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Cisco CCNA/CCENT Exam 640-802, 640-822, 640-816 Preparation Kit

Book Description

Three exams, two certifications, one complete Cisco training solution for networking professionals!

The CCNA exam is an entry-level IT certification from Cisco Systems for professionals installing and maintaining route and switched networks. The current exam material covers networking concepts along with new and updated content on network security fundamentals and the basics of wireless networking.

This book can be used as a study guide for either track you choose to receive your CCNA – the single exam, 640-802 or the combined 640-822 and 640-816, and for the CCENT certification which a student will receive upon completion of the 640-822 exam. The author team has arranged the content so that you can easily identify the objectives for each half of the combined exam.



* Layout of the guide parallels the CCNA/CCENT exam objectives for ease of study * Details all aspects of the exams including security and wireless networking essentials * Covers everything from introductory to advanced topics—keeping the beginner and intermediate IT professional in mind * Chapter ending questions and answers allow for graduated learning * Two practice exams on the accompanying DVD help eliminate test-day jitters

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. About the Authors
    1. Lead Author and Technical Editor
    2. Contributing Technical Editors
    3. Contributing Authors
  4. Contributors
  5. 1. Introduction to Networking
    1. Introduction
    2. Networking Hardware
      1. Cabling
        1. Ethernet
        2. Serial
        3. RTS/CTS
        4. Fiber
        5. Coax
      2. NICs
        1. Wired
        2. Wireless
        3. Security
          1. WEP
          2. WPA
          3. LEAP
      3. Repeaters
      4. Hubs
      5. Bridges
      6. Switches
      7. Routers
      8. Wireless Access Point
    3. Network Types
      1. Local Area Networks
        1. Private IP Address Ranges
        2. APIPA
      2. Wide Area Networks
        1. Public IP Address Ranges
      3. Metropolitan Area Networks
      4. Campus Area Networks
      5. Virtual Private Networks
      6. Storage Area Networks
    4. Networking Topologies
      1. Star
      2. Bus
      3. Star-Bus
      4. Ring
      5. Mesh
    5. IEEE
      1. 802.5
        1. MAU/MSAU
        2. NIC
        3. Cable
    6. Basic Networking Concepts
      1. MAC Address
        1. Vendor OUI
        2. Spoofing
      2. Protocols
        1. TCP/IP
        2. IPX/SPX
        3. AppleTalk
      3. IP Address
        1. IPv4
        2. IPv6
      4. Subnet Mask
      5. Gateway
      6. DHCP
      7. Domain Name System
    7. VoIP
    8. Summary of Exam Objectives
    9. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Networking Hardware
      2. Network Types
      3. Networking Topologies
      4. IEEE
      5. Basic Networking Concepts
      6. VoIP
    10. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    11. Self Test
    12. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  6. 2. The Open Systems Interconnect Model
    1. Introduction
    2. An Overview of the OSI Model
      1. Physical Layer
        1. Devices
      2. Data Link Layer
        1. Devices
        2. MAC
        3. Logical Link Control
      3. Network Layer
        1. Devices
        2. Routing
      4. Transport Layer
      5. Session Layer
      6. Presentation Layer
      7. Application Layer
    3. An Overview of the TCP/IP Model
      1. Network Interface Layer
        1. CSMA/CD
        2. CSMA/CA
      2. Internet Layer
        1. IPv4
        2. ICMP
        3. IGMP
        4. ARP
      3. Transport Layer
        1. TCP
        2. UDP
      4. Application Layer
        1. SMB/CIFS
        2. Telnet
        3. SMTP
        4. POP
        5. IMAP
        6. HTTP
        7. FTP
        8. DNS
        9. Network Time Protocol
        10. SNMP
      5. PDU
        1. Segment
        2. Packet
        3. Frame
        4. Bit
    4. Summary of Exam Objectives
    5. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. An Overview of the OSI Model
      2. An Overview of the TCP/IP Model
    6. Acknowledgement
    7. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    8. Self Test
