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Cisco CallManager Fundamentals, Second Edition

Book Description

Exposes the inner workings of Cisco CallManager to help you maximize your Cisco IP Communications solution

  • Read new content on QSIG, SIP trunks, video support, hunt lists and line groups, time-of-day routing, and new features added in CallManager releases 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.0, and 4.1

  • Review content from the first edition that has been fully revised and updated to CallManager release 4.1

  • Learn how to deploy and manage a CallManager solution

  • Understand the components that make up CallManager call routing through the use of basic to advanced examples that solve enterprise call routing problems

  • Gain a full understanding of how CallManager manages media resources and processes information for conferencing, transcoding, annunciation, and more

  • Learn detailed information about North American and international dial plans, trunk and station devices, media resources, and much more 

  • Cisco CallManager Fundamentals, Second Edition, provides examples and reference information about Cisco® CallManager, the call-processing component of the Cisco IP Communications solution. Cisco CallManager Fundamentals uses examples and architectural descriptions to explain how CallManager processes calls. This book details the inner workings of CallManager so that those responsible for designing and maintaining a Voice over IP (VoIP) solution from Cisco Systems® can understand the role each component plays and how they interrelate.

    This book is the perfect resource to supplement your understanding of CallManager. You’ll learn detailed information about dial plan management and call routing, hardware and software components, media processing, call detail records, system management and monitoring, and the history of CallManager. The authors, all members of the original team that developed and implemented the CallManager software and documentation from its early stages, also provide a list of features and Cisco solutions that integrate with CallManager.

    This second edition of Cisco CallManager Fundamentals covers software releases through release 4.1. With this book, you will gain a deeper understanding of the system and find answers to questions not available in any other source.

    This book is part of the Cisco Press® Fundamentals Series. Books in this series introduce networking professionals to new networking technologies, covering network topologies, example deployment concepts, protocols, and management techniques.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
    3. About the Contributing Author
    4. About the Technical Reviewers
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. Command Syntax Conventions
    7. Icons Used in This Book
    8. Foreword
    9. Introduction
      1. Target Release: Cisco CallManager 4.1
      2. Comments for the Authors
      3. Goals and Methods
      4. Who Should Read This Book?
      5. Book Features and Text Conventions
      6. How This Book Is Organized
      7. Further Reading
        1. Cisco Documentation
          1. Cisco CallManager Best Practices
          2. Troubleshooting Cisco IP Telephony
          3. Developing Cisco IP Phone Services
          4. Cisco IP Telephony: Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation, and Optimization
          5. Integrating Voice and Data Networks
    10. 1. Cisco CallManager Architecture
      1. Circuit-Switched Systems
        1. Call Establishment in a Circuit-Switched Telephone System
        2. Cisco IP Communications Networks
        3. CallManager History
          1. 1994—Multimedia Manager
          2. 1997—Selsius-CallManager
          3. 2000—Cisco CallManager Release 3.0
          4. 2001—Cisco CallManager Release 3.1
          5. 2001—Cisco CallManager Release 3.2
          6. 2002—Cisco CallManager Release 3.3
          7. 2004—Cisco CallManager Release 4.0
          8. 2004—Cisco CallManager Release 4.1
        4. Cisco-Certified Servers for Running Cisco IP Communications
        5. Windows 2000 and Tomcat Services on Cisco IP Communications Servers
        6. Client Devices That CallManager Supports
        7. Call Establishment in a Cisco IP Communications Network
        8. Cisco IP Communications Clustering
          1. Clustering and Reliability
          2. Database Clustering
          3. CallManager Clustering
          4. Device Redundancy
          5. Deployment of Servers Within a CallManager Cluster
            1. Minimum Configuration—Up to 1250 Users
            2. 1:1 Redundancy—Up to 7500 Users
            3. 2:1 Redundancy—Up to 10,000 Users
            4. Up to 30,000 Users
            5. More than 30,000 Users
      2. Enterprise Deployment of CallManager Clusters
        1. Network Topologies
          1. Single-Site Model
          2. Multiple-Site Model with Independent Call Processing
          3. Multiple-Site IP WAN Model with Distributed Call Processing
          4. Multiple-Site Model with Centralized Call Processing
          5. Combined Multiple-Site Model
        2. Quality of Service (QoS)
          1. Traffic Marking
            1. IP Precedence
            2. Differentiated Services
      3. Regions
        1. CallManager Locations-Based Call Admissions Control
        2. H.323 Gatekeeper
      4. Summary
    11. 2. Call Routing
      1. The Three Responsibilities of Call Routing
      2. The Seven Fundamentals of Call Routing
      3. Route Patterns and Route Filters
        1. Wildcards
        2. Dialing Behavior
          1. Example 1: Simple Call Routing
          2. Example 2: Closest Match Routing
          3. Example 3: Wildcards That Match Multiple Digits
          4. Overlapped Sending and Non-North American Numbering Plans
        3. Dialing Behavior Refinements
          1. Urgent Route Patterns
          2. Outside Dial Tone
          3. Call Classification
          4. MLPP Precedence
          5. The Route/Block Flag
          6. Forced Authorization Codes and Client Matter Codes
        4. Other Wildcards (@ and .)
          1. @ Wildcard
          2. . Wildcard
        5. Route Filters
          1. Tags
          2. Operators
          3. Route Filter Operation
          4. Useful Route Filters for the North American Numbering Plan
          5. Block Calls Where the User Has Selected a Long Distance Carrier
          6. Block International Calls
          7. Route Just Local Numbers
            1. Seven-Digit Dialing
          8. Metro Dialing
            1. 10-Digit Dialing
          9. Route Toll-Free Numbers
          10. Eliminate Interdigit Timing Between 7-Digit and 10-Digit Patterns
          11. Block 900 Numbers
      4. Dialing Transformations
        1. When CallManager Can Apply Dialing Transformations
        2. About Device Types That CallManager Supports
        3. About Masks
        4. About Name and Line Presentation
        5. Dialing Transformation-Related Service Parameters
          1. Calling Party Number Screening Indicator
          2. Matching Calling Party Number With Attendant Flag
          3. Overlap Receiving Flag for PRI
          4. Strip # from Called Party Number
          5. Unknown Caller ID, UnknownCallerIDFlag, and UnknownCallerIDText
          6. Numbering Plan Info
        6. Transformations on the Originating Device
          1. External Phone Number Mask
          2. Prefix Digits
          3. Expected Digits and Num Digits
          4. Attendant DN
          5. Significant Digits
        7. Transformations in Translation Patterns, Route Patterns, and Route Lists
          1. Called Party Transformations
          2. Digit Discarding Instructions
          3. Called Party Transformation Mask
          4. Prefix Digits
          5. Calling Party Transformations
          6. Use External Phone Number Mask Check Box
          7. Calling Party Transformation Mask
          8. Prefix Digits
        8. Transformations on the Terminating Device
          1. Caller ID DN
          2. Calling Party Selection
