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Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges

Book Description

There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research” for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services.

  • Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs
  • Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts
  • Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Series Page
  5. Copyright
  6. Contributors
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Introduction into the Scope and Structure of the Book
    1. Chapter 1. Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research
      1. Abstract
      2. 1.1 Why Write This Book?
      3. 1.2 Aims, Scope and Rationale
      4. 1.3 Overview of the Book’s Structure
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
  9. Part II: Interactions Between Trace Gases, Climate Change and Vegetation
    1. Chapter 2. Gaseous Exchange Between Forests and the Atmosphere
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Trace Gas Emissions from the Forest Floor
      4. 2.3 Effects of Forest Fires
      5. 2.4 Ozone Deposition
      6. 2.5 Interactions with Atmospheric Composition and Climate
      7. 2.6 Conclusions and Further Research Directions
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
    2. Chapter 3. Nutrients or Pollutants? Nitrogen Deposition to European Forests
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Effects of Nitrogen Deposition to Forest Ecosystems
      4. 3.3 The Components of Nitrogen Deposition
      5. 3.4 Recent Developments to Assess Effects on Tree Growth
      6. 3.5 Policy Relevance of the Knowledge on Nitrogen Deposition
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    3. Chapter 4. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Impacts on Biosphere–Atmosphere Interactions
      1. 4.1 Generalities on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds
      2. 4.2 BVOC and the Atmosphere: Fluxes and Concentrations (Sinks, Sources)
      3. 4.3 BVOC and Plant Physiology and Ecology: Membrane Protection, Anti-oxidants, Plant Communication
      4. 4.4 BVOC and Climate Change: Warmer = More Fragrant World?
      5. References
    4. Chapter 5. Air Pollution Risks to Northern European Forests in a Changing Climate
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Interactions and Feedbacks
      4. 5.3 Risk of Impacts
      5. 5.4 Discussion and Conclusions
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
  10. Part III: Significance of Biotic Processes in Forest Ecosystem Response
    1. Chapter 6. Ozone Research, Quo Vadis? Lessons from the Free-Air Canopy Fumigation Experiment at Kranzberg Forest
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Ozone as Part of Factorial Complexes
      4. 6.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment as a Starting Point
      5. 6.4 The Ecological Significance of Biotic Factors for Developing New O3 Research
      6. 6.5 Guiding O3 Research into the Future
      7. 6.6 Quo Vadis? Conclusions, Perspectives and Policy Implications
      8. References
    2. Chapter 7. Soil Respiration and Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Response to Climate Change
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 The Instantaneous Temperature Response of Soil Respiration
      4. 7.3 Short-Term Fluctuation of Substrate Supply with Possible Long-Term Effects on Soil Respiration
      5. 7.4 Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency as Affected by Temperature
      6. 7.5 Scientific Conclusions
      7. 7.6 Political Implications
      8. References
    3. Chapter 8. Mycorrhizosphere Complexity
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction: The Role of Mycorrhizae in Ecosystem Functions and Processes
      3. 8.2 Mycorrhizae Under Stress and Disturbance
      4. 8.3 Mycorrhizal Influence on Carbon Stores and Biodiversity: The Facilitation Concept
      5. 8.4 Conclusions and Prospects for Further Research and Monitoring
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
    4. Chapter 9. Tree and Forest Responses to Interacting Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Tropospheric O3: A Synthesis of Experimental Evidence
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Literature Survey Methods
      4. 9.3 Forest Responses to Interacting eCO2 and eO3
      5. 9.4 Summary of Physiology, Biomass Production and SOC Cycling Responses to eCO2 × eO3
      6. 9.5 Moving Forward
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    5. Chapter 10. Belowground Carbon Cycling at Aspen FACE: Dynamic Responses to CO2 and O3 in Developing Forests
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 The Aspen FACE Experiment
      4. 10.3 Conclusions and Implications
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
    6. Chapter 11. Impacts of Atmospheric Change on Tree–Arthropod Interactions
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Tree Growth and Chemistry
      4. 11.3 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Canopy and Soil Arthropods
      5. 11.4 Effects of CO2 and O3 on Arthropod-Mediated Ecosystem Processes
      6. 11.5 Conclusions and Future Directions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
  11. Part IV: Mechanistic and Diagnostic Understanding for Risk Assessment and Up-Scaling
    1. Chapter 12. Flux-Based Ozone Risk Assessment for Adult Beech and Spruce Forests
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 The LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal O3 Flux Approach for Forest Trees
      4. 12.3 The Kranzberg Forest Experiment: A Validation Experiment for the LRTAP Convention’s Stomatal Flux Approach for Forest Trees
      5. 12.4 Conclusions and Perspectives for Future O3 Risk Assessments at Stand Level
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
    2. Chapter 13. Integrative Leaf-Level Phytotoxic Ozone Dose Assessment for Forest Risk Modelling
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Ozone and Carbon Metabolism
      4. 13.3 Oxidative Stress and Carbon Metabolism
      5. 13.4 Identification of the Gaps
      6. 13.5 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    3. Chapter 14. Integrated Studies on Abiotic Stress Defence in Trees: The Case of Ozone
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Ozone Exposure Under Controlled Chamber/Greenhouse Conditions
      4. 14.3 Free-Air Exposure Systems
      5. 14.4 Next-Generation Technologies
      6. 14.5 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    4. Chapter 15. Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Increase Our Understanding About Defence Responses and Genotypic Differences of Northern Deciduous Trees to Elevating Ozone, CO2 and Climate Warming
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Ozone Experiments
      4. 15.3 Interactions of Ozone with CO2 and/or Elevated Temperature
      5. 15.4 Key Findings and Specific Questions Arising from the Ozone Stress Experiments
      6. 15.5 Future Developments and Socio-Economic Aspects
      7. References
  12. Part V: Global Dimension of Air Pollution as Part of Climate Change
    1. Chapter 16. Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in the United States: Current Understanding and Future Scenarios
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Air Pollution, Climate, and Their Interactions: Present Status and Projections for the Future
      4. 16.3 Present Knowledge on Impacts of Air Pollution, CC, Biotic Stressors and Management on Growth and Health of Forests
      5. 16.4 Possible Future Changes in U.S. Forests Caused by Climate Change and Air Pollution
      6. 16.5 Projected Hydrological, Nutritional, and Growth Changes in Mixed Conifer Forests of the SBM (Southern California) Due to CC, N Deposition, and O3
      7. 16.6 Projecting Hydrological, Nutritional and Growth Responses of Forested Watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Reflective of the American Northeast
      8. 16.7 Conclusions
      9. 16.8 Research and Management Needs
      10. Acknowledgements
      11. References
    2. Chapter 17. Effects of Ozone on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Effect of Air Pollution on Forest Ecosystems in East and Southeast Asia
      4. 17.3 Experimental and Process Studies on Effects and Uptake of Ozone
      5. 17.4 Conclusions
      6. Acknowledgement
      7. References
    3. Chapter 18. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Plants: Implications for India
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 India’s Forest Cover and Forest Types
      4. 18.3 Sources of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases in India
      5. 18.4 Air Quality in India
      6. 18.5 Impacts of O3 on Agriculture
      7. 18.6 Future Perspectives on the O3 Problem in India
      8. 18.7 Conclusions
      9. References
    4. Chapter 19. Land Use Change, Air Pollution and Climate Change—Vegetation Response in Latin America
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Latin America and Its Major Biomes
      4. 19.3 Land Use Change, Air Pollutant Emission and Regional Climate Change
      5. 19.4 Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Natural Savanna and Forest Ecosystems
      6. 19.5 Ozone: A Growing Concern
      7. 19.6 Vegetation Responses to Global Change
      8. 19.7 Conclusions and Future Directions
      9. Acknowledgement
      10. References
    5. Chapter 20. Ozone Concentrations and Their Potential Impacts on Vegetation in Southern Africa
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 South African Biomes
      4. 20.3 Air Pollution Sources in Southern Africa
      5. 20.4 Ozone Levels in Southern Africa
      6. 20.5 Previous Studies on Ecosystem Impacts of Ozone
      7. 20.6 Effects of Growing Season on Ozone Uptake
      8. 20.7 Conclusions and Future Directions
      9. Acknowledgements
      10. References
    6. Chapter 21. Wildland Fires: Monitoring, Plume Modelling, Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Wildland Fires: Part of the Ecosystem Lifecycle or a Result of Anthropogenic Stress?