    9. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  7. 3. Subnetting, CIDR, and Variable Length Subnet Masking
    1. Introduction
    2. IP Addresses
      1. Subnet Mask
    3. Binary Decimal Conversions
      1. Network ID
      2. Host ID
      3. Class
        1. Class A
        2. Class B
        3. Class C
        4. Class D
        5. Class E
      4. Broadcast
      5. Multicast
      6. Unicast
      7. Octet
    4. Subnetting
    5. CIDR
    6. Variable Length Subnet Masking
    7. NAT/PAT
      1. NAT Overview
      2. NAT
        1. Transparent Address Assignment
        2. Transparent Routing
      3. NAT Architectures
        1. Traditional NAT or Outbound NAT
        2. Port Address Translation
        3. Static NAT
      4. Guidelines for Deploying NAT and PAT
      5. Configuring NAT on Cisco IOS
        1. Configuration Commands
        2. Verification Commands
      6. Configuring NAT between a Private Network and the Internet
    8. Summary of Exam Objectives
    9. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. IP Addresses
      2. Binary Decimal Conversions
      3. Subnetting
      4. CIDR
      5. Variable Length Subnet Masking
      6. NAT/PAT
    10. Acknowledgement
    11. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    12. Self Test
    13. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  8. 4. Configuring Cisco Routers
    1. Introduction
    2. Connecting to the Router
      1. HyperTerminal
      2. Minicom
    3. User Exec Mode
      1. Commands
        1. The Show Command
    4. Privileged Exec Mode
      1. Commands
        1. The Show Command
        2. The Copy Command
        3. The Reload Command
        4. The No Command
    5. Global Configuration Mode
      1. Commands
        1. The Hostname Command
        2. The Banner Command
    6. Managing Internetwork Operating System
      1. Configuration Files
    7. Backup and Restore
      1. Backing Up Configurations
        1. Trivial File Transfer Protocol
      2. Restoring Configurations
    8. Troubleshooting Routers
      1. Troubleshooting Connection Problems
      2. Solving Boot Problems
        1. The Configuration Register
        2. Booting to a Different IOS Image
        3. Resetting the Router Password
      3. Firmware Upgrade
    9. Summary of Exam Objectives
    10. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Connecting to the Router
      2. User Exec Mode
      3. Privileged Exec Mode
      4. Global Configuration Mode
      5. Managing Internetwork Operating System
      6. Backup and Restore
      7. Troubleshooting Routers
    11. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    12. Self Test
    13. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  9. 5. Routing Protocols: RIP, RIPv2, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF
    1. Introduction
    2. Routing
      1. Network Addresses
      2. Routing Tables
        1. Routing Terms
          1. Routing Protocols
          2. Administrative Distance
          3. Routing Metrics
          4. Convergence
      3. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocols
      4. Link-State Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocols
      5. Hybrid Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocols
      6. Open Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocols
      7. Proprietary Routing Protocols
        1. Routing Protocols
    3. RIP
      1. Routing Metric
      2. Routing Updates
    4. RIPv2
      1. Routing Metric
      2. Routing Updates
      3. Configuring RIPv2
    5. IGRP
      1. Routing Metric
      2. Routing Updates
        1. Autonomous Systems
    6. EIGRP
      1. Routing Metrics
      2. Routing Updates
        1. RTP
        2. ASes
        3. DUAL
      3. Configuring EIGRP
    7. OSPF
      1. Routing Metrics
      2. Routing Updates
        1. ASes and Areas
        2. Stub Areas
        3. Route Summarization
        4. Designated Routers
      3. Configuring OSPF
    8. Comparison and Contrast of CISCO Routing Protocols
    9. Summary of Exam Objectives
    10. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Routing
      2. RIP
      3. RIPv2
      4. IGRP
      5. EIGRP
      6. OSPF
      7. Comparison and Contrast of Cisco Routing Protocols
    11. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    12. Self Test
    13. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  10. 6. Implementing RIP, Version 2
