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Clean Energy for Sustainable Development by Kalam Azad, Mohammad Rasul, Subhash Sharma

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Chapter Fifteen

Biodiesel Production Through Chemical and Biochemical Transesterification

Trends, Technicalities, and Future Perspectives

M.W. Mumtaz1,2, A. Adnan2, H. Mukhtar2, U. Rashid3, and M. Danish1     1University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan     2Government College University Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan     3Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract

Recent worldwide energy crises have provoked the development of alternative energy sources. Biodiesel is gaining acceptance worldwide as an alternative fuel usually synthesized by chemical/biochemical transesterification of vegetable oils/animal fat. Chemically, acids, alkalis, and metal oxide are being used to catalyze transesterification reactions in addition to the heterogeneous ...

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