      3. 21.2 Satellite Products Used for Wildland Fires Monitoring
      4. 21.3 Fire Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Air Quality: Modelling Assessments and Available Observations
      5. 21.4 Future Challenges and Major Research Directions
      6. Acknowledgement
      7. References
  13. Part VI: The Potential of “Supersites” for Research on Forest Ecosystems
    1. Chapter 22. Towards Supersites in Forest Ecosystem Monitoring and Research
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Monitoring Sites and Research Networks
      4. 22.3 Harmonisation of Databases and Knowledge About Climate Change and Air Pollution Impact on Forest Ecosystems
      5. 22.4 Knowledge Gaps and New Processes to be Studied
      6. 22.5 Science and Policy Recommendations
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    2. Chapter 23. Key Indicators of Air Pollution and Climate Change Impacts at Forest Supersites
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 General Parameters
      4. 23.3 The Carbon Budget
      5. 23.4 The Nitrogen Budget
      6. 23.5 The Ozone Budget
      7. 23.6 The Water Budget
      8. 23.7 Concluding Remarks
      9. References
      10. Further Reading
  14. Part VII: Knowledge Transfer and Socio-Economic Aspects
    1. Chapter 24. Forest Ecosystem Services Under Climate Change and Air Pollution
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Adopting the Ecosystem Services Concept to Identify and Value Changes in Forests
      4. 24.3 Ecosystem Processes/Functions Under Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Air Pollution—Sustainable Providers of Ecosystem Services
      5. 24.4 Adaptive Governance and Communication to the Public Towards Sustainable Forest—Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration
      6. 24.5 Evaluation of Selected Ecosystem Services on the Basis of Monitored Energy, Water and Material Flows Estimation: Case Study in the Forest–Agricultural Landscape of the Czech Republic
      7. 24.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
    2. Chapter 25. Targeting Sustainable Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services with Special Focus on Carbon Sequestration
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Conceptualising Forest Multi-Functionality
      4. 25.3 Drivers of Forestry Changes
      5. 25.4 Challenges to Sustainability in Provision of Ecosystems Services
      6. 25.5 Stakeholder and Institutional Considerations
      7. 25.6 Valuing Ecosystem Services'
      8. 25.7 Implementing Forest Multi-Functionality
      9. 25.8 Payments for Ecosystem Services
      10. 25.9 Integrating Carbon Sequestration Objectives in multi-functional forestry to Tackle Climate Change
      11. 25.10 Conclusions
      12. Acknowledgement
      13. References
    3. Chapter 26. Global Change and the Role of Forests in Future Land-Use Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 26.1 Introduction
      3. 26.2 Forestry Sector
      4. 26.3 The Agriculture Sector and the Role of Forests in Comprehensive Land-Use Concepts
      5. 26.4 Concluding Remarks
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. References
  15. Part VIII: Synopsis
    1. Chapter 27. Conclusions and Perspectives
      1. Abstract
      2. 27.1 Scope of the Conclusions
      3. 27.2 Conclusions from and for Natural Sciences
      4. 27.3 Conclusions for Socio-Economic Sciences and Policy
      5. 27.4 Closing Thoughts
      6. Acknowledgements
  16. Index