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Cisco IOS XR Fundamentals

Book Description

Cisco IOS XR Fundamentals is a systematic, authoritative guide to configuring routers with Cisco IOS® XR, the next-generation flagship Cisco® Internet operating system.

In this book, a team of Cisco experts brings together quick, authoritative, and example-rich reference information for all the commands most frequently used to configure and troubleshoot Cisco IOS XR-based routers in both service provider and enterprise environments.

The authors walk you through the details of the Cisco IOS XR architecture and explain commands in the new Cisco IOS XR CLI wherever required. They present concise explanations of service provider requirements and internetwork theory, backed by proven sample configurations for IOS XR services, MPLS, multicast, system management, system security, routing, and interfaces.

Cisco IOS XR Fundamentals is an indispensable resource for designing, implementing, troubleshooting, administering, or selling networks containing Cisco IOS XR–supported routers. This is the only Cisco IOS XR book that:

  • Clearly explains how Cisco IOS XR meets the emerging requirements of both current and future networks

  • Gives network professionals extensive information for simplifying migration and taking full advantage of Cisco IOS XR’s new power

  • Presents detailed, tested configuration examples that network professionals can apply in their own networks

  • Walks through using new Cisco IOS XR features and the In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) process to minimize downtime and cost

  • Mobeen Tahir, CCIE® No. 12643 (R&S, SP), is a Cisco network consulting engineer with more than a decade of experience in designing and deploying service provider networks. He currently works for the WWSP practice team, which provides consulting services to Cisco NGN customers.

    Mark Ghattas, CCIE No. 19706 (Service Provider), is a solution architect at Cisco and has been in the networking industry for more than 15 years. He focuses on IOS XR–based platforms for service providers and currently manages the World Wide Service Provider Practice team in Advanced Services.

    Dawit Birhanu, CCIE No. 5602, is a technical leader at Cisco. He assists global service providers in deploying new NGN products and technologies. He specializes in IOS XR–based platforms, QoS, MPLS, and BGP.

    Syed Natif Nawaz, CCIE No. 8825 (R&S, SP), has more than 10 years' experience in providing networking design, deployment, and escalation assistance to service provider customers. He is currently the IOS XE software development manager at Cisco, where he works on customer-focused software qualification, certification, and deployment; feature integration; release processes; and other software quality initiatives.

  • Use Cisco IOS XR to deliver superior scalability, availability, security, and service flexibility

  • Understand the Cisco IOS XR distributed, modular architecture

  • Design, implement, and troubleshoot networks containing Cisco IOS XR–supported routers

  • Configure Cisco IOS XR routing, including RIP, IS-IS, OSPF, and EIGRP

  • Learn BGP implementation details specific to Cisco IOS XR and using RPL to influence policies

  • Manage IP addresses and Cisco IOS XR services

  • Secure Cisco IOS XR using standard and extended ACLs, prefix lists, and uRPF

  • Master all facets of MPLS configuration, including LDP, L3VPN, and TE

  • Configure PIM, IGMP, and static RP multicast

  • Optimize networks using advanced Cisco IOS XR features, including secure domain routers

  • Learn building blocks of Multishelf, and understand configurations and migration techniques

  •  This book is part of the Cisco Press® Fundamentals Series. Books in this series introduce networking professionals to new networking technologies, covering network topologies, sample deployment concepts, protocols, and management techniques.

