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Clinical Technologies

Book Description

Modern technological advances in medicine are not restricted to treatments, but rather have revolutionized the entire application of healthcare from finding a doctor to executing a treatment. Clinical Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications provides an exhaustive chronicling of these changes through the compiled research of hundreds of scholars. This multi-volume book delves into the many applications of information technology ranging from digitizing patient records to high-performance computing, to medical imaging and diagnostic technologies. Technological advancements have begun turning potential breakthroughs into established applications across the field of healthcare, as demonstrated by these volumes. The importance of healthcare cannot be overstated, making this work vital to everyone involved in creating the future of medicine.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 101: The Implementation of Innovative Technologies in Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COST-EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPLEMENTATION
      3. LONG RUN EFFICIENCY AND SHORT RUN LOSSES
      4. THE ECONOMICS BEHIND SHORT AND LONG RUN EFFICIENCY
      5. THE PREVALENCE OF DISECONOMIES OF SCALE IN DUTCH HOSPITALS
      6. SOLUTIONS FOR REDUCING SHORT RUN DISECONOMIES: CHOOSING THE RIGHT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS AND DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 102: Risks and Benefits of Technology in Health Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS
      3. ONLINE MEDICAL INFORMATION
      4. TECHNOLOGY AND RELATIONSHIPS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. References
    3. Chapter 103: The Effectiveness of Health Informatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. CLINICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (CDSS) IN THE 21 CENTURY: THE IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE QUALITY, COSTS, AND OUTCOMES
      5. PUTTING HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (HIT) TO USE
      6. METHODS OF ASSESSING COST-EFFECTIVENESS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 104: Personal Health Information in the Age of Ubiquitous Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE HISTORY OF UHI: HOW DID WE GET HERE?
      5. BENEFITS AND RISKS: WHERE ARE WE NOW?
      6. RISKS OF UBIQUITOUS HEALTH INFORMATION
      7. OPPORTUNITIES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. Chapter 105: E-Health as the Realm of Healthcare Quality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE QUALITY PERSPECTIVE OF E-HEALTH
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. Chapter 106: The use of Personal Digital Assistants in Nursing Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 107: Reforming Nursing with Information Systems and Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DESCRIBING NURSING REFORM USING AN STS FRAMEWORK
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 108: Quality Issues in Personalized E-Health, Mobile Health and E-Health Grids
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PERSONALIZED e-HEALTH
      5. GRID COMPUTING
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 109: Adoption of Electronic Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AREAS OF INVESTIGATION
      4. RESEARCH METHOD
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 110: Technology Enabled Knowledge Translation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION: INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT IN HEALTH
      4. TECHNOLOGY ENABLED KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION
      5. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN TEKT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. Chapter 111: The Computer-Assisted Patient Consultation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE COMPUTER ENABLED (OR DISABLED) CONSULTATION: AN IN-DEPTH LOOK
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 112: Quality and Reliability Aspects in Evidence Based E-Medicine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CUSTOMER
      5. COSTS
      6. QUALITY
      7. EVIDENCE
      8. EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 113: E-Medical Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB-SITE DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE
      4. WHAT IS WEB 2.0 AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
      5. INFORMATION PHILANTHROPY
      6. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
      7. WEB-BASED MEDICAL SIMULATION SYSTEMS
      8. PEER-REVIEW OF ONLINE EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS
      9. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 114: Nursing Home
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PART I: NURSING HOMES IN THE UNITED STATES
      4. PART II: E-HEALTH AND NURSING HOMES
      5. PART III: REPORT ON THOMASVILLE NURSING HOME VISITING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 201: Improving Clinical Practice through Mobile Medical Informatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOBILITY IN HEALTHCARE
      5. IMPROVING CLINICAL PRACTICE THROUGH MOBILE MEDICAL INFORMATICS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 202: A Web-Enabled, Mobile Intelligent Information Technology Architecture for On-Demand and Mass Customized Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ON-DEMAND AND MASS CUSTOMIZATION BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
      4. ON-DEMAND AND MASS CUSTOMIZATION IT INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. OVERVIEW OF THE MODEL
      6. AGENT SERVICE ARCHITECTURE FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION
      7. CASE STUDIES
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 203: A Framework for Information Processing in the Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 204: Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmias
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. REVIEW OF THE PROPOSED METHODS
      4. PROPOSED APPROACHES FOR COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 205: Computer Aided Risk Estimation of Breast Cancer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEM AND PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
      4. INTERFACE
      5. HARDWARE
      6. EVALUATION
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 206: Automatic Analysis of Microscopic Images in Hematological Cytology Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLOOD SMEARS
      4. IMAGE DIGITIZATION
      5. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
      6. OBJECT SEGMENTATION
      7. SPLITTING OF CLUMPED CELLS
      8. FEATURE EXTRACTION AND SELECTION
      9. FEATURE SELECTION
      10. SINGLE CELL CLASSIFICATION
      11. CASE OF APPLICATION
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTE
    7. Chapter 207: Computational Methods in Biomedical Imaging
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. key TERMS and Definitions
    8. Chapter 208: Visual Medical Information Analysis
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VISUAL MEDICAL INFORMATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 209: Angiographic Images Segmentation Techniques
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODEL-BASED TECHNIQUES
      4. ARTERIAL TRACKING
      5. TECHNIQUES BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 210: Segmentation Methods in Ultrasound Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ULTRASOUND IMAGE SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 211: Exploring Type-and-Identity-Based Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme to Securely Manage Personal Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      4. WEB-BASED PHRs
      5. THE CONCEPT OF TYPE-AND-IDENTITY-BASED PROXY RE-ENCRYPTION
      6. RELATED WORK ON PROXY RE-ENCRYPTION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 212: Integration of Clinical and Genomic Data for Decision Support in Cancer
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT USING CLINICOGENOMIC PROFILES
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 213: Module Finding Approaches for Protein Interaction Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
      4. MODULE DISCOVERY ON THE BASIS OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY ALONE
      5. MODULE DISCOVERY ON THE BASIS OF TOPOLOGY AND EXPRESSION
      6. EVALUATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MODULES DISCOVERED
      7. LIMITATIONS, EXTENSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 214: Networks of Action for Anti Retroviral Treatment Information Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ESTABLISHING NETWORKS OF ACTION
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 215: Socio-Technical Structures, 4Ps and Hodges' Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE
      4. PRACTICE
      5. PROCESS
      6. POLICY
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. Socio-Technical Websites
      10. ENDNOTES
    16. Chapter 216: Techniques for Decomposition of EMG Signals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DECOMPOSITION OF EMG
      4. SEGMENTATION
      5. CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES
      6. DECOMPOSITION OF SUPERIMPOSED WAVEFORMS
      7. PERFORMANCE COMPARISION AND DISCUSSIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    17. Chapter 217: Prototype Based Classification in Bioinformatics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PROTOTYPE BASED ANALYSIS IN CLINICAL PROTEOMICS
      4. BIOINFORMATIC METHODS
      5. WAVELET TRANSFORMATION IN MASS SPECTROMETRY
      6. PROTOTYPE CLASSIFIERS
      7. ANALYSIS OF PROTEOMIC DATA
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. key TERMS and Definitions
    18. Chapter 218: An Integrated System for E-Medicine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR E-MEDICINE
      5. OUR MEDICAL EXPERT SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    19. Chapter 219: The Integration of Systems Dynamics and Balanced Scorecards in Strategic Healthcare Policy Simulation Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODS AND METHODOLOGY
      4. MODEL EVALUATION AND VALIDATION
      5. BALANCED SCORECARD APPLICATION
      6. HOSPITAL POLICY ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING
      7. POLICY EXPERIMENTS
      8. OUTSOURCING POLICY
      9. CLINICAL PATHWAYS POLICY
      10. SCENARIO ANALYSIS
      11. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTE
    20. Chapter 220: Use of Clinical Simulations to Evaluate the Impact of Health Information Systems and Ubiquitous Computing Devices Upon Health Professional Work
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR APPLYING CLINICAL SIMULATIONS TO THE EVALUATON OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
      4. THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE-SOCIO-TECHNICAL FIT, HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
      5. CLINICAL SIMULATIONS: A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES UPON HEALTH PROFESSIONAL WORK
      6. APPLICATION OF CLINICAL SIMULATIONS TO THE EVALUATION OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 221: Using New Model-Based Techniques for the User Interface Design of Medical Devices and Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A NEW MODEL-BASED USABILITY ASSESSMENT TOOL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. References
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. Key Terms and Definitions
    22. Chapter 222: The European Perspective of E-Health and a Framework for its Economic Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY IN E-HEALTH
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. References
    23. Chapter 223: A Biomimetic Adaptive Algorithm and Micropower Circuit Architecture for Implantable Neural Decoders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS OF DESIGNING AND TESTING A MICROPOWER NEURAL DECODING SYSTEM
      4. EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE NEURAL DECODING SYSTEM
      5. EVALUATING DESIGN TRADEOFFS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN IMPLANTABLE NEURAL DECODER
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    24. Chapter 224: Automatic Alignment of Medical Terminologies with General Dictionaries for an Efficient Information Retrieval
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED RESEARCH WORK
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      5. OUR CORPORA AND THE LINGUISTIC PROCESSING
      6. MACHINE-LEARNING TECHNIQUES ADAPTED TO TEXT MINING
      7. THE PROPOSED ALIGNMENT MODELS
      8. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    25. Chapter 225: Designing a Visual Language for Interaction Representation Based on Aspects of Human Movement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM DEFINITION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGNING VISUAL LANGUAGES BASED ON HUMAN MOVEMENT
      5. DESIGNING VISUAL LANGUAGE BASED ON HUMAN MOVEMENT
      6. THE “CONTRACTION AND EXTENSION” ELASTICITY
      7. THE “RISING AND SINKING” ELASTICITY
      8. VISUAL PRIMITIVES AND EXPRESSIONS OF THE LANGUAGE
      9. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN SUPPORTING VISUAL REASONING
      10. APPLICATION OF THE VISUAL LANGUAGE TO PATIENT-PRACTITIONER INTERACTIONS IN HEALTHCARE
      11. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 301: Avatars and Diagnosis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGNING MEDICAL EDUCATION IN VIRTUAL SPACE
      5. ESSAY: ON AVATARS AND DIAGNOSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. NOTE
      8. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 302: Agile Patient Care with Distributed M-Health Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. M-HEALTH RESEARCH OVERVIEW IN EUROPE
      4. M-HEALTH CHALLENGES, BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS
      5. AN M-HEALTH SYSTEM FOR REMOTE PATIENT CARE
      6. IMPLEMENTATION AND INTEGRATION
      7. AGILE NURSING ROUNDS WITH GEMA
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 303: Affect-Sensitive Virtual Standardized Patient Interface System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL STANDARDIZED PATIENT
      4. VIRTUAL STANDARDIZED PATIENTS FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 304: Telemedicine and Biotelemetry for E-Health Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TELEMEDICINE TECHNOLOGIES
      4. TELEMEDICINE INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. APPLICATIONS OF TELEMEDICINE
      6. THE COMPONENTS OF A BIOTELEMETRY SYSTEM
      7. TYPES OF TELEMETRY
      8. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTELEMETRY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 305: Tele-Audiology in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 306: SIe-Health, e-Health Information System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGIES, INFORMATION SOURCES AND STANDARDS USED
      4. E-HEALTH SYSTEMS
      5. RELATED WORKS
      6. SIE-HEALTH ARCHITECTURE
      7. SIE-HEALTH SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. Chapter 307: Sensing of Vital Signs and Transmission Using Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
      4. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR AN M-HEALTH SERVICE
      5. TELEMEDICINE AND MOBILE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM AND TECHNOLOGY
      6. MOBILE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM STRUCTURE
      7. MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORK, SERVICES AND WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
      8. DATA SECURITY
      9. MOBILE HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS AND STANDARDS
      10. GENERAL DISCUSSION, IMPLICATION AND CONCLUSION
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH ON AN M-HEALTH SYSTEM
      12. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 308: Neural Networks in Medicine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 309: Image Registration for Biomedical Information Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF REGISTRATION
      4. BIOMEDICAL IMAGE REGISTRATION METHODOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES
      5. APPLICATIONS OF BIOMEDICAL IMAGE REGISTRATION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 310: Cognition meets Assistive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COGNITIVE MODELS FOR EMOTIONAL PROCESSING
      5. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND HUMAN COGNITION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. Chapter 311: Wearable Kinesthetic System for Joint Knee Flexion-Extension Monitoring in Gait Analysis
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      4. EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
      5. DATA ANALYSIS
      6. RESULTS
      7. TEST EVALUATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 312: Wearable Systems for Monitoring Mobility Related Activities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AVAILABLE WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR MONITORING HUMAN MOVEMENTS
      4. EMERGING HEALTHCARE SERVICES BASED ON MOBILITY MONITORING
      5. THE USER PERSPECTIVE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 313: RFID in Hospitals and Factors Restricting Adoption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RFID AND HOSPITAL IS
      4. INTERVIEWS AND FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 314: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STIMULATION PARAMETERS
      4. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF TMS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 315: Modeling of Porphyrin Metabolism with PyBioS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODELING OF PORPHYRIN METABOLISM
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 316: AI Methods for Analyzing Microarray Data
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MINING MICROARRAY DATA: CURRENT TECHNIQUES, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR AI
