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CMMI®: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement

Book Description

Many organizations use Capability Maturity Models® (CMMs®) to assess development and maintenance processes, implement improvements, and measure progress. Although consistent in purpose, these models differ in terminology and design--enough sometimes to cause conflict and confusion when used within the same organization. Addressing the need for a more coordinated approach, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI®) provides a single framework for improvement in software engineering, systems engineering, integrated product and process development, and supplier sourcing.

This book is the definitive reference for the most current release of CMMI models. To use a CMMI model available on the SEI Web site, users must choose from among multiple models based on their organization's improvement needs. This book provides a single source for all CMMI model information. Readers can get started without having to select a model first--all of the choices are compiled in one place and explained in detail.

The book begins with background information needed to understand the content and structure of these integrated models and how to use them. A case study illustrates their implementation in a real environment. A variety of practical material, such as glossary and index, is also provided. The bulk of the book comprises the content of all CMMI models, covering the 25 process areas (PAs) that span the product life cycle, including detailed best practices.

All CMMI models have two representations. The continuous representation allows an organization to improve using selected PAs at different rates. The staged representation enables organizations to follow a predefined and proven improvement path using multiple PAs. Both representations are described so that readers will more clearly see the similarities and differences between the two representations and will be able to choose the right approach for their organization.

Whether you are new to CMMI or are already familiar with some version of it, this book is an essential resource for managers, practitioners, and process improvement team members who need to understand, evaluate, and/or implement a CMMI model. The ultimate objective of CMMI is integrating processes to improve products; this book contains everything you need to get that done.



0321154967B01232003

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. Purpose of This Book
    2. Audience
    3. Organization of This Book
    4. How to Use This Book
      1. Readers New to Process Improvement
      2. Readers Experienced with Process Improvement
      3. Readers Familiar with CMMI
    5. Additional Information and Reader Feedback
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. One. About CMMI
    1. 1. Introduction
      1. About Capability Maturity Models
      2. Evolution of CMMI
      3. Coverage of the Bodies of Knowledge
        1. Systems Engineering
        2. Software Engineering
        3. Integrated Product and Process Development
        4. Supplier Sourcing
      4. Selecting Disciplines
        1. Process Areas for Systems Engineering
        2. Process Areas for Software Engineering
        3. Process Areas for Integrated Product and Process Development
        4. Process Areas for Supplier Sourcing
        5. Multiple Disciplines
        6. A Conclusion
      5. Resolving Different Approaches of CMMs
      6. Choosing a Representation
        1. Continuous Representation
        2. Staged Representation
        3. Comparison of the Continuous and Staged Representations
        4. Factors in Your Decision
          1. Business Factors
          2. Cultural Factors
          3. Legacy
        5. Why Not Both Representations?
      7. Choosing Your Approach to Process Improvement
        1. Scenario 1
        2. Scenario 2
      8. The Advantages of CMMI
    2. 2. Process Area Components
      1. Required, Expected, and Informative Components
        1. Required Components
        2. Expected Components
        3. Informative Components
      2. Components Associated with Part Two
        1. Process Areas
        2. Purpose Statements
        3. Introductory Notes
        4. Related Process Areas
        5. Specific Goals
        6. Generic Goals
        7. Practice-to-Goal Relationship Tables
        8. Specific Practices
        9. Typical Work Products
        10. Subpractices
        11. Generic Practices
        12. Generic Practice Elaborations
      3. Supporting Informative Components
        1. Notes
        2. Examples
        3. Discipline Amplifications
        4. References
      4. Numbering Scheme
      5. Typographical Conventions
        1. Representation-Specific Content
        2. Discipline-Specific Content
    3. 3. Process Institutionalization
      1. Overview
      2. Process Institutionalization
        1. Performed Process
        2. Managed Process
        3. Defined Process
        4. Quantitatively Managed Process
        5. Optimizing Process
        6. Relationships among Processes
      3. Generic Goals and Generic Practices
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
          1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          2. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
            1. Subpractices
          3. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          4. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
            1. Subpractices
          5. GP 2.5. Train People
          6. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          7. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
            1. Subpractices
          8. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
            1. Subpractices
          9. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          10. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
          1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
            1. Subpractices
          2. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
            1. Subpractices
        4. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
            1. Subpractices
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
            1. Subpractices
        5. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
            1. Subpractices
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
      4. Applying Generic Practices
      5. Process Areas That Support Generic Practices
    4. 4. Relationships Among Process Areas
      1. Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas
      2. Process Management
        1. Fundamental Process Management Process Areas
        2. Progressive Process Management Process Areas
      3. Project Management
        1. Fundamental Project Management Process Areas
        2. Progressive Project Management Process Areas