          3. Calling Line ID Presentation
          4. Called Party IE Number Type
          5. Calling Party IE Number Type
          6. Called Numbering Plan
          7. Calling Numbering Plan
          8. Number of Digits to Strip
          9. Display IE Delivery
          10. Redirecting Number IE Delivery
      5. Translation Patterns
        1. Security Desk and Operator Functionality
        2. Hotline Functionality
        3. Extension Mapping from the Public to the Private Network
        4. Insertion of Access Codes in the Received Calls and Missed Calls Menus of Cisco IP Phones
        5. Multiple-Tenant Applications
          1. Extension Mapping for Multiple Tenants
          2. Calls Between Tenants
      6. Call Hunting Constructs
        1. Hunt Lists and Line Groups
          1. Line Groups
          2. Hunt Lists
          3. Hunt Pilots
        2. Route Lists and Route Groups
          1. Route List and Group Operation
        3. Assigning Gateways to Route Groups and Route Groups to Route Lists
          1. Assigning Gateways to Route Groups
          2. Assigning Route Groups to Route Lists
        4. Route-Based Calling and Called Party Transformations
        5. QSIG and Non-QSIG Route Lists
      7. Calling Search Spaces and Partitions
        1. Calling Search Space and Partitions Analogy
        2. Calling Search Space and Partition Operation
          1. Calling Search Space and Partitions Example
          2. Calling Search Spaces on Line and on Station
          3. Call Forwarding Calling Search Spaces
          4. Calling Search Spaces Interaction with Unified Messaging Systems
          5. About Cisco Messaging Interface (CMI)
          6. About Non-SMDI-Based Unified Messaging Systems
          7. Delivering the Correct Mailbox Number to Unified Messaging
          8. Message Waiting Indicator
          9. Time-of-Day Routing
          10. QSIG Calling Search Spaces
            1. Call Forward by Rerouting
            2. Path Replacement
      8. Case Studies
        1. Routing by Class of Calling User
          1. User-Restriction Configuration Process
        2. Routing by Geographic Location (or What the External Route Plan Wizard Builds)
          1. Geographical Routing Problem Description
          2. Outbound dialing
          3. Route Group and Route List Creation
          4. Route Filter Creation and Route Pattern Assignment
          5. Applying Calling and Called Party Transformations
          6. Calling Search Space Creation, Calling Search Space Assignment, and Phone Configuration
          7. Inbound Dialing
          8. Define Translation Patterns
          9. Define and Assign Inbound Calling Search Spaces
          10. Geographical Routing Summary
      9. Miscellaneous Solutions
        1. Insertion of Access Codes in the Placed Calls Menu of Cisco IP Phones
        2. Automatic Rerouting of Calls when Call Admission Control Fails
        3. One-to-One Station-to-Trunk Mapping
        4. Fallback Routing to Another PBX
        5. Multiple Call Appearances
        6. Enhanced 911 Support
      10. International Numbering Plans
        1. File Format
        2. International Dial Plans
      11. Troubleshooting
        1. Cisco CallManager Dialed Number Analyzer
        2. CallManager Applies Outside Dial Tone Too Late
        3. CallManager Applies Outside Dial Tone Too Early
        4. Seven-Digit Calls to the North American PSTN Wait 10 Seconds Before Routing
        5. Phone A Can Call Phone B, but Not Vice Versa
        6. Route Pattern 9 XXX XXXX and Route Pattern 9.@ Are Defined, but CallManager Never Selects Route Pattern 9 XXX XXXX
        7. Digit Discarding Instructions on a Route Pattern Are Defined, but the Digit Discarding Instructions Are Not Taking Effect
        8. CPU Usage on a CallManager Server Rises to 100 Percent, Memory Usage Escalates, and Ultimately CallManager Restarts
      12. Summary
    12. 3. Station Devices
      1. Definition of Station Devices
      2. Overview of Station Device Features Supported by CallManager
        1. User/Station Distinction
        2. Line Appearance Model
        3. Shared Line Examples
          1. Shared Line for Small Support Group
          2. Shared Line for Executive Support
        4. Station Features
          1. Distinctive Ring per Line
          2. Change Ring Settings
          3. Block Calling ID on a Per-Call Basis
          4. Malicious Call Identification
          5. Barge/cBarge/Privacy
            1. Privacy
            2. Barge
            3. cBarge
          6. Join
          7. Direct Transfer
          8. iDivert
          9. Service URLs/Speed Dials
          10. Abbreviated Dialing (AbbrDial)
          11. Dropping Conference Participants
            1. Drop Last Party
            2. Drop Any Party
          12. Configurable Display of Forwarded Call Information
          13. Configurable Text Label per Line
          14. Alerting Name
          15. Auto Answer
          16. Media Termination at Route Points
      3. Overview of Station Devices Supported by CallManager
        1. Role of CallManager for Stations
        2. SCCP Overview
        3. Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) Overview
        4. H.323 Endpoint Overview
      4. SCCP Station Devices
        1. Cisco IP Phones
          1. Cisco IP Phone 7902G
          2. Cisco IP Phone 7905G
          3. Cisco IP Phone 7912G
          4. Cisco Wireless IP Phone 7920
          5. Cisco IP Phones 7940G, 7941G, 7960G, 7961G, 7970G, and 7971G-GE
          6. Cisco IP Phone 7914 Expansion Module
          7. Cisco IP Phone Conference Station 7936
          8. Cisco IP Phone 7985G
          9. Cisco IP Communicator
        2. Cisco IP Phone Registration
        3. Cisco IP Phone Security
          1. Configuration
            1. Gratuitous ARP Field
            2. PC Port Field
            3. PC Voice VLAN Access Field
            4. Settings Access Field
          2. Device Identity and Configuration File Security
          3. Media Privacy
        4. Call Signaling
        5. Cisco IP Phone Services
          1. Overview of Cisco IP Phone Services
          2. Phone-Supported XML Objects
      5. Cisco VT Advantage
      6. Computer Telephony Interface (CTI) Devices
        1. CTI Application Architecture Overview
        2. Application Layers External to CallManager
          1. TAPI
          2. JTAPI
        3. CTI Layer
      7. H.323 Endpoint Devices
        1. H.323 Protocol Support
        2. H.323 Device Configuration
        3. Gatekeeper Functionality
      8. Summary
    13. 4. Trunk Devices
      1. Architectural Overview of Trunk Devices
      2. Overview of Circuit-Switched Interfaces
        1. Analog Trunks
          1. FXS/FXO Trunks
          2. E&M Trunks
        2. Digital Trunks
          1. CAS Trunks
          2. BRI and PRI Trunks
            1. ISDN Timers
          3. QSIG
            1. QSIG Rerouting Features
            2. QSIG and CallManager
      3. VoIP Gateway Security
        1. Authentication, Authorization, and Privacy of Signaling Connections Between CallManager and Cisco Gateways
        2. Authentication, Authorization, and Privacy of Media Connections Between Cisco VoIP Endpoints
      4. H.323 Gateways
        1. CallManager and the H.323 Control Model
        2. H.323 Call Signaling Details
          1. RAS
            1. Finding a Gatekeeper
            2. Registering with a Gatekeeper
              1. Zones
              2. Technology Prefix
              3. Device Pool
            3. Admitting Calls
            4. Changing Bandwidth Mid-Call
            5. RAS Messaging Details
          2. H.225
            1. H.225 Messaging Details
          3. H.245
            1. Use of H.245 to Provide Features
            2. H.245 Fast Connect
      5. MGCP Gateways
        1. MGCP Messages
        2. Q.931 Backhaul
        3. MGCP Gateway Failover
      6. SIP
        1. Roles of SIP Elements
        2. SIP Call Flow
        3. SIP UA-Initiated Features
          1. Hold and Resume
          2. Call Forwarding
          3. Presentation and Restriction of Calling Line, Calling Name, Connected Line, and Connected Name
        4. SIP Timers and Retry Counts
      7. Summary
    14. 5. Media Processing
      1. Media Processing Overview
        1. Definition of Common Terms and Concepts Used in Voice over IP
          1. Logical Channels
          2. Voice Codecs
          3. Video Codecs
          4. Video Standards
          5. Silence Suppression
          6. IP Phone
          7. Media Termination Point
          8. Transcode
          9. Transcoder
          10. Call Leg
        2. Media Processing Resource Types
          1. Unicast Conferencing Resources
            1. Software-Based Unicast Conference Bridge
            2. Hardware-Based Unicast Conference Bridge
            3. Hardware-Based Videoconference Bridge
          2. Media Termination Points (MTP)
            1. Software-Based MTP
            2. Hardware-Based MTP
          3. Music on Hold (MOH) Resources
          4. Annunciator Resources
          5. Built-in Bridge Resources
        3. Understanding Media Processing Resources
        4. Software-Based Media Processing Resources
        5. Hardware-Based Media Processing Resources
          1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hardware and Software Media Processing Resources
          2. Media Resource Registration
            1. Media Resource Device Registration Sequence
          3. The Media Control Layer
            1. Audio Channel Processing in CallManager
            2. Video Channel Processing in CallManager
        6. Controlling the Allocation and Usage of Media Resources
          1. Reasons to Control the Allocation of Media Resources
          2. Media Resource Default Configuration
          3. How to Control Built-in Bridge Allocation
          4. How to Control Media Resources Allocation
            1. Media Resource Group Definition
            2. Media Resource Group List Definition
            3. The Order of Precedence for MRGL Assignments
            4. Media Resource Allocation Through Media Resource Manager
            5. Selecting an MRG from the MRGL
            6. Selecting a Resource Within an MRG
            7. Organizing Resource Allocation Using MRGs and MRGLs
      2. Architecture and Functionality of the Media Control Layer
        1. Conferencing and Transcoding DSP Resources
          1. Limitations on Conferencing and Transcoding Resources
        2. Conference Resource Basic Architecture
          1. Supplementary Services Layer
          2. Protocol Layer
            1. Creating and Managing Conference Bridge Resources
          3. Built-in Bridge Support for Barge Feature
          4. Conference Resource Allocation and Control
            1. Allocating a Conference Bridge Resource
            2. Mixed-Mode Audio Conference Support
              1. Mixed-Mode Conference Support for Catalyst 6000 Conference Bridges
              2. Mixed-Mode Conference Support for Software Conference Bridges
              3. Mixed-Mode Conference Support for Gateway Supported Conference Bridges
            3. Video Conference Support
            4. Extending Existing Conferences
            5. Controlling the Usage of Conference Bridge Servers
            6. Default Configuration for Conference Servers
          5. Device Registration and Initialization
            1. A Look at Device Registration from the Side of CallManager
