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Cisco Frame Relay Solutions Guide

Book Description

Implement Frame Relay solutions on Cisco networks with this definitive resource

  • Design the perfect Frame Relay solution, using the detailed explanation of the Frame Relay implementation process

  • Configure Frame Relay on Cisco routers with comprehensive step-by-step instructions

  • Understand each feature of Frame Relay by using configuration examples and explanations

  • Use Cisco oriented case studies with design scenarios to understand real-life examples of each feature's application and relevance

  • Contains valuable tips and hints for troubleshooting Frame Relay connections

  • Today, with Frame Relay's widespread popularity, major service providers around the world offer Frame Relay as one of their core services, and it has become an important technology for connecting data networks across North America, Europe, and Asia. In short, Frame Relay is a high-speed, high-performance, Layer 2 packet-switched technology designed for communication across WANs. Frame Relay is often described as a streamlined version of the X.25 protocol, and it can be implemented over a variety of other network interfaces, including ISDN. Frame Relay users have found that it provides a number of benefits over alternative technologies:

  • Lower cost of ownership

  • Well-established and widely adopted standards that allow open architecture and plug-and-play service implementation

  • Low overhead combined with high reliability

  • Network scalability, flexibility, and disaster recovery

  • Interworking with other new services and applications, such as ATM

  • Along with these benefits and the growing popularity of Frame Relay comes the need for information and solutions to design issues, implementation, quality of service, and high availability. To meet this need, Cisco Frame Relay Solutions Guide provides comprehensive coverage of Frame Relay technologies and the Cisco Frame Relay solutions developed in Cisco IOS Software from release 12.0 up to 12.2(T). Both Frame Relay beginners, who need to understand the technology, and advanced readers, who need information on the wide range of Frame Relay features Cisco offers, will benefit from this book. However, Cisco Frame Relay Solutions Guide is a useful design, implementation, and configuration guide for networking professionals of all levels.

