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Climate Change

Book Description

Climate Change is a collection of a number of papers as well as chapters about the science of the subject. This collection is meant to inflame and excite conversation among engineers and scientists with society at large. It would serve as a catalyst for a three-credit course as a relatively new engineering subject to both engineering and non-engineering university students. As university education develops to better prepare future leaders to appreciate science, technology, engineering and mathematics, engineering courses for a mix of engineering and non-engineering majors, are essential and so is the requirement of worthy textbooks. This monograph intends to be one of the useful tools available for this timely topic. The wide range of topics includes climate change and theories, the second law of thermodynamics, the global greenhouse effect, anthropogenic heat release, evidence around us owing to environmental change, sea level rise, jungles and forests, heat islands, atmospheric carbon dioxide removal via technology, nanotechnology and other innovations in response to climate change, the energy–water–food nexus.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Abstract
  5. Contents
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. 1 Introduction
  10. 2 Climate Change and Theories
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Milankovitch Theory
    3. 2.3 Sunspot Cycle
    4. 2.4 Sea Surface Temperature and Pressure Oscillations in the Pacific Ocean
    5. 2.5 Sea Surface Temperature and Pressure Oscillations in the Atlantic Ocean
    6. 2.6 Discussion and Conclusion
    7. References
  11. 3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Discharge to the Environment by Human Activities
    1. 3.1 Background
    2. 3.2 Discussion and Proof
    3. 3.3 Conclusion
    4. References
  12. 4 Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change
    1. 4.1 Background
    2. 4.2 Understanding Electromagnetic Radiation
    3. 4.3 Planck’s Law and Radiated Energy
    4. 4.4 Greenhouse Effect
    5. 4.5 Characteristics of a Greenhouse Gas
    6. 4.6 Evidence of Global Climate Changes
    7. References
  13. 5 Anthropogenic Heat Release into the Environment
    1. 5.1 Introduction and Statement
    2. 5.2 Hypothesis of Method and the Method
    3. 5.3 Heat Based on World Energy Consumption
    4. 5.4 Heat From Net Electricity Generation
    5. 5.5 Heat From Oil Refineries
    6. 5.6 Heat From Garbage Incineration
    7. 5.7 World Output of Carbon Dioxide
    8. 5.8 Heat From Formation of Sulfur Dioxide From Combustion
    9. 5.9 Heat From Animal Bodies
    10. 5.10 Discussion and Conclusion
    11. 5.11 Nomenclature
    12. References
  14. 6 Climate Change and All Evidences of Global Warming
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Mean Temperature Changes
    3. 6.3 Arctic Ice Caps
    4. 6.4 Wildlife and Extinction
    5. 6.5 Weather Patterns
    6. 6.6 Solutions
    7. References
  15. 7 Mitigation and Adaptation Responses to Sea Level Rise
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Literature About Rising Seas
    3. 7.3 Mitigation Responses
    4. 7.4 Adaptation Responses
    5. 7.5 Discussion and Conclusion
    6. References
  16. 8 Freshwater Discharges into the Oceans
    1. 8.1 Background
    2. 8.2 Lower and Higher Latitudes
    3. 8.3 Groundwater Discharge and Anthropogenic Contributions
    4. References
  17. 9 Wealth of the Oceans
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Current Status
    3. 9.3 Literature Survey
    4. 9.4 Research and Development
    5. 9.5 Discussion and Conclusion
    6. References
  18. 10 Forests and Jungles Brake Climate Change
    1. 10.1 Photosynthesis
    2. 10.2 Costa Rica
    3. 10.3 Nicaragua
    4. 10.4 Haiti
    5. 10.5 The Amazon Jungle
    6. 10.6 Indonesia
    7. 10.7 Discussion and Conclusion
    8. References
  19. 11 Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Removal via Technology
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Carbon Dioxide Removal
    3. 11.3 Biochar
    4. 11.4 Artificial Trees
    5. 11.5 Enhanced Weathering
    6. 11.6 Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage
    7. 11.7 Carbon Dioxide Capture “Trapping” Procedures
    8. 11.8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Procedures
    9. 11.9 Media for Biological Systems
    10. 11.10 Production of Biofuel
    11. 11.11 Discussion and Conclusion
    12. References
  20. 12 Use of Satellite Images for Observational and Quantitative Analysis of Urban Heat Islands Around the World
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Urban Heat Island Effect
    3. 12.3 Landsat
    4. 12.4 Image Selection
    5. 12.5 Thermal Images
    6. 12.6 Quantitative Differentiation
    7. 12.7 Discussion and Conclusion
    8. References
    9. Thermal Images of Cities Analyzed
    10. Urban-Rural Differential Images of Cities Analyzed
  21. 13 Climate Change Aggravates the Energy-Water-Food Nexus
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Energy–Water–Food Nexus
    3. 13.3 The Himalayas
    4. 13.4 The Effect of Climate Change on Glaciers
    5. 13.5 The Effect of Climate Change on the Indus River
    6. 13.6 The Effect of Climate Change on the South Asian Monsoons
    7. 13.7 Recommendations to Enhance Energy, Water, Food Security
    8. 13.8 Discussion and Conclusion
    9. References
  22. 14 Innovations Related to Hydrology in Response to Climate Change—A Review
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Agricultural Demands
    3. 14.3 Solar Drip Irrigation
    4. 14.4 Wastewater Reuse
    5. 14.5 Optimal Resource Management
    6. 14.6 Nanotechnology
    7. 14.7 Conventional Wastewater Treatment
    8. 14.8 Membrane Bioreactors
    9. 14.9 Biofilters
    10. 14.10 Groundwater
    11. 14.11 Comparison of MBRs and AS Plants
    12. 14.12 Discussion and Conclusion
    13. References
  23. 15 ABalanced View
  24. Index
  25. Adpage
  26. Backcover