      4. Engineering
        1. Engineering Process Areas and Recursion
      5. Support
        1. Fundamental Support Process Areas
        2. Progressive Support Process Areas
    5. 5. Tying It All Together
      1. Understanding Levels
      2. Structures of the Continuous and Staged Representations
      3. Understanding Capability Levels
        1. Capability Level 0: Incomplete
        2. Capability Level 1: Performed
        3. Capability Level 2: Managed
        4. Capability Level 3: Defined
        5. Capability Level 4: Quantitatively Managed
        6. Capability Level 5: Optimizing
        7. Advancing through Capability Levels
      4. Understanding Maturity Levels
        1. Maturity Level 1: Initial
        2. Maturity Level 2: Managed
        3. Maturity Level 3: Defined
        4. Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed
        5. Maturity Level 5: Optimizing
        6. Advancing through Maturity Levels
      5. Process Areas
      6. Specific Practices
        1. Base and Advanced Practices
      7. Generic Goals and Practices
        1. Common Features
      8. Representation Comparison
      9. Equivalent Staging
    6. 6. Using CMMI Models
      1. Interpreting CMMI Models
      2. Appraisals and Benchmarking
        1. Appraisal Requirements for CMMI
        2. ISO/IEC 15504 Compatibility and Conformance
      3. Adopting CMMI
        1. Organizations with Experience
          1. The Capability Maturity Model for Software
          2. Electronic Industries Alliance's Systems Engineering Capability Model
        2. Organizations New to Process Improvement
        3. CMMI Model Training
      4. Model Tailoring
        1. Tailoring Constraints for Process Improvement
        2. Tailoring Constraints for Benchmarking
        3. Planning Tailoring for Benchmarking
          1. Process Areas' Appraisal Scope
          2. Not Applicable
          3. Not Rated
          4. Goals
          5. Practices
          6. Informative Components
      5. Appraisal Considerations
    7. 7. CMMI Case Study: United Space Alliance, LLC
      1. Background
        1. USA Mission and Vision
        2. Deploying Company Goals
        3. Process Ownership
      2. CMMI Case Study Activity
      3. The Initiating Phase
      4. Project Selection
        1. Primary Avionics Software System Project Background
        2. Cockpit Avionics Upgrade Project Background
      5. CMMI Model Selection and Scope
      6. CMMI Training
      7. CMMI Supplemental Resources
      8. The Diagnosing Phase
        1. Collecting Information
        2. Recording Observations
      9. CMMI Model Results
      10. Engineering Process Areas
        1. Requirements Management and Requirements Development
        2. Technical Solution
        3. Product Integration
        4. Verification and Validation
      11. Project Management Process Areas
        1. Project Planning
        2. Project Monitoring and Control
        3. Integrated Project Management
        4. Supplier Agreement Management
        5. Risk Management
        6. Quantitative Project Management
      12. Process Management Process Areas
        1. Organizational Process Focus and Organizational Process Definition
        2. Organizational Training
        3. Organizational Process Performance
        4. Organizational Innovation and Deployment
      13. Support Process Areas
        1. Configuration Management
        2. Process and Product Quality Assurance
        3. Measurement and Analysis
        4. Decision Analysis and Resolution
        5. Causal Analysis and Resolution
      14. Lessons Learned
      15. Interpretation Issues
      16. Next Steps
  5. Two. The Process Areas
    1. Causal Analysis and Resolution: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 5
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Determine Causes Of Defects
          1. Sp 1.1-1. Select Defect Data For Analysis
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Analyze Causes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Address Causes of Defects
          1. SP 2.1-1. Implement the Action Proposals
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Evaluate the Effect of Changes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Record Data
            1. Typical Work Products
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    2. Configuration Management: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Baselines
          1. SP 1.1-1. Identify Configuration Items
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish a Configuration Management System
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Create or Release Baselines
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Track and Control Changes
          1. SP 2.1-1. Track Change Requests
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Control Configuration Items
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Establish Integrity
          1. SP 3.1-1. Establish Configuration Management Records
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Perform Configuration Audits
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    3. Decision Analysis and Resolution: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Evaluate Alternatives
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish Evaluation Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Identify Alternative Solutions
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Select Evaluation Methods
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Evaluate Alternatives
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          6. SP 1.6-1. Select Solutions
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    4. Integrated Project Management: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Use the Project's Defined Process
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish the Project's Defined Process
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Use Organizational Process Assets for Planning Project Activities
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Integrate Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Manage the Project Using the Integrated Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Contribute to the Organizational Process Assets
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders
          1. SP 2.1-1. Manage Stakeholder Involvement
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Manage Dependencies
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Resolve Coordination Issues
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Use the Project's Shared Vision for IPPD
          1. SP 3.1-1. Define Project's Shared-Vision Context
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Establish the Project's Shared Vision
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        4. SG 4. Organize Integrated Teams for IPPD