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 317: 3D and 4D Medical Image Registration Combined with Image Segmentation and Visualization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE TRENDS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 318: Time-Sequencing and Force-Mapping with Integrated Electromyography to Measure Occlusal Parameters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVOLUTION OF TIME SEQUENCING AND RELATIVE OCCLUSAL FORCE-MAPPING BY COMPUTERIZED TECHNOLOGY
      4. T-SCAN III SENSOR DESIGN
      5. SENSOR RECORDING DYNAMICS
      6. RELATIVE FORCE MEASUREMENT VS. ABSOLUTE FORCE MEASURED IN ENGINEERING UNITS
      7. RECORDED T-ScAN III MOVIE ANALYSES
      8. OCCLUSAL PARAMETER TIME CALCULATION USING THE FORCE VS. TIME GRAPH
      9. 4-QUADRANT FORCE VS. TIME GRAPH
      10. FORCE-MAPPING SOFTWARE FEATURES
      11. 3-DIMENSIONAL SIMULTANEOUS TIME-SEQUENCING AND FORCE-MAPPING
      12. INTEGRATED ELECTROMYOGRAPHY SYNCHRONIZED WITH COMPUTERIZED OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS
      13. BioPAK ELECTROMYOGRAPHY SYSTEM
      14. SYSTEM INTEGRATION DYNAMICS
      15. EXAMPLE OF CLINICAL OCCLUSAL PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION
      16. CHAPTER SUMMARY
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      19. ENDNOTE
    19. Chapter 319: Ultrasound Guided Noninvasive Measurement of Central Venous Pressure
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A NOVEL NONINVASIVE APPROACH
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 320: Software Support for Advanced Cephalometric Analysis in Orthodontics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS
      4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
      5. VOLUME RENDERING
      6. THE VIEWBOX SOFTWARE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 321: Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynaecological Cancer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 322: Myoelectric Control of Prosthetic Devices for Rehabilitation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. FUTURE TREND
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 323: Med-on-@ix
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUSES OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. Additional Reading
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    24. Chapter 324: DISMON
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. ARCHITECTURE AND INTERNALS
      5. USE CASE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    25. Chapter 325: Current Molecular Technologies for Assessing the Amount of Microbial Pathogens in Oral Plaque Biofilms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GENERAL CONCEPT OF RTQ-PCR
      4. PERFORMING RTQ-PCR
      5. DETAILED PROTOCOL
      6. RESULTS
      7. FINAL REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    26. Chapter 326: Artificial Tactile Sensing and Robotic Surgery Using Higher Order Neural Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE TACTILE TUMOR DETECTOR (TTD)
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Applications
    1. Chapter 401: Speech-Based Clinical Diagnostic Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. QUALITY SPEECH QUANTIFICATION
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. Key TERMS and Definitions
    2. Chapter 402: The Use of Artificial Intelligence Systems for Support of Medical Decision-Making
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CT SCAN DATA AND SOM BASED TEXT MINING
      5. METHODOLOGY: CLUSTER EXPLORATION, MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING
      6. RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 403: Persistent Clinical Encounters in User Driven E-Health Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSISTENT CLINICAL ENCOUNTERS AND CONTINUITY OF CARE
      4. SHARING AND COMMUNICATING VALUABLE INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA
      5. CREATING PERSISTENT CLINICAL ENCOUNTERS THROUGH USER DRIVEN E- HEALTH CARE TO ANSWER MULTIDIMENSIONAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN INDIVIDUAL PATIENTS
      6. CREATING PERSISTENT CLINICAL ENCOUNTERS THROUGH USER DRIVEN HEALTH CARE PROJECTS
      7. ANSWERING MULTIDIMENSIONAL INFORMATIONAL NEEDS (AMIN)
      8. CAREGIVER NEEDS
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 404: Remote Patient Monitoring in Residential Care Homes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-VITAL CASE STUDY
      5. BROADBAND AND RPM
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 405: Telemedicine Consultations in Daily Clinical Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYSTEMS OF TELECONSULTATION
      4. ORGANISATION OF TELECONSULTATION
      5. EFFICIENCY OF TELECONSULTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 406: The Use and Evaluation of IT in Chronic Disease Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHRONIC DISEASE MANGEMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      4. OVERVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES
      5. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES USED IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTE
    7. Chapter 407: Safe Implementation of Research into Healthcare Practice through a Care Process Pathways Based Adaptation of Electronic Patient Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 408: Towards Computer Supported Clinical Activity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EMPIRICAL STUDIES
      5. THE EHR-OBSERVATORY: SIX YEARS OF MONITORING THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS OF EHRS IN DENMARK
      6. A USABILITY STUDY OF A CPOE MODULE
      7. USERS’ REACTIONS TO THE COMMON CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN MODEL FOR DANISH EHRS (GEPJ)
      8. HUMAN CLINICAL REASONING: USING KNOWLEDGE IN AN INCONGRUENT CONTEXT
      9. REPRESENTING OBJECTS OF INTEREST (OOI) IN THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
      10. TOWARDS A NEEDED CONCEPTUAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      11. WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF HEALTHCARE ACTIVITY?
      12. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
      13. REPRESENTING THE OBJECT OF INTEREST (OOI)
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 409: Nursing Documentation in a Mature EHR System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 410: Applying Social Network Analysis in a Healthcare Setting
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SNA USE IN HEALTHCARE
      4. CASE STUDY: SNA AT A MEDICAL CENTER
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 411: The Graphic Display of Labour Events
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEARCH STRATEGY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF STUDIES
      4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
      5. BENEFITS OF THE PARTOGRAPH
      6. COMPONENTS OF MODERN PARTOGRAPH
      7. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE PARTOGRAPH
      8. CHALLENGES IN UNIVERSAL IMPLEMENTATION OF PARTOGRAPH
      9. THE FUTURE PARTOGRAPH
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 412: The MOBEL Project
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MOBEL PROJECT
      4. STUDY A: UNDERSTANDING CLINICAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION PRACTICES IN MOBILE WORK: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH
      5. STUDY B: REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING FOR MOBILE HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      6. STUDY C: USER INVOLVEMENT WITH ROLE PLAY AND LOW-FIDELITY PROTOTYPING
      7. STUDY D: CONDUCTING LABORATORY-BASED USABILITY EVALUATIONS OF MOBILE ICT IN SIMULATED CLINICAL ENVIRONMENTS
      8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 413: Processing and Communication Techniques for Applications in Parkinson Disease Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARKINSON’S DISEASE: TREATMENT AND SURGICAL PROCEDURE
      4. DIGITAL PROCESSING OF MER SIGNALS FOR BRAIN ZONE RECOGNITION
      5. MEDICAL TELECONSULTATION SYSTEM
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 414: Informatics Applications in Neonatology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLINICAL CARE
      4. CLINICAL NEONATAL DATABASES
      5. INFORMATICS TO SUPPORT RESEARCH IN NEONATOLOGY
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 415: Digital Pathology and Virtual Microscopy Integration in E-Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS DIGITAL PATHOLOGY?
      3. DIGITAL ORDERS AND REPORTS IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
      4. DIGITAL IMAGING IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
      5. INTEGRATING DIGITAL PATHOLOGY TO THE HEALTHCARE ENTERPRISE
      6. ORGANIZATION IN DIGITAL PATHOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    16. Chapter 416: Clinical Decision Support System to Prevent Toxicity in Patients Treated With Digoxin
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEURAL NETWORKS OVERVIEW IN HEALTH SCIENCES
      4. MULTIVARIATE PREDICTION MODEL OF DIGITALIS TOXICITY
      5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MULTIVARIATE MODELS DEVELOPED TO PREDICT DIGITALIS TOXICITY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 417: An Advanced Concept of Altered Auditory Feedback as a Prosthesis-Therapy for Stuttering Founded on a Non-Speech Etiologic Paradigm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATION OF A NON-SPEECH ETIOLOGY
      4. ALTERED AUDITORY FEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY UNDER A NON-SPEECH PARADIGM
      5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTE
    18. Chapter 418: Reporting Clinical Gait Analysis Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. REDUCTION OF GRAPHS AND SIMPLIFIED DISPLAY
      6. CLINICALLY RELEVANT DATA FROM GAIT ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    19. Chapter 419: Variational Approach Based Image Pre-Processing Techniques for Virtual Colonoscopy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND
      4. VARATIONAL METHOD BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION
      5. COLON ISOSURFACE GENERATION & VARATIONAL SKELEON EXTRACTION
      6. VALIDATION, RESULT AND DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    20. Chapter 420: Verification of Uncurated Protein Annotations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GENE ONTOLOGY (GO)
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    21. Chapter 421: Relationship Between Shrinkage and Stress
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS SHRINKAGE STRESS?
