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Civil and Environmental Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Civil and environmental engineers work together to develop, build, and maintain the man-made and natural environments that make up the infrastructures and ecosystems in which we live and thrive. Civil and Environmental Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a comprehensive multi-volume publication showcasing the best research on topics pertaining to road design, building maintenance and construction, transportation, earthquake engineering, waste and pollution management, and water resources management and engineering. Through its broad and extensive coverage on a variety of crucial concepts in the field of civil engineering, and its subfield of environmental engineering, this multi-volume work is an essential addition to the library collections of academic and government institutions and appropriately meets the research needs of engineers, environmental specialists, researchers, and graduate-level students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Creating Product Innovation Strategies through Knowledge Management in Global Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CREATING PRODUCT INNOVATION STRATEGIES THROUGH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN GLOBAL BUSINESS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Numerical Modeling of Historic Masonry Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STRATEGIES FOR MODELING MASONRY
      4. 3. NUMERICAL MODELING APPROACHES FOR STRUCTURAL MASONRY ANALYSIS: STATE OF THE ART
      5. 4. DISCUSSION ON THE APPROPRIATE MODELING APPROACH
      6. 5. COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE PACKAGES
      7. 6. SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
      8. ABBREVIATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 3: Mathematical Models Used for Hydrological Floodplain Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Seismic Vulnerability of Arches, Vaults and Domes in Historical Buildings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR
      5. VULNERABILITY ISSUES
      6. PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Building Information Modelling in Cameroon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. BACKGROUND
      3. 2. AN OVERVIEW OF CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE IN CAMEROON
      4. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. ANALYSIS OF SURVEY
      7. 6. DATA VALIDATION
      8. 7. KEY FINDINGS, DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 6: Simulation Based Construction Project Schedule Optimization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION IN CONSTRUCTION
      5. 4. SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULES
      6. 5. EXTENSIONS OF RCPSP
      7. 6. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
      8. 7. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Structural Identification and Numerical Models for Slender Historical Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CALIBRATION OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELS
      4. MODEL UPDATING: THE TOWER OF THE PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION BUILDING IN BARI, ITALY
      5. ACHIEVEMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Floods Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FLOOD MONITORING AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
      4. FLOOD MANAGEMENT
      5. FLOOD MONITORING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTED THROUGH DESWAT PROJECT
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESWAT IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENANCE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTE
    9. Chapter 9: Composition of Leachate
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MUNICPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (MSWM)
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF MSW
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. OBJECTIVES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Optimization of Tuned Mass Dampers to Improve the Earthquake Resistance of High Buildings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EARTHQUAKE AND DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE LOADING
      4. AN INTRODUCTION TO TUNED MASS DAMPERS
      5. OPTIMIZATION STRATEGIES FOR TMD LAY OUT
      6. DETAILED INTRODUCTION TO SOME BIONIC OPTIMIZATION METHODS
      7. COMPARING THE EFFICIENCY OF BIONIC OPTIMISATION STRATEGIES
      8. A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO STUDY TMD IN HIGH BUILDINGS
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Seasonal Statistical Variability of Precipitations in Dobrogea and Danube Delta
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Identification of Dry Periods in the Dobrogea Region
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DATA AND METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Ancient Materials and Singular Constructions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. HERITAGE STRATEGIES: THE WISDOM OF ANCIENT ARCHITECTS USING MATERIALS UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING
      3. 2. NUMERICAL STRATEGIES: LOOKING FOR THE MOST SUITABLE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL VIA FEM UNDER SEISMIC LOADING
      4. 3. SWOT ANALYSES AS A WAY OF CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 14: Determination of Pull Out Capacity of Small Ground Anchor Using Data Mining Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DETAILS OF GPR
      4. DETAILS OF GP
      5. DETAILS OF MPMR
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: Structural Non-Linear Models and Simulation Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUNDAMENTALS ON STRUCTURAL SAFETY OF RC STRUCTURES
