environments
    5. 8.5 Effects of future climate change
    6. 8.6 Summary
    7. Key publications
    8. References
  13. 9 Barrier Systems
    1. 9.1 Definition and description of barriers and barrier systems
    2. 9.2 Classification
      1. 9.2.1 Barriers
      2. 9.2.2 Barrier systems
    3. 9.3 Barrier sub-environments
    4. 9.4 Theories on barrier formation
    5. 9.5 Modes of barrier behaviour
    6. 9.6 Drivers in barrier development and behaviour
      1. 9.6.1 Introduction
      2. 9.6.2 Antecedent topography and substrate lithology
      3. 9.6.3 Relative sea-level change
      4. 9.6.4 Sediment sources, sinks and fluxes
      5. 9.6.5 Wind, waves, longshore and cross-shore currents, and tides
      6. 9.6.6 Storm surges
      7. 9.6.7 River discharge
      8. 9.6.8 Climate
      9. 9.6.9 Flora and fauna
      10. 9.6.10 Processes and impacts of anthropogenic activities
    7. 9.7 Barrier sequences as archives of barrier behaviour
    8. 9.8 Lessons from numerical and conceptual models
      1. 9.8.1 Data and concepts
      2. 9.8.2 Model output relevant to barrier-system behaviour
    9. 9.9 Coastal-zone management and global change
    10. 9.10 Future perspectives
    11. 9.11 Summary
    12. Key publications
    13. References
  14. 10 Tidal Flats and Salt Marshes
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Tidal flats
      1. 10.2.1 Tidal-flat setting
      2. 10.2.2 Geomorphological and ecosystem functioning
      3. 10.2.3 Sediments and sedimentology of tidal flats
      4. 10.2.4 Mud dynamics
      5. 10.2.5 Post-depositional change
      6. 10.2.6 Erosion and re-suspension
    3. 10.3 Salt marshes
      1. 10.3.1 Salt-marsh ecology
      2. 10.3.2 Salt-marsh vegetation and biogeography
      3. 10.3.3 Salt-marsh zonation and succession
      4. 10.3.4 Geomorphological and ecosystem functioning
      5. 10.3.5 The role of sedimentation and tides in salt-marsh maintenance
      6. 10.3.6 Response to sea-level changes
      7. 10.3.7 Impact of future climate and sea-level change
    4. 10.4 Human influences
    5. 10.5 Summary
    6. Key publications
    7. References
  15. 11 Mangrove Shorelines
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Mangrove adaptation in relation to climate zones
    3. 11.3 Mangrove biogeography
    4. 11.4 Zonation and succession
    5. 11.5 Geomorphological setting and ecosystem functioning
    6. 11.6 Sedimentation and morphodynamic feedback
    7. 11.7 Mangrove response to sea-level change
    8. 11.8 Human influences
    9. 11.9 Impact of future climate and sea-level change
    10. 11.10 Summary
    11. Key publications
    12. References
  16. 12 Estuaries and Tidal Inlets
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Estuaries
      1. 12.2.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2.2 Geomorphic settings
      3. 12.2.3 Salinity stratification
      4. 12.2.4 Circulation and sedimentation
      5. 12.2.5 Sedimentary regimes
      6. 12.2.6 Wave-dominated estuaries
      7. 12.2.7 Tide-dominated estuaries
      8. 12.2.8 Effects of floods: New England estuaries
      9. 12.2.9 Future of estuaries
    3. 12.3 Tidal inlets
      1. 12.3.1 Morphodynamics
      2. 12.3.2 Tidal-inlet formation and evolution
      3. 12.3.3 Tidal-inlet relationships
      4. 12.3.4 Sand transport patterns
      5. 12.3.5 Tidal-inlet effects on adjacent shorelines
      6. 12.3.6 Human influences
      7. 12.3.7 Tidal-inlet stratigraphy
      8. 12.3.8 Tidal-inlet response to sea-level rise
    4. 12.4 Summary
    5. References
  17. 13 Deltas
    1. 13.1 Deltas: definition, context and environment
      1. 13.1.1 A definition of deltas
      2. 13.1.2 The tectonic context of deltas
      3. 13.1.3 Why do some rivers form deltas?
    2. 13.2 Delta sub-environments
      1. 13.2.1 The delta plain
      2. 13.2.2 The subaqueous delta
      3. 13.2.3 Deltas and deep-sea fans
    3. 13.3 The morphodynamic classification of river deltas
      1. 13.3.1 River-dominated deltas
      2. 13.3.2 Wave-dominated deltas
      3. 13.3.3 Tide-dominated deltas
      4. 13.3.4 Quantifying river, wave and tide controls
      5. 13.3.5 Spatial and temporal morphodynamic variability
    4. 13.4 Sediment trapping processes in deltas and coastal sediment redistribution
      1. 13.4.1 Delta-plain deposition
      2. 13.4.2 Estuarine processes in deltas
      3. 13.4.3 River-mouth plumes
      4. 13.4.4 Marine mud storage and dispersal off river-mouths
      5. 13.4.5 Bedload deposition in deltaic river-mouths
    5. 13.5 Delta initiation, development and destruction
      1. 13.5.1 Deltas and sea level
      2. 13.5.2 Progradation versus aggradation
      3. 13.5.3 Sediment retention and delta growth
      4. 13.5.4 Delta destruction
    6. 13.6 Syn-sedimentary deformation in deltas and ancient deltaic deposits
      1. 13.6.1 Syn-sedimentary deformation
      2. 13.6.2 Ancient deltaic deposits
    7. 13.7 Deltas, human impacts, climate change and sea-level rise
      1. 13.7.1 Humans and deltas
      2. 13.7.2 The difficulty of disentangling climate change from human impacts
      3. 13.7.3 Delta vulnerability
      4. 13.7.4 Mitigating delta vulnerability
    8. 13.8 Summary
    9. Key publications
    10. References
  18. 14 High-Latitude Coasts
    1. 14.1 Introduction to high-latitude coasts
    2. 14.2 Ice-related coastal processes
    3. 14.3 Terrestrial ice in coastal environments
    4. 14.4 Coastal geomorphology and coastal responses
      1. 14.4.1 Low-relief areas
      2. 14.4.2 High-relief areas
      3. 14.4.3 Coastal change
    5. 14.5 Relative sea-level change
    6. 14.6 Climate change predictions and impacts for high-latitude coasts
    7. 14.7 Future perspectives
    8. 14.8 Summary
    9. Key publications
    10. References
  19. 15 Rock Coasts
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Geology and lithology
    3. 15.3 Processes acting on rock coasts
      1. 15.3.1 Waves
      2. 15.3.2 Weathering
      3. 15.3.3 Biology
      4. 15.3.4 Mass movement
    4. 15.4 Rock coast landforms
      1. 15.4.1 Sea cliffs
      2. 15.4.2 Shore platforms
      3. 15.4.3 Stacks and arches
    5. 15.5 Towards a morphodynamic model for rock coasts
    6. 15.6 Impacts of climate change on rock coasts
      1. 15.6.1 Modelling climate change impacts
      2. 15.6.2 Sea-level rise
      3. 15.6.3 Wave energy
      4. 15.6.4 Weathering, biology and mass movements
    7. 15.7 Summary
    8. Key publications
    9. References
  20. 16 Coral Reefs
    1. 16.1 Coral reefs in context
    2. 16.2 Coral reefs and their geomorphic complexity
      1. 16.2.1 Coral reefs
      2. 16.2.2 Reef sedimentary landforms
      3. 16.2.3 Coral reefs as eco-morphodynamic systems
      4. 16.2.4 The carbonate factory: a critical control on geomorphic development
      5. 16.2.5 Environmental controls on the carbonate factory
    3. 16.3 Coral reef development
      1. 16.3.1 Coral growth versus reef growth
      2. 16.3.2 The geological formation and distribution of coral reefs
      3. 16.3.3 Controls on the morphology of modern coral reefs
      4. 16.3.4 Styles of reef growth
      5. 16.3.5 Regional differences in reef morphology
      6. 16.3.6 Rates of reef growth
    4. 16.4 Reef island formation and morphodynamics
      1. 16.4.1 Controls on reef island evolution
      2. 16.4.2 Models of reef island evolution
      3. 16.4.3 The importance of sediment supply on island building
      4. 16.4.4 Process controls on island development
      5. 16.4.5 Morphodynamics of reef islands
    5. 16.5 Management in reef environments
      1. 16.5.1 Management of shoreline instability
      2. 16.5.2 Coastal management and planning
    6. 16.6 Future trajectories of coral reef landforms
      1. 16.6.1 Changes in boundary conditions
      2. 16.6.2 Future geomorphic responses of coral reef platforms
      3. 16.6.3 Future geomorphic responses of reef islands
    7. 16.7 Summary
    8. Key publications
    9. References
  21. 17 Coping with Coastal Change
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Drivers of coastal change and variability
      1. 17.2.1 Historical variability and change
      2. 17.2.2 The prospect of future climate change
    3. 17.3 Coastal change and resulting impacts
    4. 17.4 Impacts of coastal change since 1900
    5. 17.5 Future impacts of coastal change
    6. 17.6 Responding to coastal change
      1. 17.6.1 Mitigation
      2. 17.6.2 Adaptation
    7. 17.7 Concluding thoughts
    8. 17.8 Summary
    9. Key publications
    10. References
  22. Supplemental Images
  23. Geographical Index
  24. Subject Index
  25. Access the Companion Website
  26. End User License Agreement