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Citizens and E-Government: Evaluating Policy and Management

Book Description

Citizens and E-Government: Evaluating Policy and Management examines the role that citizens play in the development of electronic government or e-government, specifically focusing on the impact of e-government and citizens while exploring issues of policy and management. This book not only focuses on the adoption of e-government and its impact on citizens, but it also discusses the effectiveness of this technology as a way of improving citizen access and engagement with their government. Overall, this book is essential for those interested in the importance of citizens in information technology adoption and development of electronic government.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
    1. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL ISSUES
    2. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
    3. CASE STUDIES
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. Theoretical and Conceptual Issues
    1. 1. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating User-Centered and Citizen-Centered E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: USERS AND E-GOVERNMENT
      3. BACKGROUND: EVALUATING FOR USER-CENTERED E-GOVERNMENT
      4. ISSUES: CONSIDERATIONS FOR CITIZEN-CENTERED E-GOVERNMENT
      5. SOLUTIONS: STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING CITIZEN-CENTERED E-GOVERNMENT
        1. Comprehensive planning for Citizen-centered Design
        2. Citizen Information Needs Assessments
        3. Information and Communication Technology Availability, Expertise, and preference
        4. Citizen Engagement
        5. Iterative Evaluation for Continual Improvement
        6. Community-Based Partnerships
        7. Politically-Based Content and Design
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH PATHS AND OPPORTUNITIES
      7. CONCLUSION: SUCCESSFUL CITIZEN-CENTERED E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 2. A User-Centric Approach in E-Governmant Policies: The Path to Effectiveness?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ORIGINS OF ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT
        1. Back to the Roots
          1. A Public Sector in Crisis?
          2. The Rise of ICTs: Governments Online
        2. E-Government and Its Objectives
      4. E-GOVERNMENT: DOES IT FULFILL ITS PROMISES?
        1. Criticism Toward the E-strategies of Governments
        2. It's All About Government and Technology
      5. A TWO-FOLD PARADIGM SHIFT
        1. The User at the Centre of the Design of E-Government Services
        2. The User at the Centre of E-Government Policy Evaluation
      6. BELGIAN E-GOVERNMENT: STEP BY STEP
      7. REFLECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 3. Evaluating the Impact of E-Government on Citizens: Cost-Benefit Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. The Functions of E-Government
        2. The Impact of E-Government on Citizens: a Cost-Benefit Analysis Approach
      4. FRAMEWORK AND MEASUREMENT
        1. Costs and Benefits of E-Government Users and Non-Users
        2. Administrative Service Delivery
        3. Direct Financial Cost and Benefit—Time and Money
        4. Direct Non-Financial Cost and Benefit: Information Credibility, Satisfaction and Trust in Government
      5. DEMOCRATIC FUNCTION
      6. SUMMARY
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    4. 4. Effectiveness of E-Government in Delivering Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE INHERITED NATURE OF E-GOVERNMENT FROM E-COMMERCE AND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO
      5. BARRIERS TO THE SUCCESS OF E-GOVERNMENT, AND ACTIONS FOR OVERCOMING THEM
      6. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF E-GOVERNMENT VALUE ITEMS THAT MIGHT IMPROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-GOVERNMENT
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    5. 5. An Evaluation Framework for E-Government Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Project Management Background
        2. E-Government Evaluation Models
        3. E-Government Evaluation Frameworks
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
        1. The Identification of Generic Factors
        2. The Identification of Software Measurement Indices
        3. The Proposed Framework
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 6. Images of Citizenship: A Content Analysis of Local Government Websites in the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ANALYZING GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
        1. Methods
        2. Measures
        3. Results
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
    7. A. APPENDIX
    8. 7. Innovation in Democratic E-Governance: Benefitting from Web 2.0 Applications in the Public Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL NETWORKS AT THE CORE OF WEB 2.0
        1. A Glance at the Evolution of Social Networking
        2. Web 2.0 Applications
      5. DIMENSIONS OF GOVERNMENT 2.0
        1. Key Functions of Government 2.0
        2. Inter-Sectoral Sharing in Focus
        3. Development Stages of Government 2.0
      6. GOVERNMENT 2.0 APPLICATIONS
        1. Web 2.0 Applications Gaining Popularity in the Public Sector
        2. Short Messaging
        3. Content Sharing
        4. Government as a Social Networker
        5. Crowdsourcing in Public Service
        6. Politics 2.0
      7. TENSIONS IN THE WEB 2.0 ENVIRONMENT
      8. FUTURE PROSPECTS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. 8. Reducing the Administrative Burden by Online Information and Referral Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF I&R DATABASES GOING ON-LINE?