      4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR NON-LINEAR SAFETY EVALUATION
      5. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS AND RESEARCH
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. Section 2: Development and Technologies
    1. Chapter 16: Smart, Sustainable, and Safe Urban Transportation Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMART URBAN TRANSPORTATION
      4. SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORTATION
      5. SAFE URBAN TRANSPORTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 17: Current State of Highway Projects Planning and Scheduling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND SCHEDULING METHODS
      4. 3. COMPARISON OF THE METHODS
      5. 4. ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) IN PROJECT PLANNING
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 18: Cyber Attacks on Critical Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
      4. SCADA SYSTEMS FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 19: The Effect Degree Analysis of Human Activities on Regional Groundwater Level Based on Variable Fuzzy Optimization Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      4. 3. CASE STUDY
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 20: Seismic Retrofitting for Masonry Historical Buildings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGNING INTERVENTIONS FOR SEISMIC RETROFITTING
      5. COMMON ERRORS IN SEISMIC RETROFITTING
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 21: Pareto Evolutionary Optimization of Joint Network Design and Pricing Strategies Related to Emissions in Urban Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
      4. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      6. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 22: A Distributed and Local-World Topology Evolution Model for Wireless Sensor Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. LOCAL-WORLD AND DISTRIBUTED TOPOLOGY EVOLUTION MODEL
      5. 4. SIMULATION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 23: Cyberattacks on Critical Infrastructure and Potential Sustainable Development Impacts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CYBERSPACE AND CYBERSECURITY
      4. CYBER THREATS ON THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES
      5. CYBERSECURITY POLICY AND STRATEGIES
      6. COMPARATIVE CONSEQUENCES SIMILAR BETWEEN CYBER ATTACKS AND OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS
      7. CYBER SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      8. CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 24: A Computer-Aided Conceptual Cost Estimating System for Pre-Stressed Concrete Road Bridges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS RELEVANT COST STUDIES AND RESEARCH
      4. CONCRETE BRIDGES OF THE EGNATIA MOTORWAY AND DATA COLLECTION
      5. PROPOSED METHOD FOR PRE-DESIGN COST ESTIMATES AND MATERIAL ESTIMATING MODELS
      6. PROPOSED COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM
      7. CASE EXAMPLE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 25: A Web Based Decision Support System (DSS) for Individuals' Urban Travel Alternatives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A WEB BASED DSS DESIGN
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 26: FDTD Simulation of the GPR Signal for Preventing the Risk of Accidents Due to Pavement Damages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECTIVES
      4. GPR MODELING
      5. NUMERICAL MODELS
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 27: A Review of Soft Computing Methods Application in Rock Mechanic Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ESTIMATION OF ROCK MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS
      4. 3. ESTIMATION OF CHARACTERIZATION AND ENGINEERING BEHAVIOUR OF ROCK MASS
      5. 4. EVALUATION OF BLASTING OPERATION
      6. 5. EVALUATION OF ROCK SLOPE STABILITY
      7. 6. RECENT TRENDS OF THE SOFT COMPUTING IN ROCK ENGINEERING
      8. 7. LIMITATION AND FUTURE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 28: A Neural Network Model for Predicting Cost of Pre-Fabricated Housing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PROBLEM AND THE HYPOTHESES
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. THE MODEL FEATURES
      6. APPLICATION OF NN ON THE PROBLEM
      7. THE DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS OF THE MODEL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 29: Electrochemical Technologies for Industrial Effluent Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION BY THREE DIMENSIONAL ELECTRODES: PREVAILING APPROACH
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 30: Reliability Analysis of Slope Using MPMR, GRNN and GPR
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DETAILS OF FOSM
      4. DETAILS OF MPMR
      5. DETAILS OF GPR
      6. DETAILS OF GRNN
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 31: An Efficient Adaptive Strategy for Melody Search Algorithm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MELODY SEARCH ALGORITHM
      4. 3. EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE MELODY SEARCH (EAMS)
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    17. Chapter 32: Smart Technologies for Sustainable Mobility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ULTIMATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ECO-FRIENDLY USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Applications
    1. Chapter 33: Application of an Online Interactive Simulation Tool to Teach Engineering Concepts Using 3D Spatial Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 34: Laser Scanning for the Evaluation of Historic Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVERSE ENGINEERING OF HISTORICAL CONSTRUCTIONS USING LASER SCANNING
      5. SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS
      6. GENERAL THOUGHTS ABOUT LASER SCANNING IN HISTORICAL CONSTRUCTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 35: Passive Control Techniques and Their Applications in Historic Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PASSIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
      4. APPLICATION OF PASSIVE CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN HISTORIC STRUCTURES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 36: A Sensitivity Analysis of Critical Genetic Algorithm Parameters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW: GA APPLICATION IN HAO
      4. GA AND OPTIMIZATION PROCESS
      5. EXAMPLE STUDIES
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 37: DHS Minority Serving Institution (MSI) Programs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 38: Seismic Performance of a Mixed Masonry-Reinforced Concrete Building
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUILDING DESCRIPTION
      4. TESTS CAMPAIGN
      5. SEISMIC ADEQUACY ASSESSMENT
      6. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THE STRUCTURE
      7. NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSES
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 39: An Adaptive Elastic Net Method for Edge Linking of Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ELASTIC NET METHOD FOR EDGE LINKING
      4. THE ADAPTIVE ELASTIC NET METHOD FOR EDGE LINKING
      5. SIMULATION RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 40: Semantic Representation of Accurate Surveys for the Cultural Heritage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTICS AND EXISTING ARCHITECTURE
      4. HIGH DEFINITION SURVEYS AND BIM
      5. TOWARDS A BIM PROCESS FOR THE CULTURAL HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 41: Seismic Vulnerability of Ancient Colonnade
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF POMPEII
      4. DISCRETE ELEMENT METHOD
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTATIONAL MODEL
      6. RESPONSE TO STATIC LOADING CONDITIONS
      7. NON-LINEAR EQUIVALENT STATIC (PUSH OVER ANALYSIS)
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 42: Agrigento Cathedral
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY OF AGRIGENTO CATHEDRAL
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 43: Seismic Assessment via EC8 of Modern Heritage Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES
      5. INFILLS’ STRUCTURAL CONTRIBUTION
      6. THE TOWER OF THE NATIONS: ASSESSMENT RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
      8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 44: Application of Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Programming in Civil Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 45: On the Assessment of the Seismic Vulnerability of Ancient Churches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
      4. THE SEISMIC ACTION
      5. STRUCTURAL ANALYSES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 46: Simulation-Based Scheduling of Waterway Projects Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      5. PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM
      6. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE STUDIES
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 47: Causes of Delay in Budget Hotel Construction Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  9. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 48: The Interdisciplinary, Project-Based Infrastructure Degradation Curriculum at Worcester Polytechnic Institute
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GRADUATE COURSE STRUCTURE: CORROSION AND DEGRADATION OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE
      5. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 49: Religious Ethics, General Ethics, and Engineering Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECULAR ETHICS
      4. ERA OF PROFESSIONALIZATION
      5. NEED FOR PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
      6. ACQUIRED MORALITY
      7. ENGINEERING ETHICS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 50: Teaching of Sustainability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANISATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. SURVEY RESULTS
      6. CASE STUDIES
      7. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 51: Analysis of Pedestrian Road Crossing Behaviour in Urban Areas
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 52: The Roles of Knowledge Management and Organizational Innovation in Global Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLES OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION IN GLOBAL BUSINESS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 53: Information Seeking Behaviour in Changing ICT Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      4. ACCET LIBRARY
      5. OBJECTIVES
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
      8. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
      9. SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 54: The Roles of E-Learning, Organizational Learning, and Knowledge Management in the Learning Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLES OF E-LEARNING, ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING, AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 55: The Project Management Process of Planning and Budgeting in Public Construction Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 56: Greek Construction Project Managers' Cognitive Abilities, Personality and Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 57: Project Managers' Profile Influence on Design and Implementation of Cost Monitoring and Control Systems for Construction Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROJECT MANAGERS’ PROFILE AND ROLES
      4. PROJECT COST MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (CMCS)
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS: IDENTIFIED CORRELATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 58: Ethics Is Not Enough
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROLOGUE: IN PLACE OF DEFINITION
      4. 1. A HISTORY OF IDEAS IN ENGINEERING ETHICS
      5. 2. ENGINEERING ETHICS: AMERICAN CASES AND ISSUES
      6. 3. ENGINEERING ETHICS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
      7. 4. THE PERSPECTIVE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
      8. 5. THE GRAND CHALLENGE OF ENGINEERING ETHICS: A POLITICAL THEORY OF ENGINEERING
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 5: Critical Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 59: Integrating Sustainable Engineering Principles in Material Science Engineering Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING
      5. CURRICULUM TOPICS AND ISSUES
      6. PROPOSED INNOVATIVE CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR MATERIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 60: Reliability-Based Criteria for the Decision of the Compensation of Corroded Flexural Reinforcement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS CONCEPTS
      4. CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABLES (MONTE CARLO SIMULATION)
      5. CHECKING CODE CALIBRATION
      6. EFFECT OF STEEL CORROSION
      7. REAL LIFE SITUATIONS
      8. STEP-BY-STEP METHODOLOGY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 61: A Multi-Level Approach for the Numerical Modelling of Complex Monumental Buildings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 62: Lifecycle Assessment of Structures and Probabilistic Performance Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS
      4. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE
      5. STRUCTURAL INSPECTION AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
      6. STOCHASTIC PROCESS MODELS
      7. PERFORMANCE PREDICTION
      8. GAMMA PROCESSES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 63: Comparing the MLC and JavaNNS Approaches in Classifying Multi-Temporal LANDSAT Satellite Imagery over an Ephemeral River Area
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 64: A Qualitative Systems Thinking Approach in Understanding the Implementation of Innovation on Construction Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INNOVATION IN GENERAL
      4. 3. INNOVATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
      5. 4. THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING
      6. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMS THINKING MODEL
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 65: Effect of Epicenter Data Inconsistency in Determining Bandwidth and Its Subsequent Use in Hazard Analysis for Chennai Using Kernel Smoothing Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 66: Smart Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY ELEMENTS AND CHALLENGES FROM ICT-DRIVER ROLE
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:
      7. ENDNOTE
    9. Chapter 67: Fuzzy Based Project Time-Cost Optimization Using Simulated Annealing Search Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FUZZY SET THEORY
      5. SIMULATED ANNEALING (SA)
      6. PROBLEM FORMULATION
      7. FUZZY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIME AND COST
      8. SA BASED SOLVER
      9. A CASE STUDY AND RESULT ANALYSIS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 68: Alternative, Environmentally Acceptable Materials in Road Construction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GENERAL PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL USES OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      5. ENCOURAGING THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 69: Improving the Energy Efficiency of Telephone Exchanges (Switching Centers)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF TELEPHONE EXCHANGES
      5. POSSIBLE WAYS TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. APPENDIX: ACRONYMS
    3. Chapter 70: Allocation Criteria for Increasing Electronic Toll Collection Gates on Freeways Determined Using Simulation Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOLL STATIONS IN TAIWAN
      4. SIMULATIONS
      5. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 71: Significance of Structural Dynamics in Engineering Education in the New Millennium
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES IN TEACHING STRUCTURAL DYNMICS
      4. NEW RESEARCH FINDINGS MUST ENTER THE CLASS ROOM
      5. STRUCTURES UNDER RANDOM LOADING: SEISMIC, BLAST AND IMPACT LOADINGS
      6. BLAST RESPONSE OF BUILDINGS
      7. MONITORING THE HEALTH OF AGING STRUCTURES: STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 72: New Transportation Systems for Smart Cities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 73: Towards Smarter Cities and Roads
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLUSTERING AND VANETS
      5. TOPOLOGY-BASED METRICS FOR CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS ASSESSMENT IN VANETS
      6. CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS IN VANETS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 74: Nonlinear Vibration Control of 3D Irregular Structures Subjected to Seismic Loads
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTROL ALGORITHM THEORY
      4. THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL MODELING
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 75: Simulation of Pedestrians and Motorised Traffic
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
      3. REVIEW OF PEDESTRIAN SIMULATION MODELS
      4. CHALLENGES IN PEDESTRIAN SIMULATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 76: 2025
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES