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Clojure Programming

Cover of Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Clojure Programming
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. Preface
    1. Who Is This Book For?
      1. Engaged Java Developers
      2. Ruby, Python, and Other Developers
    2. How to Read This Book
      1. Start with Practical Applications of Clojure
      2. Start from the Ground Up with Clojure’s Foundational Concepts
    3. Who’s “We”?
      1. Chas Emerick
      2. Brian Carper
      3. Christophe Grand
    4. Acknowledgments
      1. And Last, but Certainly Far from Least
    5. Conventions Used in This Book
    6. Using Code Examples
    7. Safari® Books Online
    8. How to Contact Us
  4. 1. Down the Rabbit Hole
    1. Why Clojure?
    2. Obtaining Clojure
    3. The Clojure REPL
    4. No, Parentheses Actually Won’t Make You Go Blind
    5. Expressions, Operators, Syntax, and Precedence
    6. Homoiconicity
    7. The Reader
      1. Scalar Literals
      2. Comments
      3. Whitespace and Commas
      4. Collection Literals
      5. Miscellaneous Reader Sugar
    8. Namespaces
    9. Symbol Evaluation
    10. Special Forms
      1. Suppressing Evaluation: quote
      2. Code Blocks: do
      3. Defining Vars: def
      4. Local Bindings: let
      5. Destructuring (let, Part 2)
      6. Creating Functions: fn
      7. Conditionals: if
      8. Looping: loop and recur
      9. Referring to Vars: var
      10. Java Interop: . and new
      11. Exception Handling: try and throw
      12. Specialized Mutation: set!
      13. Primitive Locking: monitor-enter and monitor-exit
    11. Putting It All Together
      1. eval
    12. This Is Just the Beginning
  5. I. Functional Programming and Concurrency
    1. 2. Functional Programming
      1. What Does Functional Programming Mean?
      2. On the Importance of Values
      3. First-Class and Higher-Order Functions
      4. Composition of Function(ality)
      5. Pure Functions
      6. Functional Programming in the Real World
    2. 3. Collections and Data Structures
      1. Abstractions over Implementations
      2. Concise Collection Access
      3. Data Structure Types
      4. Immutability and Persistence
      5. Metadata
      6. Putting Clojure’s Collections to Work
      7. In Summary
    3. 4. Concurrency and Parallelism
      1. Shifting Computation Through Time and Space
      2. Parallelism on the Cheap
      3. State and Identity
      4. Clojure Reference Types
      5. Classifying Concurrent Operations
      6. Atoms
      7. Notifications and Constraints
      8. Refs
      9. Vars
      10. Agents
      11. Using Java’s Concurrency Primitives
      12. Final Thoughts
  6. II. Building Abstractions
    1. 5. Macros
      1. What Is a Macro?
      2. Writing Your First Macro
      3. Debugging Macros
      4. Syntax
      5. When to Use Macros
      6. Hygiene
      7. Common Macro Idioms and Patterns
      8. The Implicit Arguments: &env and &form
      9. In Detail: -> and ->>
      10. Final Thoughts
    2. 6. Datatypes and Protocols
      1. Protocols
      2. Extending to Existing Types
      3. Defining Your Own Types
      4. Implementing Protocols
      5. Protocol Introspection
      6. Protocol Dispatch Edge Cases
      7. Participating in Clojure’s Collection Abstractions
      8. Final Thoughts
    3. 7. Multimethods
      1. Multimethods Basics
      2. Toward Hierarchies
      3. Hierarchies
      4. Making It Really Multiple!
      5. A Few More Things
      6. Final Thoughts
  7. III. Tools, Platform, and Projects
    1. 8. Organizing and Building Clojure Projects
      1. Project Geography
      2. Build
      3. Final Thoughts
    2. 9. Java and JVM Interoperability
      1. The JVM Is Clojure’s Foundation
      2. Using Java Classes, Methods, and Fields
      3. Handy Interop Utilities
      4. Exceptions and Error Handling
      5. Type Hinting for Performance
      6. Arrays
      7. Defining Classes and Implementing Interfaces
      8. Using Clojure from Java
      9. Collaborating Partners
    3. 10. REPL-Oriented Programming
      1. Interactive Development
      2. Tooling
      3. Debugging, Monitoring, and Patching Production in the REPL
      4. Limitations to Redefining Constructs
      5. In Summary
  8. IV. Practicums
    1. 11. Numerics and Mathematics
      1. Clojure Numerics
      2. Clojure Mathematics
      3. Equality and Equivalence
      4. Optimizing Numeric Performance
      5. Visualizing the Mandelbrot Set in Clojure
    2. 12. Design Patterns
      1. Dependency Injection
      2. Strategy Pattern
      3. Chain of Responsibility
      4. Aspect-Oriented Programming
      5. Final Thoughts
    3. 13. Testing
      1. Immutable Values and Pure Functions
      2. clojure.test
      3. Growing an HTML DSL
      4. Relying upon Assertions
    4. 14. Using Relational Databases
      1. clojure.java.jdbc
      2. Korma
      3. Hibernate
      4. Final Thoughts
    5. 15. Using Nonrelational Databases
      1. Getting Set Up with CouchDB and Clutch
      2. Basic CRUD Operations
      3. Views
      4. _changes: Abusing CouchDB as a Message Queue
      5. À la Carte Message Queues
      6. Final Thoughts
    6. 16. Clojure and the Web
      1. The “Clojure Stack”
      2. The Foundation: Ring
      3. Routing Requests with Compojure
      4. Templating
      5. Final Thoughts
    7. 17. Deploying Clojure Web Applications
      1. Java and Clojure Web Architecture
      2. Running Web Apps Locally
      3. Web Application Deployment
      4. Going Beyond Simple Web Application Deployment
  9. V. Miscellanea
    1. 18. Choosing Clojure Type Definition Forms Wisely
    2. 19. Introducing Clojure into Your Workplace
      1. Just the Facts…
      2. Emphasize Productivity
      3. Emphasize Community
      4. Be Prudent
    3. 20. What’s Next?
      1. (dissoc Clojure 'JVM)
      2. 4Clojure
      3. Overtone
      4. core.logic
      5. Pallet
      6. Avout
      7. Clojure on Heroku
  10. Index
  11. About the Authors
  12. Colophon
  13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Homoiconicity

Clojure code is composed of literal representations of its own data structures and atomic values; this characteristic is formally called homoiconicity, or more casually, code-as-data.[6] This is a significant simplification compared to most other languages, which also happens to enable metaprogramming facilities to a much greater degree than languages that are not homoiconic. To understand why, we’ll need to talk some about languages in general and how their code relates to their internal representations.

Recall that a REPL’s first stage is to read code provided to it by you. Every language has to provide a way to transform that textual representation of code into something that can be compiled and/or evaluated. Most languages do this by parsing that text into an abstract syntax tree (AST). This sounds more complicated than it is: an AST is simply a data structure that represents formally what is manifested concretely in text. For example, Figure 1-1 shows some examples of textual language and possible transformations to their corresponding syntax trees.[7]

Sample transformations from textual language to formal models

Figure 1-1. Sample transformations from textual language to formal models

These transformations from a textual manifestation of language to an AST are at the heart of how languages are defined, how expressive they are, and how well-suited they are to the purpose of relating to the world within which they are designed to be used. Much of the appeal of domain-specific languages springs from exactly this point: if you have a language that is purpose-built for a given field of use, those that have expertise in that field will find it far easier to define and express what they wish in that language compared to a general-purpose language.

The downside of this approach is that most languages do not provide any way to control their ASTs; the correspondence between their textual syntax and their ASTs is defined solely by the language implementers. This prompts clever programmers to conjure up clever workarounds in order to maximize the expressivity and utility of the textual syntax that they have to work with:

  • Code generation

  • Textual macros and preprocessors (used to legendary effect by C and C++ programmers for decades now)

  • Compiler plug-ins (as in Scala, Project Lombok for Java, Groovy’s AST transformations, and Template Haskell)

That’s a lot of incidental complexity—complexity introduced solely because language designers often view textual syntax as primary, leaving formal models of it to be implementation-specific (when they’re exposed at all).

Clojure (like all Lisps) takes a different path: rather than defining a syntax that will be transformed into an AST, Clojure programs are written using Clojure data structures that represent that AST directly. Consider the requiresRole... example from Figure 1-1, and see how a Clojure transliteration of the example is an AST for it (recalling the call semantics of function position in Clojure lists).

image with no caption

The fact that Clojure programs are represented as data means that Clojure programs can be used to write and transform other Clojure programs, trivially so. This is the basis for macros—Clojure’s metaprogramming facility—a far different beast than the gloriously painful hack that are C-style macros and other textual preprocessors, and the ultimate escape hatch when expressivity or domain-specific notation is paramount. We explore Clojure macros in Chapter 5.

In practical terms, the direct correspondence between code and data means that the Clojure code you write in the REPL or in a text source file isn’t text at all: you are programming using Clojure data structure literals. Recall the simple averaging function from Example 1-2:

(defn average
  [numbers]
  (/ (apply + numbers) (count numbers)))

This isn’t just a bunch of text that is somehow transformed into a function definition through the operation of a black box; this is a list data structure that contains four values: the symbol defn, the symbol average, a vector data structure containing the symbol numbers, and another list that comprises the function’s body. Evaluating that list data structure is what defines the function.



[6] Clojure is by no means the only homoiconic language, nor is homoiconicity a new concept. Other homoiconic languages include all other Lisps, all sorts of machine language (and therefore arguably Assembly language as well), Postscript, XSLT and XQuery, Prolog, R, Factor, Io, and more.

[7] The natural language parse tree was mostly lifted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parse_tree.

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