    Category: Networking: Routing and Switching

    Covers: Cisco IOS XR

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Foreword
    7. Introduction
    8. Who Should Read This Book?
    9. How This Book Is Organized
    10. 1. Introducing Cisco IOS XR
      1. Evolution of Networking
      2. Requirements for Carrier-Grade NOS
        1. Convergence
        2. Scalability
        3. Availability
          1. Hardware Redundancy
          2. Failure Recovery and Microkernel-Based NOS
          3. Process Restartability
          4. Failure Detection
          5. Software Upgrades and Patching
        4. Security
        5. Service Flexibility
      3. Operating System Concepts
        1. Basic Functions of an Operating System
          1. Process Scheduling
          2. Interrupt Handling
          3. Memory Management
          4. Synchronization
          5. Interprocess Communication
          6. Dynamic Link Library
          7. Portable Operating System Interface
      4. High-Level Overview of Cisco IOS XR
      5. Cisco IOS XR Platforms
        1. Cisco CRS-1 Carrier Routing System
        2. Cisco XR 12000 Series
        3. Cisco ASR 9000 Series
      6. Summary
      7. References
    11. 2. Cisco IOS XR Infrastructure
      1. Cisco IOS XR Kernel
        1. Threads
        2. Scheduling Algorithms
        3. Synchronization Services
      2. Cisco IOS XR System Manager
        1. Process Attributes
        2. System Manager and Process Lifecycle
        3. CLI for Sysmgr and Processes
      3. Interprocess Communication
        1. Characteristics of IPC Mechanisms
          1. Synchronous Versus Asynchronous
          2. Intra-node Versus Inter-node
          3. Connection-Oriented Versus Rendezvous
          4. Point-to-Point Versus Point-to-Multipoint
        2. Light Weight Messaging
        3. Group Service Protocol
        4. Atomic Descriptor Ring
        5. Qnet
      4. Distributed Services
        1. GSP
        2. Bulk Content Downloader
      5. Process Placement
      6. Cisco IOS XR System Database
      7. High Availability Architecture
      8. Forwarding Path
      9. Summary
      10. References
    12. 3. Installing Cisco IOS XR
      1. Introduction to Cisco IOS XR Packages
        1. Image Naming Conventions
        2. Cisco IOS XR Bootable Files, PIEs, and SMUs
          1. Composite Bootable Files
          2. Composite Upgrade PIE
        3. Optional PIEs
        4. Software Maintenance Upgrade
      2. Install System Overview
      3. Preparing to Install Cisco IOS XR
      4. TURBOBOOT
        1. Setting the TURBOBOOT ROMMON Variable
        2. Booting the .vm File from ROMMON
        3. Verifying the Software Installation
        4. Installing Packages
        5. TURBOBOOT Considerations for the c12000 Platform
        6. Booting the Standby RP
      5. Upgrading to a Major Cisco IOS XR Version Using mini.pie
        1. Install Rollback
        2. Removing Inactive Packages
        3. Performing an Install Audit
      6. Disk Backup and Recovery
        1. Creating a Backup Disk with Golden Disk
        2. Disk Mirroring
          1. Creating a Disk Partition
          2. Turning On Disk Mirroring
      7. Install Health Checks
        1. Verifying MD5 Signature of a PIE or an SMU
        2. Anticipating Disk Space Usage
        3. Testing a PIE or SMU Installation
        4. Verifying the config-register
        5. Clearing Configuration Inconsistency
      8. Summary
    13. 4. Configuration Management
      1. Understanding Distributed Configuration Management
        1. Control Plane Configuration Management
        2. Data Plane Configuration Management
      2. Understanding Configuration Planes
        1. Admin Plane
        2. Shared Plane
        3. Local Plane
      3. Components of Configuration Management
        1. Configuration Manager
        2. Configuration File System
        3. Role of SysDB in Configuration Management
        4. Replicated Data Service File System
      4. Understanding the Two-Stage Commit Model
        1. Building the Target Configuration
        2. Commit Operation
          1. Commit Confirmed Option
          2. Commit Failures
          3. Configuration Failures During Startup
      5. Configuration Features in Cisco IOS XR