      3. SHRINKAGE STRESS MODEL: CORRELATION WITH SHRINKAGE
      4. SHRINKAGE STRESS MODEL: C-FACTOR
      5. SHRINKAGE STRESS MODEL: RESTORATION SIZE
      6. SHRINKAGE VALUE
      7. SHRINKAGE STRESS MODEL: EFFECTIVE SHRINKAGE
      8. AFTER THE SHRINKAGE: RELAXATION
      9. THE ROLE OF SHRINKAGE EXPERIMENTS
      10. HOW CAN POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE BE MODELED?
      11. SUMMARY: THE ROLE OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN SHRINKAGE RESEARCH
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 422: Predicting Ambulance Diverson
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      7. REFERENCES
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 501: Demystifying E-Health Human Resources
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE E-HEALTH HUMAN RESOURCES CHALLENGE
      4. THE NATURE OF E-HEALTH PROFESSIONALS: THEIR COMPETENCIES, THEIR ROLES, AND THEIR WORK
      5. THE PRODUCTION OF E-HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
      6. DEFINING AND EXECUTING A HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY FOR E-HEALTH: A SURVEY OF E-HEALTH HR STRATEGIES
      7. AUSTRALIA
      8. NORTH AMERICA: CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES
      9. A STRATEGY FOR E-HEALTH HUMAN RESOURCES
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTE
    2. Chapter 502: Multi-Agent Systems in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEDSTAFF: AN EXAMPLE OF THE USE OF MULTI-AGENT SIMULATION IN DECISION MAKING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. MULTI-AGENT SIMULATION INITIALIZATION AND RUN
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 503: Primary Care through a Public-Private Partnership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PRIMARY CARE THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
      5. INNOVATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HMRI
      6. THE ORGANIZATION
      7. MONITORING AND EVALUATION
      8. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 504: Strategic Fit in the Healthcare IDS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF IDS STRATEGIC FIT VALUE
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 505: Regional and Community Health Information Exchange in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE
      5. AN EXAMPLE HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE SET UP AND ARCHITECTURE
      6. UTAH HEALTH INFORMATION NETWORK
      7. INDIANA HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEYTERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 506: Regional Patient Safety Initiatives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PATIENT SAFETY
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. Chapter 507: Use of Handheld Computers in Nursing Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PDAS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
      4. PDAS IN NURSING EDUCATION
      5. ADVANTAGES OF PDAS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 508: Women's Health Informatics in the Primary Care Setting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE GENERALIST
      3. ORGANISING CLINICAL INFORMATION ON COMPUTER
      4. MOVING TO ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      5. HEALTH INFORMATICS IN ACTION
      6. CAN COMPUTERS ENHANCE THE CONSULTATION?
      7. CAN COMPUTERS HELP CLINICIANS PERFORM BETTER?
      8. A NATIONAL ELECTRONIC PATIENT RECORD SYSTEM
      9. ELECTRONIC PATIENT SERVICES
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 509: Assistive Technology for Individuals with Disabilities
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN THE INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 510: Ageing, Chronic Disease, Technology, and Smart Homes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE
      4. HEALTHCARE TECHNOLOGY
      5. AGEING
      6. CHRONIC ILLNESS AND DISABILITY
      7. COORDINATED CARE AND SELF-MANAGEMENT
      8. GUIDED SELF-CARE
      9. ROBOTS
      10. ADOPTION ISSUES
      11. SMART HOMES
      12. QUEENSLAND SMART HOME INITIATIVE
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 511: Synthetic Speech Perception in Individuals with Intellectual and Communicative Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES
      4. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY INDIVIDUALS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
      7. EFFECTS OF SPEECH OUTPUT ON ACQUISTION OF GRAPHIC SYMBOLS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 512: Telepractice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TELEPRACTICE CARE MODEL
      4. PUBLIC EDUCATION VIA THE INTERNET
      5. INCREASING ACCESS TO HEALTH INFORMATION THROUGH TELEPRACTICE
      6. DEVELOPING A TELEPRACTICE INTERVENTION PROGRAM
      7. PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR TELEPRACTICE HEALTHCARE
      8. LIABILITY ISSUES IN THE USE OF TELEPRACTICE TECHNOLOGY
      9. APPLICATIONS FOR TELEPRACTICE MODELS IN RURAL EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      10. CONCLUDING COMMENTS AND LESSONS LEARNED
      11. Acknowledgment
      12. References
    13. Chapter 513: The Electronic Health Record to Support Women's Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORY
      4. WHAT IS AN EHR?
      5. REQUIREMENTS
      6. EXAMPLES IN WOMEN’S HEALTH
      7. ISSUES
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    14. Chapter 514: Managing Paramedic Knowledge for Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEARNING, SKILL, AND KNOWLEDGE RETENTION
      4. COMPETENCE
      5. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. TOWARD A CARDIAC CARE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (KMS) FOR PARAMEDICS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 601: Operationalizing the Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE PROMISE AND CHALLENGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTHCARE
      3. MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND HIT: DEFINITIONS, MODELS, AND RELATIONSHIPS
      4. CLINICAL INFORMATICS AND MEDICAL INFORMATICS: A BRIEF WORD
      5. CASE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL INFORMATICS AND HIT
      6. RECOMMENDATION: OPERATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL INFORMATICS
      7. A BRIEF WORD ABOUT CLINICAL AND INTERVENTIONAL INFORMATICS
      8. SUMMARY
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. Additional Reading
    2. Chapter 602: Current Challenges in Empowering Clinicians to Utilise Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPERATIONAL INFORMATICS
      4. CURRENT CHALLENGES AND THEIR RESOLUTION
      5. EMERGING EMPOWERING TECHNOLOGIES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 603: Challenges and Solutions in the Delivery of Clinical Cybersupervision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 604: Technology in the Supervision of Mental Health Professionals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS
      4. DEFINING CLINICAL SUPERVISION
      5. OVERVIEW OF ISSUES IN TECHNOLOGY & SUPERVISION
      6. ELECTRONIC TEXT COMMUNICATION & SUPERVISION
      7. WEB-BASED GROUPS
      8. VIDEO RECORDING & VIDEO CONFERENCING
      9. COMPUTER-MEDIATED VIRTUAL REALITY
      10. COMPUTER/WEB-BASED TRAINING
      11. BENEFITS AND RATIONALES FOR TECHNOLOGY-BASED CLINICAL SUPERVISION
      12. LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONCERNS
      13. EPISTEMOLOGIES IN CLINICAL SUPERVISION
      14. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN CLINICAL SUPERVISION
      15. CONCLUSION & FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      16. REFERENCES
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 605: Optimization of Medical Supervision, Management, and Reimbursement of Contemporary Homecare
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MEDICAL SUPERVISION, MANAGEMENT, AND REIMBURSEMENT OF CONTEMPORARY HOME CARE
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 606: Systems Engineering and Health Informatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT
      4. CONTENT
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. References
    7. Chapter 607: Critical Factors for the Creation of Learning Healthcare Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
      4. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING VERSUS A LEARNING ORGANIZATION
      6. KEY BENEFITS OF LEARNING
      7. TYPES OF LEARNING
      8. ADAPTIVE LEARNING AND GENERATIVE LEARNING
      9. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM) FOR LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
      10. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
      11. KNOWLEDGE
      12. KNOWLEDGE CREATION
      13. CREATING LEARNING HEALTHCARE ORGANIZATIONS
      14. DISCUSSION
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 608: Supporting Knowledge-Based Decision Making in the Medical Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLARE: A SKETCH
      4. CASE STUDY
      5. THE WHAT-IF FACILITY
      6. THE DECISION THEORY FACILITY
      7. RELATED WORKS
      8. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 609: Simulation Modeling as a Decision-Making Aid in Economic Evaluation for Randomized Clinical Trials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: CHALLENGES IN MODELING HEALTHCARE DECISION MAKING
      3. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIALS (RCT) AND MODELING
      4. SIMULATION MODELING IN RCTS
      5. THE RCT CASE STUDY
      6. THE MODELING PROCESS
      7. RESULTS ARISING FROM THE MODEL
      8. CONCLUSION: LESSONS OF TRANSFERABLE VALUE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    10. Chapter 610: How Can Human Technology Improve the Scheduling of Unplanned Surgical Cases?
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 611: TACMIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TACMIS
      4. ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES: THE TAP-TAS CORE CONCEPT AND OTHER SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES
      5. THE BROAD CANVAS OF HEALTH INFORMATICS ISSUES: INTEGRATION AS THE KEY TO INCLUSION AND EMPOWERMENT
      6. FOCUS ON STROKE DISABILITY AN ANALYSIS OF PATIENT JOURNEYS AND THE PATHWAYS OF CARE
      7. CONCLUSION: CONTRIBUTIONS TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN
      8. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 612: A Distributed Approach of a Clinical Decision Support System Based on Cooperation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
      4. COOPERATIVE CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
      5. SCENARIOS
      6. EXPERIMENTATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 613: Applying Personal Health Informatics to Create Effective Patient-Centered E-Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARADIGMS OF E-HEALTH
      4. E-COMMERCE PARADIGM
      5. PERSONAL HEALTH RECORD PARADIGM
      6. CONSUMER HEALTH INFORMATICS PARADIGM
      7. PERSONAL HEALTH INFORMATICS
      8. WEB E-SERVICE INFRASTRUCTURE
      9. USER-CENTERED DEVELOPMENT
      10. PERSONAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT
      11. HEALTH INFORMATICS DOMAIN
      12. SUGGESTED MODES OF TRAINING ORGANIZATION
      13. THE NEED FOR PATIENT-CENTERED E-HEALTH
      14. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING PATIENT-CENTERED E-HEALTH
      15. PERSONAL HEALTH INFORMATICS AND PATIENT-CENTERED E-HEALTH
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 614: Diagnostic Cost Reduction Using Artificial NeuralNetworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY: AN ANN MODEL FOR DIAGNOSING PE
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 701: eHealth and Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EHEALTH IN EUROPE: GENERAL OVERVIEW
      4. EHEALTH IN EUROPE: A GROWING COMMITMENT TO DEPLOYMENT
      5. ETHICS
      6. EHEALTH AND ETHICS
      7. TEACHING ETHICS TO ICT PROFESSIONALS
      8. ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES
      9. RAISING ETHICS AWARENESS IN OTHER AREAS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 702: Standards and Guidelines Development in the American Telemedicine Association
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CORE STANDARDS
      5. THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 703: The Regulation of Genetic Testing and the Protection of Genetic and Medical Information in Singapore
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE BACKGROUND
      3. THE BAC REPORTS
      4. THE GENETIC TESTING REPORT AND THE PERSONAL INFORMATION REPORT
      5. GENETIC EXCEPTIONALISM AND LIFE INSURANCE
      6. PROPORTIONALITY
      7. GENETIC TESTING PROCEDURES
      8. THE SINGAPORE REGULATORY LANDSCAPE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 704: A Bio-Psycho-Social Review of Usability Methods and their Applications in Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMECHANICAL MODELS OF INTERACTION
      4. INDIVIDUALLY FOCUSED COGNITIVE MODELS
      5. SOCIALLY AWARE HCI MODELS
      6. DISCUSSION: INTEGRATING HCI THEORIES IN HEALTH INFORMATICS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    5. Chapter 705: The Gap between What is Knowable and What We Do in Clinical Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. REFLECTIONS ON THE STUDY DESIGN
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 706: Trust and Clinical Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NATURE OF TRUST
      4. THE NEW ZEALAND HEALTH SECTOR
      5. CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
      6. THE CASE STUDY
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 707: Data Security in Electronic Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 708: Legal Issues in Health Information and Electronic Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD INITIATIVES
      4. PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY, CONSENT, AND SECURITY
      5. LEGAL PROTECTIONS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION
      6. REGULATING COLLECTION, USE AND DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION IN ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS
      7. LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. Chapter 709: Integrating Telehealth into the Organization's Work System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORIZING STRATEGY
      4. UNDERSTANDING TELEHEALTH SYSTEMS
      5. TELEHEALTH SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT: RELATED CONCERNS
      6. MODEL DEVELOPMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 710: Social Cognitive Ontology and User Driven Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE DIFFERENT ‘NATURES’ OF HEALTHCARE
      4. THE CLINICAL ENCOUNTER AS A SHARED LEARNING EXPERIENCE
      5. IMPLEMENTING USER DRIVEN HEALTHCARE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 711: A Treatise on Rural Public Health Nursing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A TREATISE ON RURAL PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING INFORMATICS
      3. RURAL PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING
      4. HEALTHCARE DELIVERY PATTERNS
      5. EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
      6. IMPACT ON RURAL PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING
      7. PERSONAL HEALTH RECORDS
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 801: New Technologies in Hospital Information Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. HARDWARE TECHNOLOGIES
      3. BENEFITS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. URL REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 802: IT-Based Virtual Medical Centres and Structures
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IT-BASED VIRTUAL MEDICAL CENTRES AND STRUCTURES
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 803: Emerging Technologies for Aging in Place
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 804: The Development and Implementation of Patient Safety Information System (PSIS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PATIENT SAFETY REPORTING SYSTEM
      4. PAST AND PRESENT OF PATIENT SAFETY INFORMATION SYSTEM (PSIS)
      5. FUTURE OF PSIS
      6. PATIENT SAFETY INDICATOR (PSI)
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 805: The Use of Virtual Reality in Clinical Psychology Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND TECHNOLOGY
      4. STUDY 1: ASSESSING PHOBIC AVOIDANCE IN VIRTUAL IMMERSION
      5. STUDY 2: ASSESSING PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN VIRTUAL IMMERSION AS A DIAGNOSTIC INDEX OF SEXUAL ATTRACTION IN PEDOPHILES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 806: Novel Data Interface for Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCT OF A NOVEL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TAILORED TO INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES
      4. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM (DATABASE ARCHITECTURE) AND FRAMEWORK
      5. ADVANTAGES, ALTERNATIVES, AND LIMITATIONS
      6. APPLICATIONS
      7. LESSONS LEARNED
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 807: New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUSION OF ICUS AND ANGIOGRAPHIC DATA
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 808: Pulse!!
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE EVALUATION PROCESS
      5. USER-CENTERED DESIGN AND USABILITY
      6. TESTING THE PLATFORM
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 809: Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GRAPHICAL MODELLING
      4. HAND PIECE NAVIGATION CONTROL
      5. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ACTIVE NAVIGATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 810: Patient Journey Record Systems (PaJR) for Preventing Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSLATING NEEDS, IDEAS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY-BASED SOLUTION
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 811: Picture Archiving and Communication System for Public Healthcare
      1. BACKGROUND
      2. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      3. FUTURE TRENDS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 812: Imaging Advances of the Cardiopulmonary System
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
      4. NUCLEAR MEDICINE
      5. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
      6. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS and Definitions
    13. Chapter 813: The Study of Transesophageal Oxygen Saturation Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPO MONITORING SYSTEM
      4. EXPERIMENT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS