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Cisco Self-Study: Building Cisco Metro Optical Networks (METRO)

Book Description

Plan, design, and configure high-speed fiber-optic networks

Coverage includes:

  • Configuring ONS 15454 and ONS 15327 platforms

  • Architecture for building Metropolitan Ethernet Transparent LAN Services (TLS)

  • Packet over SONET (PoS) network design, configuration, and verification

  • Inner workings of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), including operability with the ONS 15216 product family

  • Principles of Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT)

  • SONET background, including structures, components, and network design

  • Bonus case studies, which challenge you to select equipment and design a metro optical network

  • Fiber-optic networking has several significant advantages over traditional wired and wireless networks: optical signals can travel much farther than electrical signals, are more secure, are resistant to electromagnetic interference, and have the potential to provide bandwidth in the terabits per second range (1000 Gbps).

    Service providers must satisfy the always-increasing networking demands of customers while keeping costs to a minimum. Optical networks must meet the challenge of supporting multiple types of transmissions including voice, video, and data traffic. Although time-division multiplexing (TDM) has provided a growth path for services, it is more constrained than IP + Optical strategies like the Cisco Dynamic Packet Transport (Resilient Packet Ring). The Cisco Systems® end-to-end IP + Optical networking strategy provides an intelligent converged network in which optical infrastructures can be used to their fullest potential.

    While most reference books focus on the theory involved in SONET and optical infrastructures, Cisco Self-Study: Building Cisco Metro Optical Networks (METRO) focuses on the practical application of planning and configuring optical networks that involve SONET, DWDM, Metropolitan Ethernet, Packet over SONET, and Dynamic Packet Transport (Resilient Packet Ring).

    Cisco Self-Study: Building Cisco Metro Optical Networks (METRO) is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco Systems that can include simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.

    This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed training solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.

