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Cisco IOS Cookbook, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Never has something cried out for a cookbook quite as much as Cisco's Internetwork Operating System (IOS). IOS is powerful and flexible, but also confusing and daunting. Most tasks can be accomplished in several different ways. And you don't want to spend precious time figuring out which way is best when you're trying to solve a problem quickly.

That's what this cookbook is for. Fortunately, most router configuration tasks can be broken down into several more or less independent steps: you configure an interface, you configure a routing protocol, you set up backup links, you implement packet filters and other access control mechanisms. What you really need is a set of recipes that show you how to perform the most common tasks, so you can quickly come up with a good configuration for your site. And you need to know that these solutions work: you don't want to find yourself implementing a backup link at 2 A.M. because your main link is down and the backup link you set up when you installed the router wasn't quite right.

Thoroughly revised and expanded, Cisco IOS Cookbook, 2nd Edition, adds sections on MPLS, Security, IPv6, and IP Mobility, and presents solutions to the most common configuration problems, including:

  • Configuring interfaces of many types, from serial to ATM and Frame Relay

  • Configuring all of the common IP routing protocols (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP)

  • Configuring authentication

  • Configuring other services, including DHCP and NTP

  • Setting up backup links, and using HSRP to configure backup routers

  • Managing the router, including SNMP and other solutions

  • Using access lists to control the traffic through the router

If you work with Cisco routers, you need a book like this to help you solve problems quickly and effectively. Even if you're experienced, the solutions and extensive explanations will give you new ideas and insights into router configuration. And if you're not experienced--if you've just been given responsibility for managing a network with Cisco routers--this book could be a job-saver.

Table of Contents

  1. Cisco IOS Cookbook
  2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
  3. Preface
    1. What’s New in This Edition
    2. Organization
    3. What’s in This Book
    4. Conventions Used in This Book
    5. Using Code Examples
    6. We’d Like Your Feedback!
    7. Safari® Enabled
    8. Acknowledgments
      1. Kevin Dooley
      2. Ian J. Brown
  4. 1. Router Configuration and File Management
    1. Introduction
      1. IOS
    2. Configuring the Router via TFTP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Saving Router Configuration to Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Booting the Router Using a Remote Configuration File
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Storing Configuration Files Larger Than NVRAM
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Clearing the Startup Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Loading a New IOS Image
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Booting a Different IOS Image
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Booting over the Network
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Copying an IOS Image to a Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Copying an IOS Image Through the Console
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    12. Deleting Files from Flash
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Partitioning Flash
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Using the Router as a TFTP Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Using FTP from the Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Generating Large Numbers of Router Configurations
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. Changing the Configurations of Many Routers at Once
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Extracting Hardware Inventory Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Backing Up Router Configurations
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Warm Reload
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    21. Warm Upgrade
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    22. Configuration Archiving
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    23. Locking Configuration Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  5. 2. Router Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Creating Command Aliases
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Managing the Router’s ARP Cache
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    4. Tuning Router Buffers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Auto Tuning Buffers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Using the Cisco Discovery Protocol
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Disabling the Cisco Discovery Protocol
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Using the Small Servers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Enabling HTTP Access to a Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Enabling Secure HTTP (HTTPS) Access to a Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Using Static Hostname Tables
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Enabling Domain Name Services
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Disabling Domain Name Lookups
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Specifying a Router Reload Time
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Scheduling of Router Commands
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Displaying Historical CPU Values
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. Creating Exception Dump Files
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Generating a Report of Interface Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Generating a Report of Routing Table Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Generating a Report of ARP Table Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    21. Generating a Server Host Table File
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  6. 3. User Access and Privilege Levels
    1. Introduction
    2. Setting Up User IDs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Encrypting Passwords
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Using Better Password-Encryption Techniques
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Removing Passwords from a Router Configuration File
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Deciphering Cisco’s Weak Password Encryption
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Displaying Active Users
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Sending Messages to Other Users
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Changing the Number of VTYs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Changing VTY Timeouts
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Restricting VTY Access by Protocol
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Enabling Absolute Timeouts on VTY Lines
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Implementing Banners
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Disabling Banners on a Port
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Disabling Router Lines
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Reserving a VTY Port for Administrative Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. Restricting Inbound Telnet Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Logging Telnet Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Setting the Source Address for Telnet
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    20. Automating the Login Sequence
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    21. Using SSH for Secure Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    22. Changing Privilege Level of IOS Commands
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    23. Defining Per User Privileges
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    24. Defining Per Port Privileges
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  7. 4. TACACS+
    1. Introduction
    2. Authenticating Login IDs from a Central System
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Restricting Command Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Losing Access to the TACACS+ Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Disabling TACACS+ Authentication on a Particular Line
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Capturing User Keystrokes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Logging System Events
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Setting the IP Source Address for TACACS+ Messages
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Sample Server Configuration Files
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  8. 5. IP Routing
    1. Introduction
      1. Unregistered Addresses
    2. Finding an IP Route
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Finding Types of IP Routes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    4. Converting Different Mask Formats
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Using Static Routing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Floating Static Routes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Using Policy-Based Routing to Route Based on Source Address
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Using Policy-Based Routing to Route Based on Application Type
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Examining Policy-Based Routing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Changing Administrative Distances
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Routing Over Multiple Paths with Equal Costs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Static Routes That Track Interfaces or Other Routes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Keeping Statistics on Routing Table Changes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  9. 6. RIP
    1. Introduction
    2. Configuring RIP Version 1
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Filtering Routes with RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Redistributing Static Routes into RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Redistributing Routes Using Route Maps
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Creating a Default Route in RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Disabling RIP on an Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Default Passive Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Unicast Updates for RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Applying Offsets to Routes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    11. Adjusting Timers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Configuring Interpacket Delay
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Enabling Nonperiodic Updates
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Increasing the RIP Input Queue
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Configuring RIP Version 2
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    16. Enabling RIP Authentication
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. RIP Route Summarization
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    18. Route Tagging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  10. 7. EIGRP
    1. Introduction
    2. Configuring EIGRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Filtering Routes with EIGRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Redistributing Routes into EIGRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Redistributing Routes into EIGRP Using Route Maps
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Disabling EIGRP on an Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Adjusting EIGRP Metrics
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    8. Adjusting Timers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Enabling EIGRP Authentication
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. EIGRP Route Summarization
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Logging EIGRP Neighbor State Changes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Limiting EIGRP’s Bandwidth Utilization
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. EIGRP Stub Routing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Route Tagging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Viewing EIGRP Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  11. 8. OSPF
    1. Introduction
    2. Configuring OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Filtering Routes in OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Adjusting OSPF Costs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Creating a Default Route in OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Redistributing Static Routes into OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    7. Redistributing External Routes into OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Manipulating DR Selection
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Setting the OSPF RID
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Enabling OSPF Authentication
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Selecting the Appropriate Area Types
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Using OSPF on Dial Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Summarizing Routes in OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Disabling OSPF on Certain Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    15. Changing the Network Type on an Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. OSPF Route Tagging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. Logging OSPF Adjacency Changes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Adjusting OSPF Timers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Reducing OSPF Traffic in Stable Networks
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    20. OSPF Virtual Links
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    21. Viewing OSPF Status with Domain Names
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    22. Debugging OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  12. 9. BGP
    1. Introduction
      1. Basic Terminology
      2. BGP Attributes
      3. Route Selection
    2. Configuring BGP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Using eBGP Multihop
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Adjusting the Next-Hop Attribute
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Connecting to Two ISPs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Connecting to Two ISPs with Redundant Routers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Restricting Networks Advertised to a BGP Peer
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Adjusting Local Preference Values
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Load-Balancing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    10. Removing Private ASNs from the AS Path
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    11. Filtering BGP Routes Based on AS Paths
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Reducing the Size of the Received Routing Table
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Summarizing Outbound Routing Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Prepending ASNs to the AS Path
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Redistributing Routes with BGP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Using Peer Groups
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. Authenticating BGP Peers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Using BGP Communities
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Using BGP Route Reflectors
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Putting It All Together
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  13. 10. Frame Relay
    1. Introduction
      1. Frame Relay QoS Features
    2. Setting Up Frame Relay with Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Adjusting LMI Options
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    4. Setting Up Frame Relay with Map Statements
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Using Multipoint Subinterfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Configuring Frame Relay SVCs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Simulating a Frame Relay Cloud
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Compressing Frame Relay Data on a Subinterface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Compressing Frame Relay Data with Maps
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. PPP over Frame Relay
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Viewing Frame Relay Status Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  14. 11. Handling Queuing and Congestion
    1. Introduction
      1. Queuing Algorithms
      2. Fast Switching and CEF
    2. Fast Switching and CEF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Setting the DSCP or TOS Field
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Using Priority Queuing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Using Custom Queuing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    6. Using Custom Queues with Priority Queues
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Using Weighted Fair Queuing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Using Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Using NBAR Classification
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    10. Controlling Congestion with WRED
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Using RSVP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Manual RSVP Reservations
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. RESV and PATH messages
        2. Two service types
        3. The examples
      4. See Also
    13. Aggregating RSVP Reservations
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Using Generic Traffic Shaping
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Using Frame-Relay Traffic Shaping
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Using Committed Access Rate
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. Implementing Standards-Based Per-Hop Behavior
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. AutoQoS
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Viewing Queue Parameters
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  15. 12. Tunnels and VPNs
    1. Introduction
    2. Creating a Tunnel
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Tunneling Foreign Protocols in IP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Tunneling with Dynamic Routing Protocols
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Viewing Tunnel Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Creating an Encrypted Router-to-Router VPN in a GRE Tunnel
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Creating an Encrypted VPN Between the LAN Interfaces of Two Routers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Generating RSA Keys
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Creating a Router-to-Router VPN with RSA Keys
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Creating a VPN Between a Workstation and a Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Creating an SSL VPN
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Checking IPSec Protocol Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  16. 13. Dial Backup
    1. Introduction
      1. Analog Modems
      2. Switched 56 Kbps Digital Service
      3. ISDN
      4. Estimating How Many Dialup Lines You Need
    2. Automating Dial Backup
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Using Dialer Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Using an Async Modem on the AUX Port
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Using Backup Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Using Dialer Watch
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Using Virtual Templates
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Ensuring Proper Disconnection
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    9. View Dial Backup Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Debugging Dial Backup
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  17. 14. NTP and Time
    1. Introduction
    2. Time-Stamping Router Logs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Setting the Time
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Setting the Time Zone
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Adjusting for Daylight Saving Time
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Synchronizing the Time on All Routers (NTP)
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Configuring NTP Redundancy
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Setting the Router As the NTP Master for the Network
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Changing NTP Synchronization Periods
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Using NTP to Send Periodic Broadcast Time Updates
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Using NTP to Send Periodic Multicast Time Updates
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Enabling and Disabling NTP Per Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. NTP Authentication
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    14. Limiting the Number of Peers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Restricting Peers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Setting the Clock Period
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. Checking the NTP Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    18. Debugging NTP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    19. NTP Logging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Extended Daylight Saving Time
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    21. NTP Server Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  18. 15. DLSw
    1. Introduction
      1. Service Access Points (SAP and LSAP)
      2. Explorers and RIFs
      3. Cisco IOS Code Sets
    2. Simple Bridging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Configuring DLSw
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. The peers
        2. Ring groups, ring numbers, and bridge numbers
        3. Explorer options
        4. Other features
    4. Using DLSw to Bridge Between Ethernet and Token Ring
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. Ethernet II or 802.3 framing
      4. See Also
    5. Converting Ethernet and Token Ring MAC Addresses
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Configuring SDLC
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Configuring SDLC for Multidrop Connections
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Using STUN
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Using BSTUN
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    10. Controlling DLSw Packet Fragmentation
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    11. Tagging DLSw Packets for QoS
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Supporting SNA Priorities
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. DLSw+ Redundancy and Fault Tolerance
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Viewing DLSw Status Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    15. Viewing SDLC Status Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Debugging DSLw
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  19. 16. Router Interfaces and Media
    1. Introduction
    2. Viewing Interface Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Configuring Serial Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Using an Internal T1 CSU/DSU
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Using an Internal ISDN PRI Module
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Using an Internal 56 Kbps CSU/DSU
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Configuring an Async Serial Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Configuring ATM Subinterfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Setting Payload Scrambling on an ATM Circuit
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Classical IP Over ATM
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Configuring Ethernet Interface Features
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    12. Configuring Token Ring Interface Features
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Connecting VLAN Trunks with ISL
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Connecting VLAN Trunks with 802.1Q
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. LPD Printer Support
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  20. 17. Simple Network Management Protocol
    1. Introduction
      1. SNMP Management Model
      2. MIBs and OIDs
    2. Configuring SNMP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Extracting Router Information via SNMP Tools
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Recording Important Router Information for SNMP Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Using SNMP to Extract Inventory Information from a List of Routers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Using Access Lists to Protect SNMP Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Logging Unauthorized SNMP Attempts
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Limiting MIB Access
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Using SNMP to Modify a Router’s Running Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Using SNMP to Copy a New IOS Image
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Using SNMP to Perform Mass Configuration Changes
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Preventing Unauthorized Configuration Modifications
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Making Interface Table Numbers Permanent
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Enabling SNMP Traps and Informs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Sending Syslog Messages As SNMP Traps and Informs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Setting SNMP Packet Size
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. Setting SNMP Queue Size
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    18. Setting SNMP Timeout Values
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    19. Disabling Link Up/Down Traps per Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Setting the IP Source Address for SNMP Traps
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    21. Using RMON to Send Traps
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    22. Enabling SNMPv3
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. Using the SNMPv3 security levels
      4. See Also
    23. Strong SNMPv3 Encryption
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    24. Using SAA
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  21. 18. Logging
    1. Introduction
    2. Enabling Local Router Logging
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Setting the Log Size
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Clearing the Router’s Log
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Sending Log Messages to Your Screen
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    6. Using a Remote Log Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Enabling Syslog on a Unix Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Changing the Default Log Facility
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Restricting What Log Messages Are Sent to the Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    10. Setting the IP Source Address for Syslog Messages
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Logging Router Syslog Messages in Different Files
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Maintaining Syslog Files on the Server
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    13. Testing the Syslog Sever Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    14. Preventing the Most Common Messages from Being Logged
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    15. Rate-Limiting Syslog Traffic
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    16. Enabling Error Log Counting
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. XML-Formatted Log Messages
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Modifying Log Messages
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  22. 19. Access-Lists
    1. Introduction
    2. Filtering by Source or Destination IP Address
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Adding a Comment to an ACL
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Filtering by Application
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Filtering Based on TCP Header Flags
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Restricting TCP Session Direction
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    7. Filtering Multiport Applications
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Filtering Based on DSCP and TOS
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Logging When an Access-List Is Used
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Logging TCP Sessions
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Analyzing ACL Log Entries
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Using Named and Reflexive Access-Lists
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Dealing with Passive Mode FTP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Using Time-Based Access-Lists
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Filtering Based on Noncontiguous Ports
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Advanced Access-List Editing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    17. Filtering IPv6
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  23. 20. DHCP
    1. Introduction
    2. Using IP Helper Addresses for DHCP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Limiting the Impact of IP Helper Addresses
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Using DHCP to Dynamically Configure Router IP Addresses
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    5. Dynamically Allocating Client IP Addresses via DHCP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Defining DHCP Configuration Options
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Defining DHCP Lease Periods
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Allocating Static IP Addresses with DHCP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Configuring a DHCP Database Client
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Configuring Multiple DHCP Servers per Subnet
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. DHCP Static Mapping
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. DHCP-Secured IP Address Assignment
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    13. Showing DHCP Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Debugging DHCP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  24. 21. NAT
    1. Introduction
    2. Configuring Basic NAT Functionality
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Allocating External Addresses Dynamically
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Allocating External Addresses Statically
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Translating Some Addresses Statically and Others Dynamically
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Using Route Maps to Refine Static Translation Rules
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Translating in Both Directions Simultaneously
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Rewriting the Network Prefix
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    9. Using NAT for Server Load Distribution
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    10. Stateful NAT Failover
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Adjusting NAT Timers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Changing TCP Ports for FTP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    13. Checking NAT Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    14. Debugging NAT
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  25. 22. First Hop Redundancy Protocols
    1. Introduction
    2. Configuring Basic HSRP Functionality
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Using HSRP Preempt
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Making HSRP React to Problems on Other Interfaces
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Load-Balancing with HSRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Redirecting ICMP with HSRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    7. Manipulating HSRP Timers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    8. Using HSRP on Token Ring
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. HSRP SNMP Support
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Increasing HSRP Security
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Showing HSRP State Information
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    12. Debugging HSRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    13. HSRP Version 2
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. VRRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Gateway Load-Balancing Protocol
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  26. 23. IP Multicast
    1. Introduction
      1. IGMP and CGMP
      2. Multicast Routing Protocols
        1. PIM-DM, PIM-SM, and Bidirectional PIM
        2. DVMRP
        3. MOSPF
        4. MBGP
    2. Configuring Basic Multicast Functionality with PIM-DM
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Routing Multicast Traffic with PIM-SM and BSR
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    4. Routing Multicast Traffic with PIM-SM and Auto-RP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Filtering PIM Neighbors
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    6. Configuring Routing for a Low-Frequency Multicast Application
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Multicast over Frame Relay or ATM WANs
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Configuring CGMP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    9. Using IGMP Version 3
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Static Multicast Routes and Group Memberships
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    11. Routing Multicast Traffic with MOSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    12. Routing Multicast Traffic with DVMRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. DVMRP Tunnels
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    14. Configuring Bidirectional PIM
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    15. Controlling Multicast Scope with TTL
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    16. Controlling Multicast Scope with Administratively Scoped Addressing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    17. Exchanging Multicast Routing Information with MBGP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    18. Using MSDP to Discover External Sources
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    19. Configuring Anycast RP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    20. Converting Broadcasts to Multicasts
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See also
    21. Showing Multicast Status
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    22. Debugging Multicast Routing
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
  27. 24. IP Mobility
    1. Introduction
      1. Terminology
      2. Local Area Mobility
    2. Local Area Mobility
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Home Agent Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Foreign Agent Configuration
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. Authenticating the Foreign Agent
      4. See Also
    5. Making a Router a Mobile Node
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. Authenticating with the Foreign Agent
      4. See Also
    6. Reverse-Tunnel Forwarding
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Using HSRP for Home Agent Redundancy
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  28. 25. IPv6
    1. Introduction
      1. IPv6 Addressing
      2. Addressing Standards
      3. IEEE EUI-64 Identifiers
      4. Routing Protocols
    2. Automatically Generating IPv6 Addresses for an Interface
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Manually Configuring IPv6 Addresses on an Interface
      1. Problems
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Configuring DHCP for IPv6
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Dynamic Routing with RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    6. Modifying the Default RIP Parameters
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. IPv6 Route Filtering and Metric Manipulation in RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. Using OSPF for IPv6
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. IPv6 Route Filtering and Metric Manipulation in OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. Route Redistribution
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. Dynamic Routing with MBGP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Tunneling IPv6 Through an Existing IPv4 Network
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Translating Between IPv6 and IPv4
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  29. 26. MPLS
    1. Introduction
      1. Some Terminology
      2. Benefits of MPLS
      3. IOS Versions and Feature Sets
      4. Structure of This Chapter
    2. Configuring a Basic MPLS P Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    3. Configuring a Basic MPLS PE Router
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Configuring Basic MPLS CE Routers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Configuring MPLS over ATM
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    6. PE-CE Communication via RIP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. PE-CE Communication via OSPF
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    8. PE-CE Communication via EIGRP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. PE-CE Communication via BGP
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    10. QoS over MPLS
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    11. MPLS Traffic Engineering with Autoroute
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    12. Multicast Over MPLS
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    13. Your Service Provider Doesn’t Do What You Want
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  30. 27. Security
    1. Introduction
      1. CBAC
      2. PAM
      3. Authentication Proxy
      4. TCP Intercept
      5. Intrusion Prevention
      6. AutoSecure
    2. Using AutoSecure
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    3. Using Context-Based Access-Lists
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    4. Transparent Cisco IOS Firewall
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    5. Stopping Denial of Service Attacks
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
    6. Inspecting Applications on Different Port Numbers
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    7. Intrusion Detection and Prevention
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
        1. Intrusion detection
        2. Intrusion prevention
      4. See Also
    8. Login Password Retry Lockout
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
    9. Authentication Proxy
      1. Problem
      2. Solution
      3. Discussion
      4. See Also
  31. 1. External Software Packages
    1. Perl
    2. Expect
    3. NET-SNMP
    4. PuTTY
    5. OpenSSH
    6. Ethereal
  32. 2. IP Precedence, TOS, and DSCP Classifications
    1. IP Precedence, TOS, and DSCP Classifications
      1. Combining TOS and IP Precedence to Mimic DSCP
      2. RSVP
    2. Queueing Algorithms
      1. Weighted Fair Queueing
      2. Priority Queueing
      3. Custom Queueing
    3. Dropping Packets and Congestion Avoidance
  33. About the Authors
  34. Colophon
  35. Copyright