    1. Introduction
    2. RIP, Version 2
      1. Characteristics of RIP
      2. Advantages and Disadvantages of RIP 2
    3. Configuring RIP 2
      1. Neighbors
        1. How RIP Discovers Routes
        2. Unicast Communications
      2. Authentication
        1. Plain Text Authentication
        2. MD5 Authentication
    4. Verifying RIP 2 Configurations
      1. The show Commands
        1. show ip rip database
        2. show ip route
      2. Verifying the Routes on All Routers
    5. Troubleshooting RIP 2
      1. Debug Commands
        1. debug ip rip
      2. Verifying MD5 Authentication
        1. debug ip routing
    6. Summary of Exam Objectives
    7. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. RIP, Version 2
      2. Configuring RIP 2
      3. Verifying RIP 2 Configurations
      4. Troubleshooting RIP 2
    8. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Self Test
    10. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  11. 7. Implementing the OSPF Protocol
    1. Introduction
    2. The OSPF Protocol
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    3. Configuring OSPF
      1. Neighbors
      2. Nonbroadcast Multiple Access Networks
        1. Hello Protocol
        2. Router Adjacencies
        3. Designated Router
        4. Backup Designated Router
        5. Election Process
        6. Configuring the Loopback Address
        7. Changing Priority
      3. OSPF States
        1. Down
        2. Attempt
        3. Init
        4. Full (Also Known as Adjacency)
        5. Two-Way
        6. ExStart
        7. Exchange
        8. Loading
      4. Authentication
        1. Plain Text Authentication
        2. MD5 Authentication
    4. Verifying OSPF Configurations
      1. Utilizing the Show Command
        1. Examples of the Show Command
          1. Using the Show Command for Plain Text Authentication
          2. Using the Show Command for MD5 Authentication
          3. Reviewing the show ip ospf Command
          4. Reviewing the show ip ospf border-routers Command
          5. Reviewing the show ip ospf database Command
          6. Reviewing the show ip ospf database opaque-area Command
          7. Reviewing the show ip ospf interface Command
          8. Reviewing the show ip ospf internal-statistics Command
          9. Reviewing the show ip ospf neighbors Command
          10. Reviewing the show ip ospf remote-neighbor interface command
          11. Reviewing the show ip ospf spf-log Command
          12. Reviewing the show ip ospf virtual-linksh Command
    5. Troubleshooting OSPF
      1. Debug Commands
        1. Reviewing the debug ip ospf Command
        2. Reviewing the ospf log-adjacency-changes Command
        3. Reviewing the undebug ip ospf Command
    6. Summary of Exam Objectives
    7. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. The OSPF Protocol
      2. Configuring OSPF
      3. Verifying OSPF Configurations
      4. Troubleshooting OSPF
    8. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Self Test
    10. Self Test Quick Answer Key
    11. References
  12. 8. Implementing the EIGRP
    1. Introduction
    2. The EIGRP
      1. Advantages
        1. RTP
      2. Disadvantages
    3. Configuring EIGRP
      1. Route Summarization in EIGRP
      2. Neighbor Discovery
        1. Neighbor Table
      3. Topology Table
      4. Building the Initial EIGRP Routing Tables
        1. The EIGRP Metric
      5. DUAL
      6. PDMs
      7. Packet Types
        1. Hello
        2. Acknowledgement
        3. Update
        4. Query
        5. Reply
      8. Authentication
        1. MD5 Authentication
    4. Verifying EIGRP
      1. Show Commands
    5. Troubleshooting EIGRP
      1. Debug Commands
    6. Summary of Exam Objectives
    7. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. The EIGRP
      2. Configuring EIGRP
      3. Verifying EIGRP
      4. Troubleshooting EIGRP
    8. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Self Test
    10. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  13. 9. Access Control Lists
    1. Introduction
    2. The Anatomy of an ACL
      1. ACL Types
      2. Access Control Entries Definition and Order
      3. IP ACE Criteria
        1. IP Matching Using Wildcard Masks
        2. Getting Fancy with Wildcard Masks
        3. Wildcard Shortcuts
        4. Filtering on Other Elements of the Packet
          1. Protocol
          2. Ports
          3. QoS Information
          4. State Information
    3. ACL Details and Examples
      1. Standard ACLs
      2. Extended ACLs
      3. Limitations of Numbered ACLs
      4. Named Access Lists
      5. Renumbering ACE Sequence Numbers
      6. ACL comments
    4. Applying an ACL
      1. Applying an ACL to an Interface
      2. Applying an ACL to a Terminal Line
      3. Other Ways to Apply ACLs
        1. Controlling Access via SNMP
        2. Using ACLs with NAT
        3. Controlling Route Distribution Using ACLs
        4. Building a Virtual Private Network with ACLs
    5. Access List Enhancements
      1. Hardware Processing
      2. Time-Based ACLs
      3. Reflexive ACL and Context-Based Access Control
      4. Dynamic ACLs
      5. Flexible Packet Matching
    6. ACL Troubleshooting
      1. What Can Go Wrong with ACLs
      2. Verifying the Configuration
      3. Seeing the ACL in Action Using Hit Counters
      4. Seeing the ACL in Action Using Log Output
      5. Common Pitfalls with ACLs
      6. Feature Order of Operation and Its Affect on ACLs
      7. Debugging
    7. Summary of Exam Objectives
    8. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. The Anatomy of an ACL
      2. ACL Details and Examples
      3. Applying an ACL
      4. Access List Enhancements
      5. ACL Troubleshooting
    9. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    10. Self Test
    11. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  14. 10. IPv6
    1. Introduction
    2. Need for IPv6
      1. Differences from IPv4
      2. Interoperability with IPv4
        1. Dual-Stacks
        2. Tunneling
    3. IPv6 Addresses
      1. Address Space
        1. Global Unicast Addresses
        2. Link-Local Unicast Addresses
        3. Unique Local Unicast Addresses
        4. Multicast Addresses
        5. Anycast Addresses
        6. Aggregating Addresses
    4. Configuring an IPV6 Address
      1. Autoconfiguration of Addresses
        1. Stateless Autoconfiguration
        2. DHCP for IP Version 6
      2. Enabling IPv6
        1. EUI-64
      3. Link-Local
      4. Unnumbered
      5. IPv6 DNS Mappings
      6. IPv6 ACLs
      7. IPv6 Routing
        1. IPv6 RIP
        2. IPv6 OSPF
    5. Verifying IPV6
      1. Show Commands
    6. Troubleshooting IPV6
      1. Clear Commands
      2. Debug Commands
    7. Summary of Exam Objectives
    8. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Need for IPv6
      2. IPv6 Addresses
      3. Configuring an IPv6 Address
      4. Verifying IPv6
      5. Troubleshooting IPv6
    9. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    10. Self Test
    11. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  15. 11. Configuring Cisco Switches
    1. Introduction
    2. Switching Concepts
      1. Switching Modes
      2. Symmetric Versus Asymmetric Switching
      3. Content-Addressable Memory
      4. MAC Flooding
      5. Layer 2 Switches
      6. Layer 3 Switches
      7. Collision Domains
      8. Microsegmentation
      9. Broadcast Domains
    3. Configuring Switches
      1. Understanding the LED Indicators
      2. Connecting to the Switch
        1. HyperTerminal
        2. Minicom
        3. Cisco Network Assistant
      3. Commands
        1. User Exec Mode
        2. Privileged Mode
      4. Understanding Port-Based Security
        1. Allowing Traffic from a Known MAC Address
      5. Managing a Switch via a Web-Based Interface
    4. Maintaining Switches
      1. Displaying the List of Available Commands
      2. Upgrading the Firmware
      3. Backing Up and Restoring Configurations
        1. Backing Up Configurations
        2. Restoring Configurations
    5. Troubleshooting Switches
      1. Using the show Commands
        1. Using the clear Commands
      2. Solving Boot Problems
        1. Resetting a Switch Password
        2. Recovering a Switch Password
    6. Summary of Exam Objectives
    7. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Switching Concepts
      2. Configuring Switches
      3. Maintaining Switches
      4. Troubleshooting Switches
    8. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Self Test
    10. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  16. 12. Spanning-Tree Protocol
    1. Introduction
    2. Ethernet Frame Forwarding
      1. The Problems with Loops in Ethernet Networks
    3. What Is a Spanning Tree and How Does it Eliminate Loops?
      1. STP: The Details
      2. Root Bridge Election
      3. Path Cost and Root Port Selection
      4. Designated Ports
      5. Loop Elimination
        1. Port States and STP Timers
    4. The Operation of STP: Putting It All Together
      1. STP Operation at Initial Power Up
      2. STP Operation after Link Failure
    5. Problems with Original STP and Solutions
      1. STP Enhancements to Speed Convergence
        1. Uplinkfast
        2. Backbonefast
        3. Portfast
      2. STP Enhancements for Stability
        1. Bpdu Guard
        2. Rootguard
        3. Loopguard and UDLD
    6. STP Protocol Evolution
      1. Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol (802.1w)
        1. New RSTP port states
        2. New RSTP port roles
        3. Bpdu Processing in RSTP
        4. Fast Network Convergence with RSTP
      2. Multiple Spanning-Tree Protocol (802.1s)
    7. RSTP Configuration
      1. Selecting the protocol Mode and Other Global Settings
      2. Changing STP Timers
      3. Affecting the STP Topology
      4. RSTP Interoperability with 802.1d STP
      5. RSTP Sample Configurations
    8. STP Troubleshooting
      1. Check the Operational Settings of STP
      2. What Can Go Wrong?
    9. Summary of Exam Objectives
    10. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Ethernet Frame Forwarding
      2. What Is a Spanning Tree and How Does it Eliminate Loops?
      3. The Operation of STP: Putting it all Together
      4. Problems with Original STP and Solutions
      5. STP Protocol Evolution
      6. RSTP configuration
      7. STP Troubleshooting
    11. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    12. Self Test
    13. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  17. 13. VLANs
    1. Introduction
    2. VLANs Explained
      1. Broadcast Domains
      2. Security
      3. Static VLANs
      4. Port-Based VLANs
      5. Dynamic VLANs
        1. MAC-Based VLANs
        2. Protocol-Based VLANs
    3. Configuring a VLAN
      1. Naming and Numbering the VLAN
      2. Setting the VLAN IP Address
      3. VLAN Frames
        1. 802.1Q
        2. Interswitch Link Protocol
        3. FDDI 802.10
        4. LANE
    4. VLAN Databases
      1. VLAN Types
        1. Default
        2. FDDI Default
        3. Token Ring Default
        4. FDDInet Default
        5. Trnet Default
      2. Creating VLANs
      3. Adding VLANs
      4. Deleting VLANs
    5. Verifying VLANs
      1. Verifying VLAN Assignment
    6. Troubleshooting VLANs
      1. Show Commands
      2. Clear Commands
    7. Summary of Exam Objectives
    8. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. VLANs Explained
      2. Configuring a VLAN
      3. VLAN Databases
      4. Verifying VLANs
      5. Troubleshooting VLANs
    9. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    10. Self Test
    11. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  18. 14. VLAN Trunking Protocol
    1. Introduction
    2. Explaining VTP
      1. Trunks
      2. Broadcast Domains
      3. Relation to VLANs
      4. Security through VLANs
      5. Encapsulation Methods
        1. 802.1Q
        2. ISL
    3. VTP Modes
      1. Server
      2. Client
      3. Transparent
      4. Off
    4. Configuring VTP
      1. Versions
        1. Version 1
        2. Version 2
      2. Creating a Management Domain
      3. Adding a Switch to a Management Domain
      4. Verifying VTP Configuration
      5. VTP Password
        1. Message Digest 5
      6. VTP Pruning
        1. Pruneeligible
    5. Inter-VLAN Routing
      1. Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing
        1. Router on a Stick
        2. IP Route Command
        3. Isolating Broadcast Traffic
    6. Verifying and Troubleshooting VTP
      1. Show Commands
    7. Summary of Exam Objectives
    8. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Explaining VTP
      2. VTP Modes
      3. Configuring VTP
      4. Inter-VLAN Routing
      5. Verifying and Troubleshooting VTP
    9. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    10. Self Test
    11. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  19. 15. Cisco WAN Configuration
    1. Introduction
    2. What is a WAN?
      1. WAN Terms
        1. CPE—Customer Premise Equipment
        2. CO—Central Office
        3. Last Mile
        4. Demarcation Point
        5. Toll Network
      2. Categories
        1. Circuit-Switched
        2. Packet-Switched
        3. Dedicated
      3. WAN Types
        1. PSTN
        2. ISDN
        3. DSL
        4. Cable Modem
        5. T1/T3
        6. E1/E3
        7. Optical Carrier
        8. ATM
        9. Frame Relay
    3. WAN Encapsulation Formats
      1. PPP
      2. HDLC
    4. WAN Connection Devices
      1. DTE/DCE
        1. Router
        2. Modem
        3. CSU/DSU
      2. Standards
        1. EAI/TAI 232
        2. X.25
    5. WAN Network Models
      1. Mesh
        1. Advantages
        2. Disadvantages
      2. Partial Mesh
        1. Advantages
        2. Disadvantages
      3. Hub and Spoke
        1. Components
          1. Perimeter Router
          2. Core Router
          3. Spoke Router
        2. Advantages
        3. Disadvantages
    6. Summary of Exam Objectives
    7. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. What is a WAN?
      2. WAN Encapsulation Formats
      3. WAN Connection Devices
      4. WAN Network Models
    8. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    9. Self Test
    10. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  20. 16. Configuring PPP and CHAP
    1. Introduction
    2. Understanding PPP and CHAP
      1. OSI Model Fundamentals
      2. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
        1. Understanding LCP and NCP
        2. PPP Frame Format
        3. Understanding PPP Phases
      3. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
      4. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
    3. Configuring and Implementing PPP and CHAP on CISCO Routers
      1. Troubleshooting PPP and CHAP
        1. Debugging PPP
    4. Summary of Exam Objectives
    5. Exam Objectives Fast Track
      1. Understanding PPP and CHAP
      2. Configuring and Implementing PPP and CHAP on Cisco Routers
    6. Exam Objectives Frequently Asked Questions
    7. Self Test
    8. Self Test Quick Answer Key
  21. Self Test
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Networking
    2. Chapter 2: Open Systems Interconnect Model
    3. Chapter 3: Subnetting, CIDR, and Variable Length Subnet Masking
    4. Chapter 4: Configuring Cisco Routers
    5. Chapter 5: Routing Protocols: RIP, RIPv2, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF
    6. Chapter 6: Implementing RIP, Version 2
    7. Chapter 7: Implementing the OSPF Protocol
    8. Chapter 8: Implementing the EIGRP
    9. Chapter 9: Access Control Lists
    10. Chapter 10: IPv6
    11. Chapter 11: Configuring Cisco Switches
    12. Chapter 12: Spanning-Tree Protocol
    13. Chapter 13: VLANs
    14. Chapter 14: VLAN Trunking Protocol
    15. Chapter 15: Cisco WAN Configuration
    16. Chapter 16: Configuring PPP and CHAP