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Clinical Graphs Using SAS

Book Description

SAS users in the Health and Life Sciences industry need to create complex graphs to analyze biostatistics data and clinical data, and they need to submit drugs for approval to the FDA. Graphs used in the HLS industry are complex in nature and require innovative usage of the graphics features. Clinical Graphs Using SAS® provides the knowledge, the code, and real-world examples that enable you to create common clinical graphs using SAS graphics tools, such as the Statistical Graphics procedures and the Graph Template Language. This book describes detailed processes to create many commonly used graphs in the Health and Life Sciences industry. For SAS® 9.3 and SAS® 9.4 it covers many improvements in the graphics features that are supported by the Statistical Graphics procedures and the Graph Template Language, many of which are a direct result of the needs of the Health and Life Sciences community. With the addition of new features in SAS® 9.4, these graphs become positively easy to create. Topics covered include the usage of SGPLOT procedure, the SGPANEL procedure and the Graph Template Language for the creation of graphs like forest plots, swimmer plots, and survival plots.

Table of Contents

  1. About This Book
  2. About The Author
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Preface
  5. Chapter 1: Introduction to ODS Graphics
  6. 1.1  A Brief History of ODS Graphics
  7. 1.2  Automatic Graphs from SAS Analytical Procedures
  8. 1.3  Create Custom Graphs Using the Graph Template Language (GTL)
  9. 1.4  Create Custom Graphs Using the Statistical Graphics (SG) Procedures
  10. 1.5  Create Custom Graphs Using the ODS Graphics Designer Application
  11. 1.6  Data Sets and ODS Styles
  12. 1.7  Color and Grayscale Graphs
  13. 1.8  Summary
  14. Chapter 2: A Brief Overview of the SG Procedures
  15. 2.1  Single-Cell Graph Using the SGPLOT Procedure
  16. 2.2  Multi-Cell Classification Panels Using the SGPANEL Procedure
  17. 2.3  Multi-Cell Comparative Scatter Plots Using the SGCATTER Procedure
  18. 2.4  Automatic Features
  19. 2.5  The SGPLOT Procedure
    1. 2.5.1  Required Roles
    2. 2.5.2  Optional Data Roles
    3. 2.5.3  Plot Options
  20. 2.6  Plot Layering
  21. 2.7  SGPANEL Procedure
    1. 2.7.1  Layout PANEL
    2. 2.7.2  Layout LATTICE
    3. 2.7.3  Layout COLUMNLATTICE
    4. 2.7.4  Layout ROWLATTICE
  22. 2.8  Combining Statements
  23. 2.9  Annotation
  24. 2.10  Styles and Their Usage
  25. 2.11  Summary
  26. Chapter 3: Clinical Graphs Using the SAS 9.3 SGPLOT Procedure
  27. 3.1  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline
    1. 3.1.1  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline with Outer Risk Table
    2. 3.1.2  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline with Inner Risk Table
    3. 3.1.3  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline in Grayscale
  28. 3.2  Mean Change in QTc by Week and Treatment
    1. 3.2.1  Mean Change of QTc by Week and Treatment with Outer Table
    2. 3.2.2  Mean Change of QTc by Week and Treatment with Inner Table
    3. 3.2.3  Mean Change in QTc by Visit in Grayscale
  29. 3.3  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment
  30. 3.4  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment
    1. 3.4.1  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment on Discrete Axis
    2. 3.4.2  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment on Linear Axis in Grayscale
  31. 3.5  Survival Plot
    1. 3.5.1  Survival Plot with External "Subjects At-Risk" Table
    2. 3.5.2  Survival Plot with Internal "Subjects At-Risk" Table
    3. 3.5.3  Survival Plot with Internal "Subjects At-Risk" Table in Grayscale
  32. 3.6  Simple Forest Plot
    1. 3.6.1  Simple Forest Plot
    2. 3.6.2  Simple Forest Plot with Study Weights
    3. 3.6.3  Simple Forest Plot with Study Weights in Grayscale
  33. 3.7  Subgrouped Forest Plot
  34. 3.8  Adverse Event Timeline by Severity
  35. 3.9  Change in Tumor Size
  36. 3.10  Injection Site Reaction
  37. 3.11  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment
    1. 3.11.1  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment with Multi-Column Data
    2. 3.11.2  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment Grayscale with Group Data
  38. 3.12  Clark Error Grid
    1. 3.12.1  Clark Error Grid
    2. 3.12.2  Clark Error Grid in Grayscale
  39. 3.13  The Swimmer Plot
    1. 3.13.1  The Swimmer Plot for Tumor Response over Time
    2. 3.13.2  The Swimmer Plot for Tumor Response in Grayscale
  40. 3.14  CDC Chart for Length and Weight Percentiles
  41. 3.15  Summary
  42. Chapter 4: Clinical Graphs Using the SAS 9.4 SGPLOT Procedure
  43. 4.1  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline
    1. 4.1.1  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline
    2. 4.1.2  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline with Inner Risk Table and  Bands
    3. 4.1.3  Box Plot of QTc Change from Baseline in Grayscale
  44. 4.2  Mean Change in QTc by Visit and Treatment