    158705070607312003

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
    3. About the Contributor
    4. About the Technical Reviewers
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. Introduction
      1. Objectives
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
      4. Icons Used in This Book
      5. Conventions and Features
    7. 1. Metro Area Optical Networks
      1. Components of a MAN
        1. Metro
        2. Service POP
        3. Core
      2. MAN Services
        1. Access Services
        2. Metro Optical Services
        3. Service POP Services
        4. Core Services
      3. MAON Physical Topologies
      4. Four Key Service Traffic Patterns
      5. Service Offerings and Opportunities
        1. Corporate Network Requirements
          1. Ethernet as a Service
            1. Storage-Area Network
            2. Storage Service Providers
            3. Metro and Remote Mirroring
          2. Cisco Support for Metro Services
        2. Service Technologies
          1. Early Voice and Data Network Architectures
          2. SONET
          3. Transparent LAN Services or Metro Ethernet Services
          4. Packet over SONET
          5. Dynamic Packet Transport
          6. DWDM
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    8. 2. Voice History
      1. A Short History of Voice and Data Transmission
      2. Digital Hierarchy
      3. Developing a Digital Hierarchy Outside the United States
      4. Expanding the Digital Hierarchy
      5. Summary
      6. Review Questions
    9. 3. SONET Overview
      1. SONET and SDH Overview
      2. SONET Development and Fundamentals
      3. SONET Advantages
        1. Single-Step Multiplexing
        2. Access to Low-level Signal Directly
        3. Carry Existing DS1, DS3, ATM, and Packet Traffic
        4. Synchronous Timing to Eliminate Bit Stuffing
          1. Overhead Room for Network Management Information
        5. Allow Transmission of Data at Higher Speeds
      4. SONET Layers
        1. Photonic Layer
        2. Section Layer
        3. Line Layer
        4. Path Layer
      5. SONET Framing
        1. Section Overhead
        2. Line Overhead
        3. Path Overhead
      6. SONET Network Elements
        1. Terminal Multiplexer
        2. Add/Drop Multiplexers
        3. Regenerators or Amplifiers
        4. Digital Cross-Connects
        5. SONET DCS
        6. Digital Loop Carriers
        7. Drop and Continue
      7. SONET Topologies
        1. Point-to-Point Topology
        2. Point-to-Multipoint/Linear Topology
        3. Mesh Topology
        4. Ring Topology
        5. Automatic Protection Switching
          1. 1+1 Protection
          2. 1:1 and 1:n Protection
          3. Unidirectional Switching (UPSR)
          4. Bidirectional Switching (BLSR)
          5. Nonrevertive
          6. Revertive
          7. Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring (UPSR)
            1. Protection in a UPSR Ring
          8. Two-Fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
            1. Protection in a Two-Fiber BLSR Ring
          9. Four-Fiber Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
            1. Protection in a Four-Fiber BLSR Ring
        6. Path-Protected Mesh Network
        7. Cisco BLSR Ring Enhancements
      8. SONET Alarms
        1. Error-Causing Events
        2. Error Event Propagation
        3. Performance Event Collection
      9. SONET Management
      10. Cisco SONET Enhancements
        1. SONET Network Element Management
        2. Cisco UPSR Ring Enhancements
      11. Summary
      12. Review Questions
    10. 4. ONS 15454 and ONS 15327 Optical Platforms
      1. Choosing a Cisco Metro-Area Network Platform
      2. Cisco ONS 15454 Optical Platform
        1. Control Cards
          1. TCC+
          2. XC and XC-VT
          3. XC-10G
          4. AIC
        2. Electrical Cards
        3. Optical Cards
        4. Ethernet Cards
          1. E100T-12 and E100T-G
          2. E1000-2 and E1000-2-G
          3. G1000-4
      3. Cisco ONS 15327 Platform
        1. Common Control and Electrical Cards
        2. Optical and Ethernet Cards
      4. Cisco Transport Controller
      5. Summary
      6. Review Questions
    11. 5. Configuring ONS 15454 and ONS 15327
      1. Initial Configuration of the Cisco ONS 15454 and 15327
        1. Troubleshooting CTC
        2. Entering Basic Node Information
          1. General Subtab
          2. Network Subtab
            1. General
            2. Static Routing
            3. OSPF
          3. Security Subtab
          4. Protection Subtab
      2. Configuring SONET Timing
        1. Timing in Linear Networks
        2. Timing in Metro Rings
        3. Ring Synchronization
        4. Timing Subtab
        5. Activating Cards
      3. Ring Configurations
        1. Two-Fiber BLSR Architecture
        2. Four-Fiber BLSR Architecture
        3. Creating UPSR Rings Through the SONET DCC Subtab
        4. Verifying a UPSR Ring Configuration
        5. Creating Two-Fiber BLSR Rings
        6. Provisioning the BLSR
        7. Verifying a BLSR Ring Configuration
        8. Four-Fiber BLSR Ring
      4. Summary
      5. Review Questions
    12. 6. Metro Ethernet Services
      1. Market Drivers for Metropolitan Ethernet
      2. Metropolitan Ethernet Market Drivers
      3. Metro Ethernet Architectures
        1. Customer Premises Equipment
          1. SONET Ring Hierarchy
          2. Quality of Service
        2. POP Interconnect
          1. Long-Haul Transport
      4. Transporting Metro Ethernet
        1. Ethernet over SONET
        2. Ethernet over DWDM
        3. Point-to-Point Dedicated Metro Ethernet Circuits
        4. Point-to-Multipoint Shared/Shared Packet Ring
        5. Quality of Service
        6. ONS 15454 and ONS 15327 Metro Ethernet Blades
          1. Spanning Tree 802.1d Support
          2. 802.1Q VLAN Support
          3. 802.1p Priority Queuing Support
          4. ONS 15454 E-Series Metro Ethernet Cards
          5. ONS 15327 E-Series Metro Ethernet Card
            1. ONS 15454 G-Series Card
              1. Flow Control 802.3X Support
              2. Ethernet Link Integrity and EtherChannel Support
            2. ONS 15327 G-Series Card
      5. Summary
      6. Review Questions
    13. 7. Configuring Metro Ethernet
      1. Configuring Metro Ethernet Circuits
        1. Step 1: Card Mode Configuration
        2. Step 2: Configuring Port Options
        3. Step 3: VLAN Configuration
        4. Step 4: Creating Circuits
        5. Step 5: Circuit Verification
      2. Troubleshooting Metro Ethernet Connectivity
      3. Summary
      4. Review Questions
    14. 8. Implementing DWDM in Metropolitan-Area Networks
      1. Challenges in the Metro-Area Network
      2. Multiplexing Optical Signals
      3. The Technology Behind DWDM
      4. DWDM Components
      5. DWDM Optical Limitations
      6. Cisco DWDM Equipment
        1. OC-48 ELR ITU Optics
        2. Cisco ONS 15216 Filters (200-GHz Spacing)
      7. Planning an Optical System Using Cisco Equipment
      8. Span-Loss Calculation
      9. Building a DWDM Infrastructure
        1. DWDM Network Requirements
        2. Provisioning the OC-48 ELR ITU Optics Card
      10. Summary
      11. Review Questions
    15. 9. Packet over SONET
      1. Evolution of Voice and Data Networks
      2. Applications for PoS
        1. ATM and PoS
        2. PoS Transport
        3. Multiaccess Protocol over SONET
      3. Packet over SONET Operation and Specifications
        1. High-Order Containment
          1. PPP Frame
        2. Payload Scrambling
      4. PoS Efficiencies
      5. PoS Network Designs
        1. One Router
        2. Two Routers
        3. PoS Protection Schemes
          1. APS 1+1 Protection
          2. Cisco Protect Group Protocol (PGP)
        4. PoS Convergence
        5. Flapping
          1. PoS Reflector Mode
        6. Load Balancing
        7. Alarms and PoS
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    16. 10. Configuring Packet over SONET
      1. Cisco 12000 Series PoS Line Cards
        1. Cisco PoS Line Card Features
        2. Packet over SONET Physical Fiber Configuration
      2. Configuring PoS Interfaces
        1. Accessing the PoS Interface
        2. IP Address
        3. Encapsulation
        4. Framing
        5. Payload Scrambling
        6. CRC
        7. Clocking
        8. PoS ais-shut Command
        9. Alarm Thresholds
      3. Sample PoS Interface Configurations
        1. PoS Configuration Without Protection
        2. PoS Configuration with APS Protection
      4. PoS show Commands
        1. show controllers pos Command
        2. show protocols pos Command
        3. show interfaces pos Command
        4. show aps Command
      5. Verifying the PoS Configuration Using ping
        1. Physical Interface Loopbacks
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    17. 11. Dynamic Packet Transport
      1. Background Information
      2. IP+Optical Concepts
      3. DPT: An Efficient MAN Solution
      4. Internetworking with SONET
        1. DPT in Campus and MAN Environments
      5. SRP
        1. SRP Protection
        2. SRP Packets
          1. Version 2 SRP Header
          2. Control Packets
            1. The Topology Discovery Packet
            2. Intelligent Protection Switch (IPS) Packet
            3. Usage Control Packet
          3. Unicast Packets
          4. Multicast Packets
          5. Packet Processing
            1. Packet Handling (Incoming)
            2. Packet Handling (Transmit)
      6. DPT Rings
        1. SRP Ring Selection
        2. Ethernet and the DPT Ring
        3. Automatic Configuration of DPT Rings
      7. DPT Quality of Service
        1. SRP Fairness Algorithm (SRP-fa)
          1. Understanding SRP-fa Packet Handling
          2. Implementing SRP-fa Packet Handling
          3. SRP-fa and Congestion
        2. SRP-fa Monitoring
      8. Maintaining Network Reliability
        1. Automatic Reconfiguration and Rerouting
          1. IPS Failure and Recovery
          2. IPS Control Messages
          3. IPS Event Hierarchy
          4. IPS Signaling
        2. Node States and Ring Operation
          1. Normal Working DPT Ring
          2. One-Fiber Failure
          3. Two-Fiber Failure
          4. Signal Degrade and Signal Failure
      9. Summary
      10. Review Questions
    18. 12. Configuring Dynamic Packet Transport
      1. Reviewing the Cisco DPT Platforms
      2. Metro IP Access Ring with DPT
        1. Cisco 12xxx Series DPT Line Cards
        2. DPT with SONET
        3. Building a DPT Ring
      3. DPT Configuration
      4. Verifying and Troubleshooting DPT
        1. DPT show Commands
          1. show interfaces srp Command
          2. show srp Command
          3. show version Command
          4. show diag Command
          5. show controllers srp Command
          6. show srp topology Command
        2. DPT debug Commands
          1. debug srp protocol error Command
          2. debug srp ips Command
          3. debug srp nodename Command
          4. debug srp packet Command
          5. debug srp periodic activity Command
          6. debug srp topology Command
      5. DPT over an ONS 15454/15327 SONET Ring
        1. ONS 15454 and 15327 DPT Circuit Provisioning
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    19. 13. Metro Optical Case Studies
      1. Steps for Developing a Metro Optical Solution
        1. Customer Requirements
        2. Component Manufacturers
        3. System Manufacturers
        4. Fiber Manufacturers
        5. Service Providers
        6. Physical Technical Specifications
          1. Calculating Attenuation
        7. Fiber-Loss Variables
        8. Fiber-Loss Information for ONS 15216 and 15454 Products
        9. ONS 15216 Product Specifications
        10. ONS 15216 DWDM Filters
        11. ONS 15454 Line Cards
          1. Calculation Formulas
      2. Power Conversion (Aggregate to Per Channel)
        1. Power-Conversion Examples (Aggregate to Per Channel)
          1. OADMs and Optical Power Levels
          2. Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR)
      3. Exercises
        1. Exercise Formulas
        2. Exercise 1
        3. Exercise 2
        4. Exercise 3
          1. Optical Amplification
      4. Case Study 1: SPR Enterprises
        1. Phase 1: Identify Requirements
          1. Objective of Phase 1
          2. Challenge
          3. Your Task in This Phase
        2. Phase 2: Identify Options
          1. Objective of Phase 2
          2. Your Task in This Phase
          3. Detailed Customer Requirements
          4. Customer Answers to Follow-Up Questions
        3. Phase 3: Design Solution
          1. Objective of Phase 3
          2. Additional Customer Service Requirements
        4. Phase 4: Create a Solution Summary
          1. Objective of Phase 4
          2. Your Tasks in This Phase
        5. Case Study 1 Solution: SPR Enterprises
          1. Option 1
          2. Option 2
      5. Case Study 2: FC Enterprises
        1. Phase 1: Identify Requirements
          1. Objective
          2. Challenge
          3. Your Task in This Phase
        2. Phase 2: Identify Options
          1. Objective
          2. Your Task in This Phase
          3. Detailed Customer Requirements
          4. Customer Answers to Follow-Up Questions
        3. Phase 3: Design Solution
          1. Objective
          2. Additional Customer Service Requirements
        4. Phase 4: Create a Solution Summary
          1. Objective
          2. Your Tasks in This Phase
        5. Case Study 2 Solution: FC Enterprises
        6. Objective
        7. Solution
          1. Solution
    20. A. Answers to Review Questions
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 9
      10. Chapter 10
      11. Chapter 11
      12. Chapter 12
      13. Chapter 13
      14. References
        1. Bibliography