      4. COMMUNITY ANSWERS: GREENWICH, CONNECTICUT
      5. SERVEI D'ATENCIÓ CIUTADANA: TERRASSA, CATALONIA
      6. REDUCING COSTS
      7. THE UNDERGROUND TECHNOLOGY OF FAQ
      8. DRAWBACKS OF FAQ TECHNOLOGY
      9. THE COMMUNITY SOLUTIONS FOR SOLVING THE DRAWBACKS OF FAQ TECHNOLOGY
      10. ABOUT CITIZENS SATISFACTION
      11. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ENDNOTES
    10. B. ANNEX 1
  7. 2. Issues and Challenges
    1. 9. Transparency and E—Government in Developing Countries: The Case of Latin—American Municipalities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: TRANSPARENCY, E-GOVERNMENT, E-DEMOCRACY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
      4. PROMOTION BY GOVERNMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA OF INCREASED ACCESS TO PUBLIC INFORMATION
      5. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
        1. Methodology of the Research
      6. SAMPLE SELECTION
      7. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 10. Human Factors in Implementing E-Government in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Models of Acceptance and Behavior
          1. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
          2. The Value Pluralism Model
          3. Perceptions about Government and Technology
        2. A Phased Approach to E-Government
          1. Systems Engineering — E-Government
        3. Usability Engineering — Human Computer Interaction Using a Computer Interface
        4. Country Classifications
      4. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR E-GOVERNMENT
        1. The Citizens' View
          1. Benefits of E-Government for Citizens
        2. The Government Managers' View
        3. Benefits of E-Government for Managers
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
        1. Citizens' Requirements for E-Government
        2. Managers' Requirements for E-Government
        3. E-Government, the Technological Interface between Citizens and Government
        4. Supporting Systems
          1. Education and Training
      6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 11. E-Government, Security, and Cyber-Privacy: Individual Rights versus Government Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT AND PRIVACY
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Collecting Personal Information
        3. Threats to Privacy and Security
        4. System Failures/Gaps in Coordination
        5. Solutions and Recommendations
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 12. Considering the Role of E-Government in Cybercrime Awareness and Prevention: Toward a Theoretical Research Program for the 21st Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF CYBERCRIME
      4. THE GOVERNMENT ROLE IN ADDRESSING CYBERCRIME
        1. Legislative Efforts
          1. Privacy, Identity Theft, & Fraud
          2. Online Child Pornography
          3. Electronic Copyright Theft
          4. International Joint Efforts
        2. Executive Efforts
      5. E-GOVERNMENT IN THE WORKS: A THEORETICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
      6. REFERENCES
    5. 13. Citizen Centric or Government Centric? Perceptions of Risk in New Identity Management Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. E-Government, the Citizen as Consumer and Emerging Information Risks
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Data Collection
        2. Data Analysis
      5. FINDINGS
        1. Technology Failure
        2. Public Authority Incompetence
        3. Public Authority Integrity
        4. Lack of Citizen Control Over Personal Data
        5. The Overpowering State
        6. Recalcitrant Citizens
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. 14. Citizens and Service Channels: Channel Choice and Channel Management Implications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Rise of ICT and the Emergence of New Channels
        2. Optimism About the New Channels
      4. CITIZENS' CHANNEL BEHAVIOR
        1. Channel Usage
        2. Channel Choice
      5. CHANNEL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
        1. Parallel Positioning
        2. Replacement Positioning
        3. Supplemental Positioning
        4. Integrated Positioning
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. 15. Comparing Citizens' Use of E-Government to Alternative Service Channels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE ON E-GOVERNMENT AND CITIZENS
        1. Issues and Constraints
        2. Socio-Economic and Demographic
      4. METHODS
      5. SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE
      6. CITIZEN-INITIATED CONTACTS WITH GOVERNMENT
      7. PREFERRED CHANNEL CHOICE
      8. PREDICTOR VARIABLES
      9. LOGISTIC REGRESSION RESULTS OF ACTUAL CONTACTS
      10. LOGISTIC REGRESSION RESULTS OF PREFERRED CONTACTS
      11. DISCUSSION
      12. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      13. REFERENCES
    8. 16. Social Tagging to Search and Recommend Government Information
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GOVERNMENT WEB PORTAL AND SEARCH ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES
      5. US GOVERNMENT COLLABORATION PLATFORM
      6. WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES FOR GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SEARCH, COLLABORATION AND SERVICE INTEGRATION
      7. SOCIAL TAGGING
      8. A SOCIAL ANNOTATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR GOVERNMENTAL RESOURCES
      9. SOCIAL TAGGING FOR DISCOVERING GOVERNMENT WEB SERVICES
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. 3. Case Studies
    1. 17. Engaging Citizens on the Internet: An Assessment of Local Governments in Ohio
