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Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms

Book Description

The primary purpose of this book is to capture the state-of-the-art in Cloud Computing technologies and applications. The book will also aim to identify potential research directions and technologies that will facilitate creation a global market-place of cloud computing services supporting scientific, industrial, business, and consumer applications. We expect the book to serve as a reference for larger audience such as systems architects, practitioners, developers, new researchers and graduate level students. This area of research is relatively recent, and as such has no existing reference book that addresses it.

This book will be a timely contribution to a field that is gaining considerable research interest, momentum, and is expected to be of increasing interest to commercial developers. The book is targeted for professional computer science developers and graduate students especially at Masters level. As Cloud Computing is recognized as one of the top five emerging technologies that will have a major impact on the quality of science and society over the next 20 years, its knowledge will help position our readers at the forefront of the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. PREFACE
    1. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  4. CONTRIBUTORS
  5. I. FOUNDATIONS
    1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO CLOUD COMPUTING
      1. 1.1. CLOUD COMPUTING IN A NUTSHELL
      2. 1.2. ROOTS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
        1. 1.2.1. From Mainframes to Clouds
        2. 1.2.2. SOA, Web Services, Web 2.0, and Mashups
        3. 1.2.3. Grid Computing
        4. 1.2.4. Utility Computing
        5. 1.2.5. Hardware Virtualization
        6. 1.2.6. Virtual Appliances and the Open Virtualization Format
        7. 1.2.7. Autonomic Computing
      3. 1.3. LAYERS AND TYPES OF CLOUDS
        1. 1.3.1. Infrastructure as a Service
        2. 1.3.2. Platform as a Service
        3. 1.3.3. Software as a Service
        4. 1.3.4. Deployment Models
      4. 1.4. DESIRED FEATURES OF A CLOUD
        1. 1.4.1. Self-Service
        2. 1.4.2. Per-Usage Metering and Billing
        3. 1.4.3. Elasticity
        4. 1.4.4. Customization
      5. 1.5. CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT
        1. 1.5.1. Features
        2. 1.5.2. Case Studies
      6. 1.6. INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE PROVIDERS
        1. 1.6.1. Features
        2. 1.6.2. Case Studies
      7. 1.7. PLATFORM AS A SERVICE PROVIDERS
        1. 1.7.1. Features
        2. 1.7.2. Case Studies
      8. 1.8. CHALLENGES AND RISKS
        1. 1.8.1. Security, Privacy, and Trust
        2. 1.8.2. Data Lock-In and Standardization
        3. 1.8.3. Availability, Fault-Tolerance, and Disaster Recovery
        4. 1.8.4. Resource Management and Energy-Efficiency
      9. 1.9. SUMMARY
      10. 1.10. REFERENCES
    2. 2. MIGRATING INTO A CLOUD
      1. 2.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 2.1.1. The Promise of the Cloud
        2. 2.1.2. The Cloud Service Offerings and Deployment Models
        3. 2.1.3. Challenges in the Cloud
      2. 2.2. BROAD APPROACHES TO MIGRATING INTO THE CLOUD
        1. 2.2.1. Why Migrate?
        2. 2.2.2. Deciding on the Cloud Migration
      3. 2.3. THE SEVEN-STEP MODEL OF MIGRATION INTO A CLOUD
        1. 2.3.1. Migration Risks and Mitigation
      4. 2.4. CONCLUSIONS
      5. 2.5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      6. 2.6. REFERENCES
    3. 3. ENRICHING THE 'INTEGRATION AS A SERVICE' PARADIGM FOR THE CLOUD ERA
      1. 3.1. AN INTRODUCTION
      2. 3.2. THE ONSET OF KNOWLEDGE ERA
      3. 3.3. THE EVOLUTION OF SaaS
      4. 3.4. THE CHALLENGES OF SaaS PARADIGM
      5. 3.5. APPROACHING THE SaaS INTEGRATION ENIGMA
      6. 3.6. NEW INTEGRATION SCENARIOS
      7. 3.7. THE INTEGRATION METHODOLOGIES
      8. 3.8. SaaS INTEGRATION PRODUCTS AND PLATFORMS
        1. 3.8.1. Jitterbit [4]
        2. 3.8.2. Boomi Software [5]
        3. 3.8.3. Bungee Connect [6]
        4. 3.8.4. OpSource Connect [7]
        5. 3.8.5. SnapLogic [8]
        6. 3.8.6. The Pervasive DataCloud [9]
        7. 3.8.7. Bluewolf [10]
        8. 3.8.8. Online MQ
        9. 3.8.9. CloudMQ [15]
        10. 3.8.10. Linxter
      9. 3.9. SaaS INTEGRATION SERVICES
        1. 3.9.1. Informatica On-Demand [11]
        2. 3.9.2. Microsoft Internet Service Bus (ISB) [13]
      10. 3.10. BUSINESSES-TO-BUSINESS INTEGRATION (B2Bi) SERVICES
      11. 3.11. A FRAMEWORK OF SENSOR—CLOUD INTEGRATION [3]
      12. 3.12. SaaS INTEGRATION APPLIANCES
      13. 3.13. CONCLUSION
      14. 3.14. REFERENCES
    4. 4. THE ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING PARADIGM
      1. 4.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 4.2. BACKGROUND
        1. 4.2.1. Relevant Deployment Models for Enterprise Cloud Computing
        2. 4.2.2. Adoption and Consumption Strategies
      3. 4.3. ISSUES FOR ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS ON THE CLOUD
        1. 4.3.1. Considering Transactional and Analytical Capabilities
      4. 4.4. TRANSITION CHALLENGES
      5. 4.5. ENTERPRISE CLOUD TECHNOLOGY AND MARKET EVOLUTION
        1. 4.5.1. Technology Drivers for Enterprise Cloud Computing Evolution
      6. 4.6. BUSINESS DRIVERS TOWARD A MARKETPLACE FOR ENTERPRISE CLOUD COMPUTING
      7. 4.7. THE CLOUD SUPPLY CHAIN
      8. 4.8. SUMMARY
      9. 4.9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      10. 4.10. REFERENCES
  6. II. INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE (IAAS)
    1. 5. VIRTUAL MACHINES PROVISIONING AND MIGRATION SERVICES
      1. 5.1. INTRODUCTION AND INSPIRATION
      2. 5.2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. 5.2.1. Virtualization Technology Overview
        2. 5.2.2. Public Cloud and Infrastructure Services
        3. 5.2.3. Private Cloud and Infrastructure Services
        4. 5.2.4. Distributed Management of Virtualization
        5. 5.2.5. High Availability
        6. 5.2.6. Cloud and Virtualization Standardization Efforts
        7. 5.2.7. OCCI and OGF
      3. 5.3. VIRTUAL MACHINES PROVISIONING AND MANAGEABILITY
        1. 5.3.1. VM Provisioning Process
      4. 5.4. VIRTUAL MACHINE MIGRATION SERVICES
        1. 5.4.1. Migrations Techniques
        2. 5.4.2. VM Migration, SLA and On-Demand Computing
        3. 5.4.3. Migration of Virtual Machines to Alternate Platforms
      5. 5.5. VM PROVISIONING AND MIGRATION IN ACTION
        1. 5.5.1. VM Life Cycle and VM Monitoring
        2. 5.5.2. Live Migration
        3. 5.5.3. Final Thoughts about the Example
      6. 5.6. PROVISIONING IN THE CLOUD CONTEXT
        1. 5.6.1. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
        2. 5.6.2. Infrastructure Enabling Technology
        3. 5.6.3. Eucalyptus
        4. 5.6.4. VM Dynamic Management Using OpenNebula
        5. 5.6.5. Aneka
      7. 5.7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 5.8. CONCLUSION
      9. 5.9. REFERENCES
    2. 6. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF VIRTUAL MACHINES FOR CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURES
      1. 6.1. THE ANATOMY OF CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURES
        1. 6.1.1. Distributed Management of Virtual Machines
        2. 6.1.2. Reservation-Based Provisioning of Virtualized Resources
        3. 6.1.3. Provisioning to Meet SLA Commitments
      2. 6.2. DISTRIBUTED MANAGEMENT OF VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURES
        1. 6.2.1. VM Model and Life Cycle
        2. 6.2.2. VM Management
        3. 6.2.3. Further Reading on OpenNebula
      3. 6.3. SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES FOR ADVANCE RESERVATION OF CAPACITY
        1. 6.3.1. Existing Approaches to Capacity Reservation
        2. 6.3.2. Reservations with VMs
        3. 6.3.3. Leasing Model
        4. 6.3.4. Lease Scheduling
        5. 6.3.5. Further Reading on Lease-Based Resource Management
      4. 6.4. CAPACITY MANAGEMENT TO MEET SLA COMMITMENTS
        1. 6.4.1. Infrastructure SLAs
        2. 6.4.2. Policy-Driven Probabilistic Admission Control
        3. 6.4.3. Policy-Driven Placement Optimization
        4. 6.4.4. Infrastructure-Level Management Goals and Policies
        5. 6.4.5. State of the Art
      5. 6.5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      6. 6.6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      7. 6.7. REFERENCES
    3. 7. ENHANCING CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS USING A CLUSTER AS A SERVICE
      1. 7.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 7.2. RELATED WORK
        1. 7.2.1. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
        2. 7.2.2. Google App Engine
        3. 7.2.3. Microsoft Windows Azure
        4. 7.2.4. Salesforce
        5. 7.2.5. Cloud Summary
      3. 7.3. RVWS DESIGN
        1. 7.3.1. Dynamic Attribute Exposure
        2. 7.3.2. Stateful WSDL Document Creation
        3. 7.3.3. Publication in RVWS
        4. 7.3.4. Automatic Discovery and Selection
      4. 7.4. CLUSTER AS A SERVICE: THE LOGICAL DESIGN
        1. 7.4.1. CaaS Overview
        2. 7.4.2. Cluster Stateful WSDL Document
        3. 7.4.3. CaaS Service Design
        4. 7.4.4. User Interface: CaaS Web Pages
      5. 7.5. PROOF OF CONCEPT
        1. 7.5.1. CaaS Technology Implementation
        2. 7.5.2. Cluster Behind the CaaS
        3. 7.5.3. Experiments and Results
      6. 7.6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. 7.7. CONCLUSION
      8. 7.8. REFERENCES
    4. 8. SECURE DISTRIBUTED DATA STORAGE IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      1. 8.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 8.2. CLOUD STORAGE: FROM LANs TO WANs
        1. 8.2.1. Moving From LANs to WANs
        2. 8.2.2. Existing Commercial Cloud Services
        3. 8.2.3. Vulnerabilities in Current Cloud Services
        4. 8.2.4. Bridge the Missing Link
      3. 8.3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DATA SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING
        1. 8.3.1. Database Outsourcing and Query Integrity Assurance
        2. 8.3.2. Data Integrity in Untrustworthy Storage
        3. 8.3.3. Web-Application-Based Security
        4. 8.3.4. Multimedia Data Security Storage
      4. 8.4. OPEN QUESTIONS AND CHALLENGES
        1. 8.4.1. Concerns at Different Levels
        2. 8.4.2. Technical and Nontechnical Challenges
      5. 8.5. SUMMARY
      6. 8.6. REFERENCES
  7. III. PLATFORM AND SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE (PaaS/IaaS)
    1. 9. ANEKA—INTEGRATION OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC CLOUDS
      1. 9.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 9.2. TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR CLOUD COMPUTING
      3. 9.3. ANEKA CLOUD PLATFORM
      4. 9.4. ANEKA RESOURCE PROVISIONING SERVICE
        1. 9.4.1. Resource Provisioning Scenario
      5. 9.5. HYBRID CLOUD IMPLEMENTATION
        1. 9.5.1. Design and Implementation Guidelines
        2. 9.5.2. Aneka Hybrid Cloud Architecture
        3. 9.5.3. Use Case—The Amazon EC2 Resource Pool
        4. 9.5.4. Implementation Steps for Aneka Resource Provisioning Service
      6. 9.6. VISIONARY THOUGHTS FOR PRACTITIONERS
      7. 9.7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      8. 9.8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      9. 9.9. REFERENCES
    2. 10. CometCloud: AN AUTONOMIC CLOUD ENGINE
      1. 10.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 10.2. CometCloud ARCHITECTURE
        1. 10.2.1. CometCloud Layered Abstractions
        2. 10.2.2. Comet Space
      3. 10.3. AUTONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF CometCloud
        1. 10.3.1. Autonomic Cloudbursting
        2. 10.3.2. Autonomic Cloudbridging
        3. 10.3.3. Other Autonomic Behaviors
      4. 10.4. OVERVIEW OF CometCloud-BASED APPLICATIONS
        1. 10.4.1. Value at Risk (VaR)
        2. 10.4.2. Image Registration
      5. 10.5. IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
        1. 10.5.1. Evaluation of CometCloud
        2. 10.5.2. Application Runtime
        3. 10.5.3. Autonomic Cloudbursts Behaviors
      6. 10.6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. 10.7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      8. 10.8. REFERENCES
    3. 11. T-SYSTEMS' CLOUD-BASED SOLUTIONS FOR BUSINESS APPLICATIONS
      1. 11.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 11.2. WHAT ENTERPRISES DEMAND OF CLOUD COMPUTING
        1. 11.2.1. Changing Markets
        2. 11.2.2. Increased Productivity
        3. 11.2.3. Rising Cost Pressure
      3. 11.3. DYNAMIC ICT SERVICES
        1. 11.3.1. Steps Toward Industrialized ICT
        2. 11.3.2. Customization through Modularization
        3. 11.3.3. Integrated Creation of ICT Services
      4. 11.4. IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY AND SECURITY IN CLOUDS
        1. 11.4.1. Quality (End-to-End SLAs)
        2. 11.4.2. Compliance and Security
      5. 11.5. DYNAMIC DATA CENTER—PRODUCING BUSINESS-READY, DYNAMIC ICT SERVICES
        1. 11.5.1. Flexibility Across All Modules
        2. 11.5.2. T-Systems' Core Cloud Modules: Computing, Storage
        3. 11.5.3. Dynamic Services—A Brief Overview
        4. 11.5.4. Dynamic Data Centers Across the Globe
      6. 11.6. CASE STUDIES
        1. 11.6.1. Example: Dynamic Infrastructure Services
        2. 11.6.2. Example: Dynamic Services for SAP
        3. 11.6.3. DKK: Europe's Largest SAP Installation Is Run in a Private Cloud
        4. 11.6.4. Migrating Globally Distributed SAP Systems to a Dynamic Platform
      7. 11.7. SUMMARY: CLOUD COMPUTING OFFERS MUCH MORE THAN TRADITIONAL OUTSOURCING
      8. 11.8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      9. 11.9. REFERENCES
    4. 12. WORKFLOW ENGINE FOR CLOUDS
      1. 12.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 12.2. BACKGROUND
      3. 12.3. WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND CLOUDS
        1. 12.3.1. Architectural Overview
      4. 12.4. ARCHITECTURE OF WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
      5. 12.5. UTILIZING CLOUDS FOR WORKFLOW EXECUTION
        1. 12.5.1. Aneka
        2. 12.5.2. Aneka Web Services
        3. 12.5.3. General Approach
        4. 12.5.4. Tools for Utilizing Clouds in WfMS
      6. 12.6. CASE STUDY: EVOLUTIONARY MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATIONS
        1. 12.6.1. Objectives
        2. 12.6.2. Workflow Solution
        3. 12.6.3. Deployment and Results
      7. 12.7. VISIONARY THOUGHTS FOR PRACTITIONERS
      8. 12.8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. 12.9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      10. 12.10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      11. 12.11. REFERENCES
    5. 13. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS FOR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS
      1. 13.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 13.1.1. Fundamental Issues
      2. 13.2. A CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS AND SERVICES IN THE CLOUD
        1. 13.2.1. Software as a Service (SaaS) Layer
        2. 13.2.2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) Layer
        3. 13.2.3. Infrastructure-as-a-Service Layer
        4. 13.2.4. Discussion of Cloud Models
      3. 13.3. SAGA-BASED SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS THAT UTILIZE CLOUDS
        1. 13.3.1. MapReduce
        2. 13.3.2. SAGA Montage
        3. 13.3.3. Ensemble of Biomolecular Simulations
      4. 13.4. DISCUSSION
        1. 13.4.1. IDEAS Revisited
        2. 13.4.2. Interoperability of Scientific Applications across Clouds and HPC/Grids
        3. 13.4.3. Application Performance Considerations
      5. 13.5. CONCLUSIONS
      6. 13.6. REFERENCES
    6. 14. THE MapReduce PROGRAMMING MODEL AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
      1. 14.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 14.2. MapReduce PROGRAMMING MODEL
        1. 14.2.1. The Wordcount Example
        2. 14.2.2. Main Features
        3. 14.2.3. Execution Overview
        4. 14.2.4. Spotlight on Google MapReduce Implementation
      3. 14.3. MAJOR MapReduce IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR THE CLOUD
        1. 14.3.1. Hadoop
        2. 14.3.2. Disco
        3. 14.3.3. Mapreduce.NET
        4. 14.3.4. Skynet
        5. 14.3.5. GridGain
      4. 14.4. MapReduce IMPACTS AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. 14.5. CONCLUSION
        1. 14.5.1. Acknowledgments
      6. 14.6. REFERENCES
  8. IV. MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT
    1. 15. AN ARCHITECTURE FOR FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING
      1. 15.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 15.2. A TYPICAL USE CASE
        1. 15.2.1. SAP Systems
        2. 15.2.2. The Virtualized Data Center Use Case
        3. 15.2.3. Primary Requirements
      3. 15.3. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
        1. 15.3.1. Federation
        2. 15.3.2. Independence
        3. 15.3.3. Isolation
        4. 15.3.4. Elasticity
        5. 15.3.5. Business Orientation
        6. 15.3.6. Trust
      4. 15.4. A MODEL FOR FEDERATED CLOUD COMPUTING
        1. 15.4.1. Features of Federation Types
        2. 15.4.2. Federation Scenarios
        3. 15.4.3. Layers Enhancement for Federation
      5. 15.5. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
        1. 15.5.1. External Threats
        2. 15.5.2. Internal Threats
      6. 15.6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        1. 15.6.1. Acknowledgments
      7. 15.7. REFERENCES
    2. 16. SLA MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD COMPUTING: A SERVICE PROVIDER'S PERSPECTIVE
      1. 16.1. INSPIRATION
      2. 16.2. TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO SLO MANAGEMENT
        1. 16.2.1. Load Balancing
        2. 16.2.2. Admission Control
      3. 16.3. TYPES OF SLA
      4. 16.4. LIFE CYCLE OF SLA
      5. 16.5. SLA MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD
        1. 16.5.1. Feasibility Analysis
        2. 16.5.2. On-Boarding of Application
        3. 16.5.3. Preproduction
        4. 16.5.4. Production
        5. 16.5.5. Termination
      6. 16.6. AUTOMATED POLICY-BASED MANAGEMENT
      7. 16.7. CONCLUSION
      8. 16.8. REFERENCES
    3. 17. PERFORMANCE PREDICTION FOR HPC ON CLOUDS
      1. 17.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 17.2. BACKGROUND
      3. 17.3. GRID AND CLOUD
        1. 17.3.1. Grid and Cloud as Alternatives
        2. 17.3.2. Grid and Cloud Integration
      4. 17.4. HPC IN THE CLOUD: PERFORMANCE-RELATED ISSUES
        1. 17.4.1. HPC Systems and HPC on Clouds: A Performance Comparison
        2. 17.4.2. Supporting HPC in the Cloud
      5. 17.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      6. 17.6. REFERENCES
  9. V. APPLICATIONS
    1. 18. BEST PRACTICES IN ARCHITECTING CLOUD APPLICATIONS IN THE AWS CLOUD
      1. 18.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 18.2. BACKGROUND
        1. 18.2.1. Business Benefits of Cloud Computing
        2. 18.2.2. Technical Benefits of Cloud Computing
        3. 18.2.3. Understanding the Amazon Web Services Cloud
      3. 18.3. CLOUD CONCEPTS
        1. 18.3.1. Building Scalable Architectures
        2. 18.3.2. Understanding Elasticity
        3. 18.3.3. Not Fearing Constraints
        4. 18.3.4. Virtual Administration
      4. 18.4. CLOUD BEST PRACTICES
        1. 18.4.1. Design for Failure and Nothing Will Fail
        2. 18.4.2. Decouple your Components
        3. 18.4.3. Implement Elasticity
        4. 18.4.4. Think Parallel
        5. 18.4.5. Keep Dynamic Data Closer to the Compute and Static Data Closer to the End User
        6. 18.4.6. Security Best Practices
      5. 18.5. GREPTHEWEB CASE STUDY
        1. 18.5.1. Architecture
        2. 18.5.2. Workflow
        3. 18.5.3. Implementing Best Practices
        4. 18.5.4. GrepTheWeb Hadoop implementation
      6. 18.6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. 18.7. CONCLUSION
      8. 18.8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      9. 18.9. REFERENCES
    2. 19. MASSIVELY MULTIPLAYER ONLINE GAME HOSTING ON CLOUD RESOURCES
      1. 19.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 19.2. BACKGROUND
        1. 19.2.1. MMOG
        2. 19.2.2. Virtualization
      3. 19.3. RELATED WORK
      4. 19.4. MODEL
        1. 19.4.1. Application
        2. 19.4.2. Hosting
        3. 19.4.3. Operation
        4. 19.4.4. Virtualization Model
      5. 19.5. EXPERIMENTS
        1. 19.5.1. Setup
        2. 19.5.2. Impact of Virtualized Hosting on MMOG Hosting
        3. 19.5.3. Impact of Data Center Policies on MMOG Hosting
      6. 19.6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. 19.7. CONCLUSIONS
      8. 19.8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      9. 19.9. REFERENCES
    3. 20. BUILDING CONTENT DELIVERY NETWORKS USING CLOUDS
      1. 20.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 20.2. BACKGROUND/RELATED WORK
        1. 20.2.1. Amazon Simple Storage and CloudFront
        2. 20.2.2. Nirvanix Storage Delivery Network
        3. 20.2.3. Rackspace Cloud Files
        4. 20.2.4. Azure Storage Service
        5. 20.2.5. Encoding Services
      3. 20.3. MetaCDN: HARNESSING STORAGE CLOUDS FOR LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONTENT DELIVERY
        1. 20.3.1. Integrating "Cloud Storage" Providers
        2. 20.3.2. Overall Design and Architecture of the System
        3. 20.3.3. Integration of Geo-IP Services and Google Maps
        4. 20.3.4. Load Balancing via DNS and HTTP
      4. 20.4. PERFORMANCE OF THE MetaCDN OVERLAY
      5. 20.5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. 20.6. CONCLUSION
      7. 20.7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      8. 20.8. REFERENCES
    4. 21. RESOURCE CLOUD MASHUPS
      1. 21.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 21.1.1. A Need for Cloud Mashups
      2. 21.2. CONCEPTS OF A CLOUD MASHUP
        1. 21.2.1. The Problem of Interoperability
        2. 21.2.2. Intelligent Image Handling
        3. 21.2.3. Intelligent Data Management
      3. 21.3. REALIZING RESOURCE MASHUPS
        1. 21.3.1. Distributed Decision Making
      4. 21.4. CONCLUSIONS
        1. 21.4.1. Applying Resource Mashups
        2. 21.4.2. Benefits and Obstacles
      5. 21.5. REFERENCES
  10. VI. GOVERNANCE AND CASE STUDIES
    1. 22. ORGANIZATIONAL READINESS AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOUD AGE
      1. 22.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 22.1.1. The Context
        2. 22.1.2. The Take Away
      2. 22.2. BASIC CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL READINESS
        1. 22.2.1. A Case Study: Waiting in Line for a Special Concert Ticket
        2. 22.2.2. What Do People Fear?
      3. 22.3. DRIVERS FOR CHANGES: A FRAMEWORK TO COMPREHEND THE COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT
        1. 22.3.1. Economic (Global and Local, External and Internal)
        2. 22.3.2. Legal, Political, and Regulatory Compliance
        3. 22.3.3. Environmental (Industry Structure and Trends)
        4. 22.3.4. Technology Developments and Innovation
        5. 22.3.5. Sociocultural (Markets and Customers)
        6. 22.3.6. Creating a Winning Environment
      4. 22.4. COMMON CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODELS
        1. 22.4.1. Lewin's Change Management Model
        2. 22.4.2. Deming Cycle (Plan, Do, Study, Act)
        3. 22.4.3. A Proposed Working Model: CROPS Change Management Framework
      5. 22.5. CHANGE MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL (CMMM)
        1. 22.5.1. A Case Study: AML Services Inc.
      6. 22.6. ORGANIZATIONAL READINESS SELF-ASSESSMENT: (WHO, WHEN, WHERE, AND HOW)
      7. 22.7. DISCUSSION
        1. 22.7.1. Case Study: EnCana CORP.
      8. 22.8. CONCLUSION
        1. 22.8.1. Going Forward
      9. 22.9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      10. 22.10. REFERENCES
    2. 23. DATA SECURITY IN THE CLOUD
      1. 23.1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE IDEA OF DATA SECURITY
      2. 23.2. THE CURRENT STATE OF DATA SECURITY IN THE CLOUD
      3. 23.3. HOMO SAPIENS AND DIGITAL INFORMATION
      4. 23.4. CLOUD COMPUTING AND DATA SECURITY RISK
      5. 23.5. CLOUD COMPUTING AND IDENTITY
        1. 23.5.1. Identity, Reputation, and Trust
        2. 23.5.2. Identity for Identity's Sake
        3. 23.5.3. Cloud Identity: User-Centric and Open-Identity Systems
        4. 23.5.4. The Philosophy of User-Centric Identity
        5. 23.5.5. User-Centric but Manageable
        6. 23.5.6. What Is an Information Card?
        7. 23.5.7. Using Information Cards to Protect Data
        8. 23.5.8. Weakness and Strengths of Information Cards
        9. 23.5.9. Cross-Border Aspects of Information Cards
      6. 23.6. THE CLOUD, DIGITAL IDENTITY, AND DATA SECURITY
      7. 23.7. CONTENT LEVEL SECURITY—PROS AND CONS
      8. 23.8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. 23.9. CONCLUSION
      10. 23.10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      11. 23.11. FURTHER READING
      12. 23.12. REFERENCES
    3. 24. LEGAL ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      1. 24.1. INTRODUCTION
        1. 24.1.1. Objective of Chapter
        2. 24.1.2. Definition of Cloud Computing
        3. 24.1.3. Overview of Legal Issues
        4. 24.1.4. Distinguishing Cloud Computing from Outsourcing and Provision of Application Services
      2. 24.2. DATA PRIVACY AND SECURITY ISSUES
        1. 24.2.1. U.S. Data Breach Notification Requirements
        2. 24.2.2. U.S. Federal Law Compliance
        3. 24.2.3. International Data Privacy Compliance
      3. 24.3. CLOUD CONTRACTING MODELS
        1. 24.3.1. Licensing Agreements Versus Services Agreements
        2. 24.3.2. On-Line Agreements Versus Standard Contracts
        3. 24.3.3. The Importance of Privacy Policies Terms and Conditions
      4. 24.4. JURISDICTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY VIRTUALIZATION AND DATA LOCATION
        1. 24.4.1. Virtualization and Multi-tenancy
        2. 24.4.2. The Issues Associated with the Flexibility of Data-Location
        3. 24.4.3. Other Jurisdiction Issues
        4. 24.4.4. International Conflicts of Laws
      5. 24.5. COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS CONSIDERATIONS—A CLOUD USER'S VIEWPOINT
        1. 24.5.1. Minimizing Risk
        2. 24.5.2. Viability of the Cloud Provider
        3. 24.5.3. Protecting a Cloud User's Access to Its Data
      6. 24.6. SPECIAL TOPICS
        1. 24.6.1. The Cloud Open-Source Movement
        2. 24.6.2. Litigation Issues/e-Discovery
      7. 24.7. CONCLUSION
      8. 24.8. EPILOGUE
      9. 24.9. REFERENCES
    4. 25. ACHIEVING PRODUCTION READINESS FOR CLOUD SERVICES
      1. 25.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 25.2. SERVICE MANAGEMENT
      3. 25.3. PRODUCER–CONSUMER RELATIONSHIP
        1. 25.3.1. Business Mindset
        2. 25.3.2. Direct Versus Indirect Distribution
        3. 25.3.3. Quality of Service and Value Composition
        4. 25.3.4. Charging Model
      4. 25.4. CLOUD SERVICE LIFE CYCLE
        1. 25.4.1. Service Strategy
        2. 25.4.2. Service Design
        3. 25.4.3. Service Transition
        4. 25.4.4. Service Operation
        5. 25.4.5. Continuous Service Improvement
      5. 25.5. PRODUCTION READINESS
      6. 25.6. ASSESSING PRODUCTION READINESS
        1. 25.6.1. Service Facilities Readiness
        2. 25.6.2. Service Infrastructure Readiness
        3. 25.6.3. Service Technology Readiness
        4. 25.6.4. Monitoring Readiness
        5. 25.6.5. Service Measurement Readiness
        6. 25.6.6. Service Documentation
        7. 25.6.7. Communication Readiness
        8. 25.6.8. Service Operational Readiness
        9. 25.6.9. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
        10. 25.6.10. Acceptance Testing
      7. 25.7. SUMMARY
      8. 25.8. REFERENCES