        1. Deleting Physical Interface
        2. Configuration Navigation
        3. Default Running Configuration Behavior
        4. Troubleshooting Configuration Inconsistencies
        5. Configuration Session Lock
        6. Avoiding a Commit Operation and Clearing the Target Configurations
          1. Option 1: Unlock the Configuration Session
          2. Option 2: Use the clear Command
          3. Option 3: Use the abort Command
          4. Option 4: Use the end or exit Commands
      6. Configuration Management During Hardware and Software Change Events
        1. Configuration Management During Online Insertion and Removal Events
          1. Case 1: Insert or Remove a Node
          2. Case 2: Replace the Node with a Different Node
          3. Case 3: Replace the Node with a Higher Density Node
          4. Case 4: Replace the Node with a Lower Density Node
        2. Configuration Management During Package Activation and Deactivation
        3. Interface Preconfiguration
        4. Configuration Template
        5. Configuration Management During Router Startup
      7. Configuration Rollback
      8. Summary
    14. 5. Cisco IOS XR Monitoring and Operations
      1. Using SNMP
        1. Configuring SNMP
        2. SNMP in the Context of a VRF
      2. Cisco IOS XR Syslog
        1. Logging Destination
        2. Local Archiving of Logging Messages
      3. Embedded Event Manager
        1. EEM Event Detectors and Events Processing
        2. Timer Services Event Detector
          1. Syslog Event Detector
          2. None Event Detector
        3. Watchdog System Monitor Event Detector
        4. Distributed Event Detectors
        5. Registering and Using Onboard EEM Policies
        6. User-Defined EEM Policy
        7. EEM Reliability Metrics
      4. Monitoring Processes
        1. WDSYSMON
        2. Monitoring Memory
        3. Using the show system verify Command
        4. Operations and Monitoring Best Practices
      5. Summary
    15. 6. Cisco IOS XR Security
      1. Secure Operating System
      2. Securing Access to the Router
        1. Admin Plane
        2. SDR Plane
        3. User Groups and Task Groups
        4. User Group and Task Group Inheritance
        5. External AAA
          1. Configuring a TACACS+ Server
          2. Authentication Using RADIUS
        6. Configuring Secure Shell
        7. Management Plane Protection
      3. Securing the Forwarding Plane
        1. Access Control Lists
        2. Unicast RPF
        3. Local Packet Transport Service
          1. Mechanics Behind LPTS: A High-Level Overview
          2. Configuring LPTS
      4. Summary
      5. References
    16. 7. Routing IGP
      1. Routing Information Protocol
        1. Understanding RIP Fundamentals
        2. RIP Versions
        3. Configuring RIP in Cisco IOS XR
          1. Configuring Route Policy Language
          2. Configuring Passive Interface
          3. Restarting, Shutting Down, and Blocking RIP
          4. Verifying and Troubleshooting RIP
      2. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
        1. Understanding EIGRP Fundamentals
          1. Neighbor Discovery/Recovery
          2. Reliable Transport Protocol
          3. Diffusing Update Algorithm
          4. Protocol-Dependent Modules
        2. Configuring EIGRP in Cisco IOS XR
          1. Configuring Routing Policy
          2. Configuring Router ID
          3. Configuring and Verifying NSF
          4. Verifying EIGRP Process Status
          5. Verifying and Troubleshooting EIGRP
      3. Open Shortest Path First
        1. Understanding OSPF Fundamentals
        2. Configuring OSPF in Cisco IOS XR
          1. Configuring and Verifying OSPFv2
          2. Hierarchical CLI and Inheritance
          3. Configuring OSPFv2 Authentication
          4. Verifying NSF Configuration and Standby RP Status
          5. Configuring and Verifying Nonstop Routing
          6. Configuring and Verifying Multiarea Adjacencies
          7. Configuring and Verifying Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
          8. Configuring OSPF Timers
          9. Configuring and Verifying OSPFv3
      4. Intermediate System to Intermediate System
        1. Understanding IS-IS Fundamentals
        2. Configuring IS-IS in Cisco IOS XR
          1. Verifying the Single Topology Model
          2. Configuring and Verifying the Multitopology Model
          3. Configuring and Verifying Interface States
          4. Configuring IS-IS NSF and IS-IS Timers
          5. Configuring and Verifying BFD in IS-IS
          6. Configuring and Verifying IP Fast Reroute
          7. Configuring and Verifying Authentication in IOS XR IS-IS
      5. Summary
      6. References
    17. 8. Implementing BGP in Cisco IOS XR
      1. Cisco IOS XR BGP Architectural Overview
      2. Cisco IOS XR BGP Hierarchical Configuration
        1. Address Family Configuration Mode
        2. Configuration Groups
      3. Implementing BGP Policies
        1. Routing Policy Language
        2. Prefix Set
        3. AS-path Set
        4. Community Set
        5. Routing Policies
          1. Hierarchical Policies and Parameterization
      4. BGP Policy Accounting
      5. BGP Remotely Triggered Black Hole
      6. BGP Graceful Restart
      7. BGP Distributed Speaker
      8. Cisco IOS XR BGP Convergence
      9. Summary
      10. References
    18. 9. Cisco IOS XR MPLS Architecture
      1. Understanding Cisco IOS XR MPLS Architecture Fundamentals
        1. TTL Processing
        2. Cisco IOS XR MPLS Load Balancing
      2. Label Distribution Protocol
        1. LDP Basic Configuration
        2. LDP Parameters
        3. LDP Label Control
        4. LDP-IGP Sync and LDP Session Protection
      3. MPLS Traffic Engineering
      4. Cisco IOS XR Peer-to-Peer L3VPN
        1. Virtual Routing Forwarding Tables
        2. MP-iBGP Between PE Routers
        3. Routing Between CE and PE
          1. Static Routing for CE-PE
          2. eBGP as CE-PE Protocol
          3. OSPF as CE-PE Protocol
          4. RIP as CE-PE Protocol
      5. L2VPN
        1. Virtual Private Wire Service
          1. VPWS Configuration in IOS XR
          2. Pseudo Wire Redundancy
        2. Virtual Private VLAN Service
      6. Summary
    19. 10. Cisco IOS XR Multicast
      1. Understanding Multicast Routing Fundamentals
        1. Internet Group Management Protocol
          1. IGMPv2
          2. IGMPv3
        2. Protocol Independent Multicast
      2. Understanding Cisco IOS XR Multicast
        1. Understanding Cisco IOS XR PIM Sparse Mode
        2. Understanding PIM Source Specific Multicast on IOS XR
      3. Configuring Cisco IOS XR Multicast
        1. Enabling Multicast Routing
        2. Configuring IGMP
        3. Configuring PIM
        4. Configuring Static RP
          1. Auto-RP
          2. BSR
          3. PIM SSM Configuration
      4. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Cisco IOS XR Multicast
        1. Debugging Multicast on the CRS Router’s Ingress Path
        2. Debugging Multicast in Router’s Fabric and Egress Path
        3. Debugging an RPF Failure Using a Line Card MFIB Command
      5. Summary
      6. References
    20. 11. Secure Domain Router
      1. Owner and Non-Owner SDR
      2. Understanding SDR Privileges
      3. Creating a Secure Domain Router
      4. DRP
      5. Configuring a Secure Domain Router
        1. Creating a Named Secure Domain Router
        2. Assigning Resources to a Named SDR
        3. Logging In to a Newly Named SDR
      6. Process Placement
      7. Summary
      8. References
    21. 12. Understanding CRS-1 Multishelf
      1. Multishelf Overview
      2. Line Card Chassis
      3. Fabric Card Chassis
      4. Switch Fabric Cards
        1. Fabric Data Path
        2. High Availability
      5. Multishelf Fabric Interconnect
        1. Fabric Planes
        2. SEA Links
        3. Fabric Backpressure
        4. Optical Array Cables
          1. Recommended Practices and Considerations
          2. Single Module Fabric Configuration
          3. Multimodule Configuration
      6. Multishelf Control Ethernet
      7. Multishelf Configuration
        1. Viewing the Configuration
        2. Line Card Chassis to Multishelf Preparation
        3. Troubleshooting Multishelf Fabric Planes
        4. Troubleshooting Fabric Links
      8. Summary
      9. Reference
    22. A. ROMMON and Configuration Register Settings
    23. B. Multishelf 2+1 Array Cable Mapping
    24. C. Switch Fabric Down Flags