          1. SP 4.1-1. Determine Integrated Team Structure for the Project
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 4.2-1. Develop a Preliminary Distribution of Requirements to Integrated Teams
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 4.3-1. Establish Integrated Teams
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
          1. Elaboration
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
          1. Elaboration
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    5. Integrated Supplier Management: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Analyze and Select Sources of Products
          1. SP 1.1-1. Analyze Potential Sources of Products
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Evaluate and Determine Sources of Products
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Coordinate Work with Suppliers
          1. SP 2.1-1. Monitor Selected Supplier Processes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Evaluate Selected Supplier Work Products
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Revise the Supplier Agreement or Relationship
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    6. Integrated Teaming: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Team Composition
          1. SP 1.1-1. Identify Team Tasks
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Identify Needed Knowledge and Skills
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Assign Appropriate Team Members
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Govern Team Operation
          1. SP 2.1-1. Establish a Shared Vision
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Establish a Team Charter
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Define Roles and Responsibilities
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Establish Operating Procedures
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 2.5-1. Collaborate among Interfacing Teams
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    7. Measurement and Analysis: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Align Measurement and Analysis Activities
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish Measurement Objectives
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Specify Measures
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Specify Analysis Procedures
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Provide Measurement Results
          1. SP 2.1-1. Collect Measurement Data
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Analyze Measurement Data
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Store Data and Results
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Communicate Results
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    8. Organizational Environment for Integration: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Provide IPPD Infrastructure
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish the Organization's Shared Vision
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish an Integrated Work Environment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Identify IPPD-Unique Skill Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Manage People for Integration
          1. SP 2.1-1. Establish Leadership Mechanisms
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Establish Incentives for Integration
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Establish Mechanisms to Balance Team and Home Organization Responsibilities
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    9. Organizational Innovation and Deployment: A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 5
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Select Improvements
          1. SP 1.1-1. Collect and Analyze Improvement Proposals
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Identify and Analyze Innovations
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Pilot Improvements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Select Improvements for Deployment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Deploy Improvements
          1. SP 2.1-1. Plan the Deployment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Manage the Deployment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Measure Improvement Effects
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    10. Organizational Process Definition: A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Organizational Process Assets
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish Standard Processes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish Life-Cycle Model Descriptions
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Establish Tailoring Criteria and Guidelines
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Establish the Organization's Measurement Repository
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Establish the Organization's Process Asset Library
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    11. Organizational Process Focus: A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Determine Process-Improvement Opportunities
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish Organizational Process Needs
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Appraise the Organization's Processes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Identify the Organization's Process Improvements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Plan and Implement Process Improvement Activities
          1. SP 2.1-1. Establish Process Action Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Implement Process Action Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Deploy Organizational Process Assets
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
          1. Elaboration
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
          1. Elaboration
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    12. Organizational Process Performance: A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 4
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Performance Baselines and Models
          1. SP 1.1-1. Select Processes
            1. Typical Work Products
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish Process Performance Measures
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Establish Process Performance Baselines
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Establish Process Performance Models
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    13. Organizational Training: A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish an Organizational Training Capability
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish the Strategic Training Needs
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Determine Which Training Needs Are the Responsibility of the Organization
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Establish an Organizational Training Tactical Plan
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Establish Training Capability
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Provide Necessary Training
          1. SP 2.1-1. Deliver Training
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Establish Training Records
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Assess Training Effectiveness
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    14. Product Integration: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Prepare for Product Integration
          1. SP 1.1-1. Determine Integration Sequence
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-2. Establish the Product Integration Environment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-3. Establish Product Integration Procedures and Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Ensure Interface Compatibility
          1. SP 2.1-1. Review Interface Descriptions for Completeness
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Manage Interfaces
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Assemble Product Components and Deliver the Product
          1. SP 3.1-1. Confirm Readiness of Product Components for Integration
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Assemble Product Components
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 3.3-1. Evaluate Assembled Product Components
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 3.4-1. Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    15. Project Monitoring and Control: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Monitor Project Against Plan
          1. SP 1.1-1. Monitor Project Planning Parameters
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Monitor Commitments
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Monitor Project Risks
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Monitor Data Management
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          6. SP 1.6-1. Conduct Progress Reviews
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          7. SP 1.7-1. Conduct Milestone Reviews
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Manage Corrective Action to Closure
          1. SP 2.1-1. Analyze Issues
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Take Corrective Action
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Manage Corrective Action
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    16. Project Planning: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Estimates
          1. SP 1.1-1. Estimate the Scope of the Project
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task Attributes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Define Project Life Cycle
            1. Typical Work Products
          4. SP 1.4-1. Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Develop a Project Plan
          1. SP 2.1-1. Establish the Budget and Schedule
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Identify Project Risks
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Plan for Data Management
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Plan for Project Resources
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 2.5-1. Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          6. SP 2.6-1. Plan Stakeholder Involvement
            1. Typical Work Products
          7. SP 2.7-1. Establish the Project Plan
            1. Typical Work Products
        3. SG 3. Obtain Commitment to the Plan
          1. SP 3.1-1. Review Plans That Affect the Project
            1. Typical Work Products
          2. SP 3.2-1. Reconcile Work and Resource Levels
            1. Typical Work Products
          3. SP 3.3-1. Obtain Plan Commitment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    17. Process and Product Quality Assurance: A Support Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products
          1. SP 1.1-1. Objectively Evaluate Processes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Provide Objective Insight
          1. SP 2.1-1. Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Establish Records
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
          1. Elaboration
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    18. Quantitative Project Management: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 4
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Quantitatively Manage the Project
          1. SP 1.1-1. Establish the Project's Objectives
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Compose the Defined Process
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Select the Subprocesses that Will Be Statistically Managed
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-1. Manage Project Performance
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance
          1. SP 2.1-1. Select Measures and Analytic Techniques
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Apply Statistical Methods to Understand Variation
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Monitor Performance of the Selected Subprocesses
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Record Statistical Management Data
            1. Typical Work Products
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    19. Requirements Development: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Develop Customer Requirements
          1. SP 1.1-1. Collect Stakeholder Needs
          2. SP 1.1-2. Elicit Needs
            1. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.2-1. Develop the Customer Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Develop Product Requirements
          1. SP 2.1-1. Establish Product and Product-Component Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Allocate Product-Component Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Identify Interface Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Analyze and Validate Requirements
          1. SP 3.1-1. Establish Operational Concepts and Scenarios
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Establish a Definition of Required Functionality
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 3.3-1. Analyze Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 3.4-3. Analyze Requirements to Achieve Balance
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 3.5-1. Validate Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          6. SP 3.5-2. Validate Requirements with Comprehensive Methods
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    20. Requirements Management: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Manage Requirements
          1. SP 1.1-1. Obtain an Understanding of Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-2. Obtain Commitment to Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Manage Requirements Changes
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.4-2. Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 1.5-1. Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration5
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
          1. Elaboration
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    21. Risk Management: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Prepare for Risk Management
          1. SP 1.1-1. Determine Risk Sources and Categories
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-1. Define Risk Parameters
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Establish A Risk Management Strategy
            1. Typical Work Products
        2. SG 2. Identify And Analyze Risks
          1. SP 2.1-1. Identify Risks
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Evaluate, Categorize, and Prioritize Risks
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Mitigate Risks
          1. SP 3.1-1. Develop Risk Mitigation Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Implement Risk Mitigation Plans
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
          1. Elaboration
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    22. Supplier Agreement Management: A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 2
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Establish Supplier Agreements
          1. SP 1.1-1. Determine Acquisition Type
            1. Typical Work Products
          2. SP 1.2-1. Select Suppliers
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-1. Establish Supplier Agreements
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Satisfy Supplier Agreements
          1. SP 2.1-1. Review COTS Products
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Execute the Supplier Agreement
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Accept the Acquired Product
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.4-1. Transition Products
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    23. Technical Solution: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Select Product-Component Solutions
          1. SP 1.1-1. Develop Alternative Solutions and Selection Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.1-2. Develop Detailed Alternative Solutions and Selection Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.2-2. Evolve Operational Concepts and Scenarios
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 1.3-1. Select Product-Component Solutions
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Develop the Design
          1. SP 2.1-1. Design the Product or Product Component
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-3. Establish a Technical Data Package
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-1. Establish Interface Descriptions
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          4. SP 2.3-3. Design Interfaces Using Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          5. SP 2.4-3. Perform Make, Buy, or Reuse Analyses
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Implement the Product Design
          1. SP 3.1-1. Implement the Design
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-1. Develop Product Support Documentation
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    24. Validation: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1 Prepare for Validation
          1. SP 1.1-1. Select Products for Validation
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-2. Establish the Validation Environment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-3. Establish Validation Procedures and Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Validate Product or Product Components
          1. SP 2.1-1. Perform Validation
            1. Typical Work Products
          2. SP 2.2-1. Analyze Validation Results
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
    25. Verification: An Engineering Process Area at Maturity Level 3
      1. Purpose
      2. Introductory Notes
      3. Related Process Areas
      4. Specific Practices by Goal
        1. SG 1. Prepare for Verification
          1. SP 1.1-1. Select Work Products for Verification
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 1.2-2. Establish the Verification Environment
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 1.3-3. Establish Verification Procedures and Criteria
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        2. SG 2. Perform Peer Reviews
          1. SP 2.1-1. Prepare for Peer Reviews
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 2.2-1. Conduct Peer Reviews
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          3. SP 2.3-2. Analyze Peer Review Data
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
        3. SG 3. Verify Selected Work Products
          1. SP 3.1-1. Perform Verification
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
          2. SP 3.2-2. Analyze Verification Results and Identify Corrective Action
            1. Typical Work Products
            2. Subpractices
      5. Generic Practices by Goal
        1. GG 1. Achieve Specific Goals
          1. GP 1.1. Perform Base Practices
        2. GG 2. Institutionalize a Managed Process
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      6. Commitment to Perform
        1. GP 2.1. Establish an Organizational Policy
          1. Elaboration
      7. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 2.2. Plan the Process
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.3. Provide Resources
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.4. Assign Responsibility
        4. GP 2.5. Train People
          1. Elaboration
      8. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 2.6. Manage Configurations
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.7. Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
          1. Elaboration
        3. GP 2.8. Monitor and Control the Process
          1. Elaboration
      9. Verifying Implementation
        1. GP 2.9. Objectively Evaluate Adherence
          1. Elaboration
        2. GP 2.10. Review Status with Higher Level Management
        3. GG 3. Institutionalize a Defined Process
      10. Ability to Perform
        1. GP 3.1. Establish a Defined Process
      11. Directing Implementation
        1. GP 3.2. Collect Improvement Information
        2. GG 4. Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process
          1. GP 4.1. Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
          2. GP 4.2. Stabilize Subprocess Performance
        3. GG 5. Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
          1. GP 5.1. Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
          2. GP 5.2. Correct Root Causes of Problems
  6. Three. The Appendices and Glossary
    1. A. References
      1. Publicly Available Sources
      2. Regularly Updated Sources
    2. B. Acronyms
    3. C. CMMI Project Participants
      1. Product Team
      2. Sponsors
      3. Steering Group
      4. Configuration Control Board
      5. Stakeholders/Reviewers
    4. Glossary