    This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

    158705116803152004

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Introduction
      1. Goals and Methods
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    7. I. Frame Relay Technology
      1. 1. Introduction to Frame Relay
        1. Frame Relay Defined
          1. Levels of Operation
        2. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
        3. The Frame Relay Header
          1. Explicit Congestion Notification Bits
          2. Discard Eligibility Bit
        4. The Standardization of Frame Relay
          1. LMI
        5. The Origins of Frame Relay: X.25
        6. Frame Relay's Current Role
          1. The Frame Relay Forum
        7. The Future of Frame Relay
        8. Frame Relay Terminology
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
        11. Reference
      2. 2. Cisco Frame Relay Devices and Network Implementation
        1. Understanding Frame Relay Devices and Network Implementation
        2. Frame Relay Serial Interfaces and Cabling Standards
          1. TIA/EIA-232
          2. TIA/EIA-449
          3. TIA-530
          4. ITU-T V.35
          5. ITU-T X.21
        3. The Cisco Family of Router and Switch Platforms for Frame Relay WAN Connectivity
          1. Cisco 1600/1700 and 2600 Series Routers
          2. Cisco 3600/3700/4000 and AS5000 Series Routers
          3. Cisco 7200/7500, 10000, and 12000 GSR Series Routers
          4. Cisco Wide-Area Switches
        4. Frame Relay Access Speeds and CIR
        5. Introduction to the Cisco Frame Relay Implementation
          1. Global Addressing Versus Local Addressing
          2. Frame Relay Encapsulation
          3. Frame Relay Multicasting
          4. Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
      3. 3. Planning and Managing Frame Relay Networks
        1. Network Planning
          1. Knowledge of Users' Requirements
          2. Knowledge of the Protocol Mix
          3. Knowledge of the Traffic Pattern
          4. Provisioning Bandwidth—Capacity Planning
          5. Frame Relay Subscription
            1. CIR
            2. Committed Burst (Bc)
            3. Excess Burst (Be)
        2. Planning the CIR Subscription
          1. Zero CIR (0 CIR)
          2. Moderated CIR
          3. Maximum CIR
        3. Frame Relay Topology Options
          1. Star Topology
          2. Fully Meshed Topology
          3. Partially Meshed Topology
        4. Performance Management
          1. Classifying Mission-Critical Traffic
          2. Managing Congestion
          3. Traffic Shaping
          4. Queuing
            1. Priority Queuing
            2. Custom Queuing
          5. Frame Relay Compression
        5. Managing Broadcast Traffic
        6. Providing a Backup to Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
        7. A Common Issue Encountered in Frame Relay Networks
          1. Split Horizon
          2. Using Subinterfaces on Cisco Routers
            1. Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
            2. Multipoint Subinterfaces
        8. Summary
        9. Review Questions
      4. 4. Cisco Frame Relay Configurations
        1. Configuring Frame Relay
        2. Enabling Frame Relay Encapsulation
        3. Configuring the LMI Type on a Frame Relay Interface
        4. Configuring Static and Dynamic DLCI to Network Layer Address Mapping
          1. Dynamic Mapping
          2. Static Mapping
        5. Configuring Frame Relay Subinterfaces
          1. Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
        6. Using Frame Relay Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
          1. Using Frame Relay Multipoint Subinterfaces
        7. Configuring a Cisco Router as a Frame Relay Switch
        8. Local Significance Approach to DLCI Assignment
        9. Verifying Frame Relay Connections with IOS show Commands
          1. show interface serial interface-type number
          2. show frame-relay lmi [interface_type interface_number]
          3. show frame-relay map
          4. show frame-relay pvc
          5. show frame-relay route
        10. Troubleshooting Frame Relay Connections with Cisco IOS debug Commands
          1. debug frame-relay events
          2. debug frame-relay lmi
          3. debug frame-relay packet
        11. Summary
        12. Review Questions
        13. Reference
    8. II. Cisco Frame Relay Solutions for Policing and Shaping
      1. 5. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
        1. Current Issues
          1. Dealing with Oversubscription
          2. Data Rate Mismatch
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Explained
        4. How Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Works
          1. Process Switching
          2. Fast Switching
          3. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping on Egress Interface
        5. Adaptive Shaping to BECN
        6. Adaptive Shaping to ForeSight
        7. Configuring Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
        8. Creating a Traffic Shaping Map Class
        9. Associating the Frame Relay Map Class
        10. Monitoring Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Information
          1. show frame-relay pvc
          2. show traffic-shape
          3. Results of Throttling the Output Rate Dynamically
          4. Verifying Regulation of Output Traffic Rate
        11. Configuring Discard Eligibility (DE)
        12. Configuring Frame Relay Broadcast Queue
        13. Configuring DLCI Priority Levels
        14. Differences Between Frame Relay Traffic Shaping and Generic Traffic Shaping
        15. Summary
        16. Review Questions
        17. Reference
        18. Case Study: Managing Data Traffic
        19. Case Study: A Small Hub-and-Spoke Network Running Voice and Video Traffic
      2. 6. Cisco Frame Relay Switching Enhancements
        1. Current Issues
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
          1. Frame Relay Switching Enhancements
            1. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping on Switched PVC
            2. Frame Relay Switching over ISDN B Channels
            3. Basic Policing—Traffic Policing on UNI DCE
            4. Congestion Management on Switched PVCs
        3. Configuring Frame Relay Switching Enhancements on a Cisco Router
          1. Configuring Frame Relay Switching on Switched PVC for Serial and ISDN Interfaces
          2. Configuring Frame Relay Traffic Shaping on Outgoing Switched PVC
          3. Configuring Frame Relay Policing on Incoming Switched Interface
          4. Configuring Frame Relay Congestion Management
        4. Monitoring and Verifying Frame Relay Switching Enhancements on a Cisco Router
          1. Monitoring and Verifying Frame Relay Traffic Shaping on Switched PVCs
          2. Monitoring and Verifying Frame Relay Policing on Ingress Interface
          3. Monitoring and Verifying Frame Relay Congestion Management
            1. Congestion Management on the Interface Level
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Reference
        8. Case Study: Frame Relay Switching over ISDN
      3. 7. Cisco Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive
        1. Current Issues
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive Feature Defined
          1. The Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive Timers
          2. Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive Modes
            1. Bidirectional Mode
            2. Request Mode
            3. Reply Mode
            4. Passive-Reply Mode
        4. Configuring Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive
        5. Monitoring and Verifying Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive
          1. Monitoring Broken Connections
          2. Troubleshooting Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive Connections
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. Reference
        9. Case Study: Using LMI and Frame Relay End-to-End Keepalive
          1. Network Connection Failures
    9. III. Cisco Frame Relay Solutions for Traffic Management
      1. 8. Frame Relay to ATM Interworking
        1. ATM Technology
          1. Comparing ATM to Frame Relay Protocol
        2. Interworking Frame Relay with ATM
        3. Frame Relay Forum Implementation Agreement Document Number FRF.5
          1. Frame Relay Frame Entering an ATM Network
          2. Frame Relay Discard Eligibility and ATM Cell Loss Priority
          3. DE to CLP Bit Mapping in the Frame Relay to ATM Direction for FRF.5
          4. CLP to DE Bit Mapping in the ATM to Frame Relay Direction for FRF.5
          5. Congestion Indication Support in FRF.5
        4. Frame Relay Forum Implementation Agreement Document Number FRF.8.1
          1. FRF.8.1 Translation Mode
          2. FRF.8.1 Transparent Mode
          3. DE to CLP Bit Mapping in the Frame Relay to ATM Direction for FRF.8.1
          4. CLP to DE Bit Mapping in the ATM to Frame Relay Direction for FRF.8.1
        5. Congestion Indication Support in FRF.8.1
        6. Supported Cisco Platforms for Frame Relay to ATM Interworking
          1. Cisco MC3810
          2. Cisco 2600 Series Routers
          3. Cisco 3600 Series Routers
          4. Cisco 7200 Series Routers
        7. Configuring FRF.5 Network Interworking
        8. Verifying FRF.5 Configuration
        9. Configuring FRF.8.1 Service Interworking
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
        12. References
      2. 9. Adaptive Frame Relay Traffic Shaping for Interface Congestion
        1. Current Issues
          1. Congestion in the Frame Relay Network
        2. Solutions for Current Issues
          1. Using map-class
        3. Configuring Adaptive Frame Relay Traffic Shaping for Interface Congestion
        4. Verifying Adaptive Frame Relay Traffic Shaping for Interface Congestion
          1. Using show interface serial Command as an Alternative
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Reference
        8. Case Study: Without Adaptive Frame Relay Traffic Shaping for Interface Congestion
        9. Case Study: With Adaptive Frame Relay Traffic Shaping for Interface Congestion
      3. 10. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over Frame Relay
        1. Requirements for PPP over Frame Relay
        2. RFC 1973 and Cisco Implementation of PPP over Frame Relay
          1. PPP over Frame Relay Development
          2. Cisco 90i IDSL Channel Unit
        3. PPP over Frame Relay Frame Format
          1. Virtual Template Interfaces and Virtual Access Interfaces
          2. Configuring Virtual Template Interfaces
        4. Monitoring PPP over Frame Relay
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. References
        8. Case Study: Verifying PPP over Frame Relay
      4. 11. Frame Relay Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC)
        1. Introduction to Frame Relay SVC
          1. Comparing SVC to PVC
        2. Current Issues
        3. Solutions for Current Issues
          1. Any-to-Any Connectivity Between Remote Sites
          2. Bandwidth-on-Demand and Backup for PVC
          3. Comparing SVC and PVC Usage for Different Network Applications
        4. Setting Up an SVC Operation
          1. SVC Signaling Operation
          2. SVC User Call States
          3. SVC Addressing Plan—E.164 and X.121
        5. Cisco Implementation of Frame Relay SVC
        6. SVC Configuration Tasks
          1. Configuring Frame Relay LAPF Parameters
        7. Monitoring Frame Relay SVC
        8. Summary
        9. Review Questions
        10. References
        11. Case Study: Frame Relay SVC Network Between Two Remote Offices
      5. 12. X.25 over Frame Relay: Using the Annex G Feature
        1. Current Issues
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. Annex G Feature
          1. Cisco Implementation of Annex G
        4. Basic X.25 Configuration Tasks on a Cisco Router
          1. Configuring X.25 Encapsulation
          2. X.25 PVC and SVC
          3. Understanding X.121 Addressing
          4. Configuring X.25 Subinterfaces and X.121 to Network Layer Address Mapping
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. References
        8. Case Study: Use of the Annex G Feature
          1. Configuring Annex G on a Cisco Router
            1. Annex G Configuration Tasks
            2. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Annex G
      6. 13. Frame Relay Enhanced Local Management Interface (ELMI)
        1. Current Issues
          1. Unable to Dynamically Obtain QoS Parameters from Frame Relay Switch
          2. Unable to Obtain End-to-End Mapping of Frame Relay Network
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
          1. Frame Relay ELMI QoS Autosense
          2. Frame Relay ELMI Address Registration
        3. Configuring the Frame Relay ELMI Feature
          1. Configuring Frame Relay QoS Autosense
            1. show frame-relay qos-autosense
            2. show frame-relay pvc
          2. Configuring Frame Relay ELMI Address Registration
        4. Operation of MIB
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. References
      7. 14. Multilink Frame Relay (FRF.16)
        1. Current Issues
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. Multilink Frame Relay Setup and Operation
          1. Multilink Link Integrity Protocol
          2. Initialization and Bundle Setup
            1. Bundle Link Establishment
            2. Bundle Management
            3. Tearing Down the Bundle Link
          3. Multilink Frame Relay System Parameters
        4. Cisco Implementation of Multilink Frame Relay
          1. Definition of Multilink Frame Relay Interface and Bundle Links
        5. Configuring Multilink Frame Relay on Cisco Routers
          1. Tuning Multilink Frame Relay Parameters
          2. Load Balancing Effectively Across the Bundle Links
        6. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Multilink Frame Relay
          1. Verifying Resiliency Across a Bundle
          2. Troubleshooting Multilink Frame Relay
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. References
      8. 15. Compression over Frame Relay
        1. Current Issues
          1. Why Use Compression?
          2. Saving and Optimizing Bandwidth
          3. Reducing the Existing Committed Information Rate (CIR) Requirements
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. How Compression Works
          1. Compression Defined
            1. Nonreversible Data Compression Scheme
            2. Loss-less Compression Algorithm Data Compression Scheme
          2. Stacker Versus Predictor
            1. Stacker Compression Algorithm
            2. Predictor Compression Scheme
          3. Compression Ratios
          4. Software Versus Hardware Compression
        4. Technical Overview of Cisco IOS Frame Relay Compression Schemes
          1. Data Payload Compression Schemes
          2. Packet Header Compression
        5. Configuring Frame Relay Proprietary Payload Compression
        6. Configuring Frame Relay FRF.9 Payload Compression
        7. Configuring TCP/IP Header Compression over Frame Relay
          1. Active Versus Passive TCP/IP Header Compression
          2. Configuring TCP/IP Header Compression over Frame Relay
        8. Configuring Frame Relay RTP Header Compression
        9. Express Header Compression for Cisco IOS Release 12.1
        10. Frame Relay Compression Design Guidelines
          1. Design of the Existing Network
          2. Types of Traffic and Traffic Patterns
          3. CPU and Memory Constraints
          4. Latency and Speed
          5. Compression Ratios
        11. Verifying and Monitoring Frame Relay Compressions on Cisco Routers
          1. Verifying the Effects of Cisco Proprietary Payload Compression
          2. Verifying the Effects of FRF.9 Payload Compression (Software)
          3. Verifying the Effects of TCP/IP Header Compression
          4. Verifying and Monitoring RTP Header Compression
          5. Frame Relay IP RTP Priority
        12. Troubleshooting Frame Relay Compression
        13. Summary
        14. Review Questions
        15. References
      9. 16. Frame Relay Fragmentation
        1. Current Issues
        2. Solutions to Current Issues
        3. Cisco Implementations of Frame Relay Fragmentation
          1. Frame Relay Fragmentation Implementation Agreement FRF.12
            1. End-to-End FRF.12 Fragmentation
            2. FRF.12 Support on Switched PVC
            3. Configuring FRF.12 Fragmentation on Switched PVCs
            4. FRF.12 Fragmentation with Hardware Compression Support
              1. Hardware and Software Compression Compatibility
              2. Configuring Hardware Compression with Fragmentation
          2. Frame Relay Fragmentation Using FRF.11 Annex C
          3. Cisco Proprietary Fragmentation
        4. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Frame Relay Fragmentation
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. References
        8. Case Study: Implementing Fragmentation on a Voice and Data Network
    10. IV. Cisco Frame Relay Solutions for Congestion Management
      1. 17. Frame Relay Congestion Management
        1. The Need for Queuing on Frame Relay Networks
        2. Hierarchical Queuing Architecture for Frame Relay
          1. PVC-Level Queues Versus Interface-Level Queues
          2. Dual-FIFO Queue
          3. Frame Relay Broadcast Queue
        3. Frame Relay PIPQ
          1. PQ Versus Frame Relay PIPQ
          2. Restrictions of Frame Relay PIPQ
        4. Configuring Frame Relay PIPQ
        5. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Frame Relay PIPQ
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. References
      2. 18. Frame Relay Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) and Low Latency Queuing (LLQ)
        1. Overview of the MQC
          1. Configuring a Traffic Class with the class-map Command
          2. Setting Up a Traffic Class with the class-map Command
        2. CBWFQ
          1. WFQ Revisited
          2. Understanding CBWFQ
          3. Comparing WFQ to CBWFQ
        3. Configuring CBWFQ for Frame Relay
        4. Monitoring and Troubleshooting CBWFQ for Frame Relay
        5. LLQ, or PQ/CBWFQ
          1. Frame Relay QoS Features Related to LLQ
          2. Features Not Supported with LLQ for Frame Relay
          3. Configuring LLQ for Frame Relay
        6. Monitoring and Troubleshooting LLQ for Frame Relay
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. References
      3. 19. Frame Relay Queuing and Fragmentation at the Interface
        1. Overview of Frame Relay Queuing and Fragmentation at the Interface
          1. Simplified Configuration for LLQ
          2. Frame Relay Queuing at the Interface
          3. FRF.12 End-to-End Fragmentation at the Interface
          4. Interleaving of Frames for Transmission
          5. Subrate Shaping at the Interface
          6. Related Functionality
          7. Nonsupported Functionality
          8. Configuring Frame Relay Queuing and Fragmentation at the Interface
            1. Example of Frame Relay Queuing and Fragmentation at the Interface
        2. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Frame Relay Queuing and Fragmentation at the Interface
          1. Using the Subrate Shaper
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
        5. Reference
      4. 20. Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) for Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
        1. LFI Using MLP Overview
          1. Supporting Real-Time Applications
          2. MLP-Based LFI Mechanism
        2. Configuring Cisco IOS MLP LFI for Frame Relay on a Cisco Router
        3. Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Cisco IOS MLP LFI over Frame Relay Feature
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. Reference
        7. Case Study: LFI over Frame Relay Using MLP
          1. Configuration Examples
    11. V. Cisco Frame Relay Solutions for Congestion Avoidance and Signaling
      1. 21. Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) for Frame Relay
        1. Overview of Congestion Avoidance Mechanisms
          1. Layer 3 Queues
          2. Tail Drop
          3. Random Early Detection (RED)
          4. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
          5. WRED
            1. Flow-Based WRED
          6. WRED Support for Frame Relay
        2. Configuring WRED for Frame Relay
          1. Enabling WRED on an Interface
          2. Enabling WRED in a Traffic Policy
          3. Scenario: Comparison of Tail Drop and WRED for Frame Relay
        3. Monitoring and Troubleshooting Tail Drop and WRED
          1. Monitoring Tail Drop and WRED
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. References
      2. 22. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) for Frame Relay
        1. General Overview of RSVP
          1. Standard Data Traffic Versus Real-Time Traffic
          2. Bandwidth Reservation Service
        2. RSVP Support for Frame Relay
          1. Benefits of RSVP Protocol Support for Frame Relay
        3. Configuring RSVP Support for Frame Relay
          1. Verifying RSVP Support for Frame Relay
        4. Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP Support for Frame Relay
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Reference
    12. A. Answers to Review Questions
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 9
      10. Chapter 10
      11. Chapter 11
      12. Chapter 12
      13. Chapter 13
      14. Chapter 14
      15. Chapter 15
      16. Chapter 16
      17. Chapter 17
      18. Chapter 18
      19. Chapter 19
      20. Chapter 20
      21. Chapter 21
      22. Chapter 22