    1. 4.2.1  Mean Change in QTc by Visit and Treatment
    2. 4.2.2  Mean Change in QTc by Visit and Treatment with Inner Table of Subjects
    3. 4.2.3  Mean Change in QTc by Visit and Treatment in Grayscale
  45. 4.3  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment
    1. 4.3.1  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment
    2. 4.3.2  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment in Grayscale
  46. 4.4  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment
    1. 4.4.1  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment on Discrete Axis
    2. 4.4.2  Median of Lipid Profile by Visit and Treatment on Linear Axis in Grayscale
  47. 4.5  Survival Plot
    1. 4.5.1  Survival Plot with External "Subjects At-Risk" Table
    2. 4.5.2  Survival Plot with Internal "Subjects At-Risk" Table
    3. 4.5.3  Survival Plot with Internal "Subjects At-Risk" Table in Grayscale
  48. 4.6  Simple Forest Plot
    1. 4.6.1  Simple Forest Plot
    2. 4.6.2  Simple Forest Plot with Study Weights
    3. 4.6.3  Simple Forest Plot with Study Weights in Grayscale
  49. 4.7  Subgrouped Forest Plot
  50. 4.8  Adverse Event Timeline by Severity
  51. 4.9  Change in Tumor Size
  52. 4.10  Injection Site Reaction
    1. 4.10.1  Injection Site Reaction
    2. 4.10.2  Injection Site Reaction in Grayscale
  53. 4.11  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment
    1. 4.11.1  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment with Multi-Column Data
    2. 4.11.2  Distribution of Maximum LFT by Treatment Grayscale with Group Data
  54. 4.12  Clark Error Grid
    1. 4.12.1  Clark Error Grid
    2. 4.12.2  Clark Error Grid in Grayscale
  55. 4.13  The Swimmer Plot
    1. 4.13.1  The Swimmer Plot for Tumor Response over Time
    2. 4.13.2  The Swimmer Plot for Tumor Response over Time in Grayscale
  56. 4.14  CDC Chart for Length and Weight Percentiles
  57. 4.15  Summary
  58. Chapter 5: Clinical Graphs Using the SGPANEL Procedure
  59. 5.1  Panel of LFT Shifts from Baseline to Maximum by Treatment
    1. 5.1.1  Panel of LFT Shifts with Common Clinical Concern Levels
    2. 5.1.2  Panel of LFT Shifts with Individual Clinical Concern Levels
  60. 5.2  Immunology Profile by Treatment
    1. 5.2.1  Immunology Panel
    2. 5.2.2  Immunology Panel in Grayscale
  61. 5.3  LFT Safety Panel, Baseline vs Study
    1. 5.3.1  LFT Safety Panel, Baseline vs Study
    2. 5.3.2  LFT Safety Panel, Baseline vs Study
  62. 5.4  Lab Test Panel
    1. 5.4.1  Lab Test Panel with Clinical Concern Limits
    2. 5.4.2  Lab Test Panel with Box Plot, Band, and Inset Line Name
  63. 5.5  Lab Test for Patient over Time
    1. 5.5.1  Lab Test Values by Subject over Study Days
    2. 5.5.2  Lab Test Values by Subject with Study Days Band
  64. 5.6  Vital Statistics for Patient over Time
    1. 5.6.1  Vital Statistics for Patient over Time
    2. 5.6.2  Vital Statistics for Patient over Time
  65. 5.7  Eye Irritation over Time by Severity and Treatment
    1. 5.7.1  Eye Irritation over Time by Severity and Treatment
    2. 5.7.2  Vital Statistics for Patient over Time in Grayscale
  66. 5.8  Summary
  67. Chapter 6: A Brief Review of the Graph Template Language
  68. 6.1  Getting Started
  69. 6.2  A Simple GTL Graph
  70. 6.3  GTL Graphs and Terminology
  71. 6.4  GTL Plot Statements
    1. 6.4.1  Basic Plots
    2. 6.4.2  Categorical Plots
    3. 6.4.3  Distribution Plots
    4. 6.4.4  Fit Plots
    5. 6.4.5  Parametric Plots
    6. 6.4.6  3-D Plots
    7. 6.4.7  Other Plots
  72. 6.5  GTL Layout Statements
    1. 6.5.1  The Graph Container
    2. 6.5.2  Single-Cell Layouts
    3. 6.5.3  Multi-cell Ad Hoc Layouts
    4. 6.5.4  Multi-Cell Classification Panels
  73. 6.6  GTL Title, Footnote, and Entry Statements
  74. 6.7  GTL Legend Statements
  75. 6.8  GTL Attribute Maps
  76. 6.9  GTL Dynamic Variables and Macro Variables
  77. 6.10  GTL Expressions and Conditionals
  78. 6.11  GTL Draw Statements
  79. 6.12  GTL Annotate
  80. 6.13  Summary
  81. Chapter 7:  Clinical Graphs Using SAS 9.3 GTL
  82. 7.1  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment
  83. 7.2  Most Frequent On-Therapy Adverse Events Sorted by Relative Risk
  84. 7.3  Treatment Emergent Adverse Events with Largest Risk Difference with NNT
  85. 7.4  Butterfly Plot of Cancer Deaths by Cause and Gender
  86. 7.5  Forest Plot of Impact of Treatment on Mortality by Study
  87. 7.6  Forest Plot of Hazard Ratios by Patient Subgroups
  88. 7.7  Product-Limit Survival Estimates
  89. 7.8  Bivariate Distribution Plot
  90. 7.9  Summary
  91. Chapter 8:  Clinical Graphs Using SAS 9.4 GTL
  92. 8.1  Distribution of ASAT by Time and Treatment
  93. 8.2  Most Frequent On-Therapy Adverse Events Sorted by Relative Risk
  94. 8.3  Treatment Emergent Adverse Events with Largest Risk Difference with NNT
  95. 8.4  Butterfly Plot of Cancer Deaths by Cause and Gender
  96. 8.5  Forest Plot of Impact of Treatment on Mortality by Study
  97. 8.6  Forest Plot of Hazard Ratios by Patient Subgroups
  98. 8.7  Product-Limit Survival Estimates
  99. 8.8  Bivariate Distribution Plot
  100. 8.9  Summary
  101. Index