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT AND THE WEB
        1. Conventional Wisdom
        2. Citizen Engagement Models
        3. Data and Methodology
      4. CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT THROUGH THE INTERNET IN NORTHEAST OHIO
        1. All Local Governments
        2. Models of Citizen Engagement
      5. WHY DO SOME GOVERNMENTS MAKE GREATER USE OF THE INTERNET THAN OTHERS?
        1. Dependent Variables
        2. Independent Variables
        3. Model Results
        4. Discussions with Local Government Information Management Professionals
      6. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND LESSONS LEARNED
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. 18. Assessing e-Government Services: The Case of e-Filing of Personal Income Tax in Malaysia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOCUS OF THE STUDY
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW - E-GOVERNMENT DEFINED
      5. E-FILLING - GLOBAL SCENARIO
      6. E-FILING IN MALAYSIA
      7. RELATED THEORIES
      8. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
      9. METHODS AND MEASURES
      10. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      11. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
      12. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
      13. DISCUSSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
      14. LIMITATIONS & FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
      17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. C. APPENDIX 1
    4. 19. Factors Influencing Intention to Use e-Government Services Among Citizens in Malaysia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. E-Government in Malaysia
        2. Government E-Payment Adoption Ranking
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATION
        1. The Development of Hypotheses
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Population, Sample Size and Sample Technique
        2. Questionnaire Design
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
        1. Technology Usage
        2. Goodness of Measures
        3. Hypotheses Testing
        4. Trust and its Antecedents
        5. Trust and Intention to Use E-government Services
        6. Perceived Ease of Use and Usefulness and Intention to Use E-government Services
        7. Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Variables and Intention to Use E-government Services
      6. DISCUSSION
        1. Antecedents of Trust
        2. Trust
        3. Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use
        4. Diffusion of Innovation Variables (Compatibility, Complexity, Relative Advantage and Image)
        5. Uncertainty Avoidance (Moderating Effect)
        6. Implication of the Study
        7. Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 20. Assessing China's E-Government and Its Impact on Government and Citizen Relationship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
        1. E-lnformation
        2. E-Service
        3. E-Transparency and Openness
        4. E-Citizen Outreach and Responsiveness
      6. IMPACT OF E-GOVERNMENY ON TRANSFORMING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND CITIZENS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 21. Exploring Citizens' Visions of 2020 E-Government in Taiwan: Results from a 2008 Scenario Workshop
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Low Usage of E-Government Services: Why?
        2. Who Should Drive the Planning Behind E-Government Initiatives?
        3. The Need for a Citizen-Centric E-Governance Planning Model
      4. THE CASE OF TAIWAN'S 2020 E-GOVERNANCE SCENARIO WORKSHOP
        1. A Brief History of the Emergence of E-Governance in Taiwan
        2. Process of the Scenario Workshop
        3. Results of the Scenario Workshop
        4. Action Plans I-I
        5. Action Plans I-II
        6. Action Plans I-III
        7. Action Plans II-I
        8. Action Plans II-II
        9. Action Plans II-III
        10. Action Plans III-I
        11. Action Plans III-II
        12. Action Plans III-III
      5. REFLECTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    7. 22. Evaluation of E-Government Services: A Citizen-Centric Approach to Citizen E-Complaint Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CITIZEN E-COMPLAINT SERVICE IN THE E-GOVERNMENT CONTEXT
        1. Email Contact Material Worldwide
        2. The Kaohsiung Citizen Electronic Complaint System
          1. Citizen Access Channel
          2. Workflow Mechanism
          3. Back Office System and Database
          4. Usage
      4. EVALUATION APPROACHES OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
        1. Financial-Oriented Assessments
          1. Supply-Side Evaluations
          2. Demand-Side Evaluations
          3. The Rationale for Choosing Demand-Side Assessment for the KCECS
      5. METHOD
        1. Measures
        2. Samples and Procedure
      6. RESULTS
        1. Response Rates, Demographics, and Characteristics of the KCECS Users
          1. Response rates
          2. Demographics
          3. Characteristics
        2. citizens' Perceived Service Quality and Satisfaction Toward the KCECS
          1. Perceived Service Quality
          2. Perceived Satisfaction
          3. Top Priority for Improvement of the KCECS
      7. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. D. APPENDIX 1
    9. 23. Engaging Citizens Through Local E-Government: an Australian Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO AUSTRALIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
      4. LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT IN AUSTRALIA
      5. LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT MATURITY, BARRIERS AND ENABLERS
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. COUNCIL WEB SITES
      8. ETHNOGRAPHIC-BASED CASE STUDY
      9. WEB SITE CONTENT ANALYSIS
        1. E-Management
        2. E-Service
        3. E-Commerce
        4. E-Participation
        5. Summary
      10. CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
        1. Higher-Level Government Priorities
        2. External Influences
        3. Internal Initiatives
      11. SUMMARY
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
    10. 24. Community Policing in India: Transparency through E-Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Indian Police Administration
        2. Paradigm Shift in Policing Style
        3. Community Policing
        4. E-Governance in India
      4. CASE STUDIES OF COMMUNITY POLICING THROUGH E-GOVERNANCE
        1. eCOPS: Crime Reporting Database Management System in Andhra Pradesh
        2. Lokvani- An Interactive Complaint Box System in Uttar Pradesh
      5. DISCUSSIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Domain Specific Performance Measures
        2. Federal Involvement to Institutionalize
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors