You are previewing Clojure Programming.

Clojure Programming

Cover of Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Clojure Programming
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. Preface
    1. Who Is This Book For?
      1. Engaged Java Developers
      2. Ruby, Python, and Other Developers
    2. How to Read This Book
      1. Start with Practical Applications of Clojure
      2. Start from the Ground Up with Clojure’s Foundational Concepts
    3. Who’s “We”?
      1. Chas Emerick
      2. Brian Carper
      3. Christophe Grand
    4. Acknowledgments
      1. And Last, but Certainly Far from Least
    5. Conventions Used in This Book
    6. Using Code Examples
    7. Safari® Books Online
    8. How to Contact Us
  4. 1. Down the Rabbit Hole
    1. Why Clojure?
    2. Obtaining Clojure
    3. The Clojure REPL
    4. No, Parentheses Actually Won’t Make You Go Blind
    5. Expressions, Operators, Syntax, and Precedence
    6. Homoiconicity
    7. The Reader
      1. Scalar Literals
      3. Whitespace and Commas
      4. Collection Literals
      5. Miscellaneous Reader Sugar
    8. Namespaces
    9. Symbol Evaluation
    10. Special Forms
      1. Suppressing Evaluation: quote
      2. Code Blocks: do
      3. Defining Vars: def
      4. Local Bindings: let
      5. Destructuring (let, Part 2)
      6. Creating Functions: fn
      7. Conditionals: if
      8. Looping: loop and recur
      9. Referring to Vars: var
      10. Java Interop: . and new
      11. Exception Handling: try and throw
      12. Specialized Mutation: set!
      13. Primitive Locking: monitor-enter and monitor-exit
    11. Putting It All Together
      1. eval
    12. This Is Just the Beginning
  5. I. Functional Programming and Concurrency
    1. 2. Functional Programming
      1. What Does Functional Programming Mean?
      2. On the Importance of Values
      3. First-Class and Higher-Order Functions
      4. Composition of Function(ality)
      5. Pure Functions
      6. Functional Programming in the Real World
    2. 3. Collections and Data Structures
      1. Abstractions over Implementations
      2. Concise Collection Access
      3. Data Structure Types
      4. Immutability and Persistence
      5. Metadata
      6. Putting Clojure’s Collections to Work
      7. In Summary
    3. 4. Concurrency and Parallelism
      1. Shifting Computation Through Time and Space
      2. Parallelism on the Cheap
      3. State and Identity
      4. Clojure Reference Types
      5. Classifying Concurrent Operations
      6. Atoms
      7. Notifications and Constraints
      8. Refs
      9. Vars
      10. Agents
      11. Using Java’s Concurrency Primitives
      12. Final Thoughts
  6. II. Building Abstractions
    1. 5. Macros
      1. What Is a Macro?
      2. Writing Your First Macro
      3. Debugging Macros
      4. Syntax
      5. When to Use Macros
      6. Hygiene
      7. Common Macro Idioms and Patterns
      8. The Implicit Arguments: &env and &form
      9. In Detail: -> and ->>
      10. Final Thoughts
    2. 6. Datatypes and Protocols
      1. Protocols
      2. Extending to Existing Types
      3. Defining Your Own Types
      4. Implementing Protocols
      5. Protocol Introspection
      6. Protocol Dispatch Edge Cases
      7. Participating in Clojure’s Collection Abstractions
      8. Final Thoughts
    3. 7. Multimethods
      1. Multimethods Basics
      2. Toward Hierarchies
      3. Hierarchies
      4. Making It Really Multiple!
      5. A Few More Things
      6. Final Thoughts
  7. III. Tools, Platform, and Projects
    1. 8. Organizing and Building Clojure Projects
      1. Project Geography
      2. Build
      3. Final Thoughts
    2. 9. Java and JVM Interoperability
      1. The JVM Is Clojure’s Foundation
      2. Using Java Classes, Methods, and Fields
      3. Handy Interop Utilities
      4. Exceptions and Error Handling
      5. Type Hinting for Performance
      6. Arrays
      7. Defining Classes and Implementing Interfaces
      8. Using Clojure from Java
      9. Collaborating Partners
    3. 10. REPL-Oriented Programming
      1. Interactive Development
      2. Tooling
      3. Debugging, Monitoring, and Patching Production in the REPL
      4. Limitations to Redefining Constructs
      5. In Summary
  8. IV. Practicums
    1. 11. Numerics and Mathematics
      1. Clojure Numerics
      2. Clojure Mathematics
      3. Equality and Equivalence
      4. Optimizing Numeric Performance
      5. Visualizing the Mandelbrot Set in Clojure
    2. 12. Design Patterns
      1. Dependency Injection
      2. Strategy Pattern
      3. Chain of Responsibility
      4. Aspect-Oriented Programming
      5. Final Thoughts
    3. 13. Testing
      1. Immutable Values and Pure Functions
      2. clojure.test
      3. Growing an HTML DSL
      4. Relying upon Assertions
    4. 14. Using Relational Databases
      2. Korma
      3. Hibernate
      4. Final Thoughts
    5. 15. Using Nonrelational Databases
      1. Getting Set Up with CouchDB and Clutch
      2. Basic CRUD Operations
      4. _changes: Abusing CouchDB as a Message Queue
      5. À la Carte Message Queues
      6. Final Thoughts
    6. 16. Clojure and the Web
      1. The “Clojure Stack”
      2. The Foundation: Ring
      3. Routing Requests with Compojure
      4. Templating
      5. Final Thoughts
    7. 17. Deploying Clojure Web Applications
      1. Java and Clojure Web Architecture
      2. Running Web Apps Locally
      3. Web Application Deployment
      4. Going Beyond Simple Web Application Deployment
  9. V. Miscellanea
    1. 18. Choosing Clojure Type Definition Forms Wisely
    2. 19. Introducing Clojure into Your Workplace
      1. Just the Facts…
      2. Emphasize Productivity
      3. Emphasize Community
      4. Be Prudent
    3. 20. What’s Next?
      1. (dissoc Clojure 'JVM)
      2. 4Clojure
      3. Overtone
      4. core.logic
      5. Pallet
      6. Avout
      7. Clojure on Heroku
  10. Index
  11. About the Authors
  12. Colophon
  13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly

Type Hinting for Performance

You may have noticed some code examples that use syntax referring to Java class names, such as ^String here:

(defn length-of
  [^String text]
  (.length text))

The ^ClassName syntax defines a type hint, an explicit indication to the Clojure compiler of the object type of an expression, var value, or a named binding.

The typical type hint syntax is expanded by the Clojure reader into metadata on the value following the hint. So, the ^String text hinted binding form is expanded by the reader into the equivalent expression ^{:tag String} text, which evaluates to the symbol text with the metadata {:tag String}. Clojure internally uses the term “tag” for type.

These hints are used by the compiler only to avoid emitting reflective interop calls; otherwise, they are unnecessary. So, if our code does not include an interop call, there is no need to include a type hint:

(defn silly-function
  (nil? v))

Any hint you provide for v here would simply be left unused.


Type hints on function arguments or returns are not signature declarations: they do not affect the types that a function can accept or return. Their only effect is to allow Clojure to call Java methods and access Java fields using compile-time generated code—rather than the much-slower option of using reflection at runtime to search for methods or fields matching the interop form in question. Thus, if a hint doesn’t inform an interop operation, they are effectively no-ops. For example, this function hints ...

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