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CMOS Voltage References: An Analytical and Practical Perspective

Book Description

A practical overview of CMOS circuit design, this book covers the technology, analysis, and design techniques of voltage reference circuits. The design requirements covered follow modern CMOS processes, with an emphasis on low power, low voltage, and low temperature coefficient voltage reference design. Dedicating a chapter to each stage of the design process, the authors have organized the content to give readers the tools they need to implement the technologies themselves. Readers will gain an understanding of device characteristics, the practical considerations behind circuit topology, and potential problems with each type of circuit.

Many design examples are used throughout, most of which have been tested with silicon implementation or employed in real-world products. This ensures that the material presented relevant to both students studying the topic as well as readers requiring a practical viewpoint.

  • Covers CMOS voltage reference circuit design, from the basics through to advanced topics

  • Provides an overview of basic device physics and different building blocks of voltage reference designs

  • Features real-world examples based on actual silicon implementation

  • Includes analytical exercises, simulation exercises, and silicon layout exercises, giving readers guidance and design layout experience for voltage reference circuits

  • Solution manual available to instructors from the book's companion website

This book is highly useful for graduate students in VLSI design, as well as practicing analog engineers and IC design professionals. Advanced undergraduates preparing for further study in VLSI will also find this book a helpful companion text.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Titlepage
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. About the Authors
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. Nomenclature
  9. 1 Warm Up
    1. 1.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors
    2. 1.2 Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
    3. 1.3 Diode
    4. 1.4 Resistor
    5. 1.5 Device Matching
    6. 1.6 Simulation Models for Circuit Design
    7. 1.7 Noise
    8. 1.8 Fabrication Technology
    9. 1.9 Book Organization
    10. 1.10 Exercises
    11. References
  10. 2 Voltage Reference
    1. 2.1 Performance Measures
    2. 2.2 Other Design Considerations
    3. 2.3 Summary
    4. 2.4 Exercises
    5. References
  11. 3 Bandgap Voltage Reference
    1. 3.1 Widlar Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit
    2. 3.2 Drain Voltage Equalization Current Mirror
    3. 3.3 Major Circuit Elements
    4. 3.4 Complete Layout
    5. 3.5 Summary
    6. 3.6 Exercises
    7. References
  12. 4 Error Sources in Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit
    1. 4.1 Non-Ideal Opamp
    2. 4.2 Current Mirror Mismatch
    3. 4.3 Bipolar Transistor
    4. 4.4 Resistor Variation
    5. 4.5 Power Supply Variation
    6. 4.6 Output Loading
    7. 4.7 Output Noise
    8. 4.8 Voltage Reference Circuit Trimming
    9. 4.9 Summary
    10. 4.10 Exercises
    11. References
  13. ADVANCED VOLTAGE REFERENCE CIRCUITS
  14. 5 Temperature Compensation Techniques
    1. 5.1 VBE − ΔVBE Compensation
    2. 5.2 Widlar PTAT Current Source and VBE Compensation
    3. 5.3 VGS Based Temperature Compensation
    4. 5.4 Summary
    5. 5.5 Exercises
    6. References
  15. 6 Sub-1V Voltage Reference Circuit
    1. 6.1 Sub-1V Output Stage
    2. 6.2 Voltage Headroom in Opamp based β-multiplier Voltage Reference Circuit
    3. 6.3 Sub-1V Bandgap Voltage Reference by Resistive Division
    4. 6.4 Peaking Current Source and VBE Compensation
    5. 6.5 Weighted ΔVGS Compensation
    6. 6.6 Summary
    7. 6.7 Exercises
    8. References
  16. 7 High Order Curvature Correction
    1. 7.1 Compensation Order
    2. 7.2 Second Order Temperature Compensation
    3. 7.3 BJT Current Subtraction
    4. 7.4 Piecewise Linear Compensation
    5. 7.5 Sum and Difference of Sources with Similar Temperature Dependence
    6. 7.6 Summary
    7. 7.7 Exercises
    8. References
  17. 8 CMOS Voltage Reference without Resistors
    1. 8.1 Generation of Weighted PTAT Source By Inverse Functions
    2. 8.2 Resistorless Voltage and Current Sources
    3. 8.3 First Order Compensated Resistorless Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit
    4. 8.4 Resistorless Sub-Bandgap Reference Circuit
    5. 8.5 Summary
    6. 8.6 Exercises
    7. References
  18. A SPICE Model File
  19. B SPICE Netlist of Voltage Reference Circuit
  20. Index