          6. Conferencing Limitations and Configuration Notes
          7. Unicast Conference Bridge Application (Software)
      3. Ad Hoc Conferencing
      4. Meet-Me Conferencing
        1. Meet-Me Feature Operation
          1. Conference Configuration
          2. What Happens When Conference Resources Are Not Available
            1. Out of Resources When Creating a Conference
            2. Out of Resources When Extending an Ad Hoc Conference
            3. Out of Resources When Extending a Meet-Me Conference
            4. Maximum Number of Participants in an Ad Hoc Conference Exceeded
            5. Maximum Number of Participants in a Meet-Me Conference Exceeded
            6. Maximum Number of Conference Bridges Supported
          3. Unicast Conference Performance Statistics
            1. Unicast Counters per CallManager
            2. Counters per Software Conference Server from a CallManager’s Perspective
            3. Counters per Hardware Conference Server from a CallManager’s Perspective
        2. MTP and Transcoding Resource Basic Architecture
          1. Why to Use an MTP
          2. When an MTP Is Inserted
          3. Why to Use a Transcoder
          4. Determining Which Device Needs the Transcoder
          5. What Happens When Transcoders or MTPs Are Not Available When Needed
          6. Rules for Inserting Transcoders and MTPs When They Are Available
          7. Device Control and Operation
          8. Device Registration and Initialization
          9. MTP and Transcoder Configuration
          10. MTP and Transcoder Performance Statistics
            1. MTP and Transcoder Counters per CallManager Node
            2. Counters per MTP Device from a CallManager’s Perspective
            3. Counters per Transcoder Device from a CallManager’s Perspective
        3. Music on Hold (MOH)
          1. Configuring MOH Servers
            1. MOH Server Audio Source and Audio Source ID
            2. Using the MOH Audio Translator
            3. MOH Source Stream Play Mode
              1. Continuous Play Mode
              2. One Shot Play Mode
            4. Handling MOH Stream Connections Errors
            5. MOH Server Initialization
            6. Summary of MOH Server Capabilities
            7. MOH Multicast Configuration
          2. Configuring CallManager to Use MOH
            1. Hold Types in CallManager
            2. How a Stream Source Is Selected When a User Is Placed on Hold
              1. Example 1: Caller on 5000 Is Placed on Hold
              2. Example 2: Caller on 5001 Is Placed on Network Hold and then on User Hold
          3. MOH and Conferences
            1. Configuring MOH in CallManager
              1. Initial MOH Configuration
              2. Simplest MOH Configuration
              3. More Complex MOH Configurations
            2. Order of Precedence of MOH Music Stream Source Assignments
          4. CallManager MOH Usage and Performance Monitoring
            1. Counters per CallManager Node
            2. Counters per MOH Server from a CallManager’s Perspective
        4. Video Call Processing Architecture
          1. CallManager Video Usage and Performance Monitoring
            1. Counters per CallManager Node
            2. Counters per Video Conference Server from a CallManager’s Perspective
        5. Annunciator/Tone Plant Processing Architecture
          1. Device Control and Operation
          2. Configuring Annunciator Servers
          3. Annunciator Server Initialization
          4. Annunciator Performance Statistics
            1. Counters per CallManager Node
            2. Counters per Annunciator Server from a CallManager’s Perspective
        6. Call Preservation During System Failures
          1. General Overview of Call Preservation
          2. Failure and Recovery Objectives
          3. Handling System and Device Failures
            1. CallManager Node Failure
            2. Media Processing Device Failure
            3. Endpoint Device Failure
            4. CallManager-to-Device Communication Failure
            5. Node-to-Node Communication Failure Within a Cluster
            6. Device-to-Device Communication Failure
            7. Call Preservation Examples
              1. Example 1: Call Between Two Phones, Each Registered to a Different Node
              2. Example 2: A Conference Call
          4. Recovering Devices After a Failure
            1. Devices and Applications That Support Call Preservation
            2. Devices and Applications That Do Not Support Call Preservation
            3. Call Preservation Algorithms
            4. Failover Algorithms
              1. Graceful Failover
              2. Immediate Failover
            5. Fallback Algorithms
            6. Call Attempts During Failover and Fallback
            7. Cisco IP Phone Unregistration Sequence Requirements
            8. Active Connection Management in Device Modules on Device Registration
              1. Hardware Conference Bridge and Transcoders
              2. MGCP Gateway Device Modules
            9. Media Streaming Failure Disconnect Supervision Handling
      5. Summary
    15. 6. Manageability and Monitoring
      1. Manageability Tools
        1. Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)
          1. Reasons to Use BAT
          2. Setting Up a New System or Installing New Devices
          3. Working with an Existing System
          4. CSV Files
          5. Tool for Auto-Registered Phone Support (TAPS)
          6. Updating Phone Certificates
          7. Learn More About BAT
        2. CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR)
          1. Reasons to Use CAR
          2. CAR Features
          3. Loading CDR Data
          4. Automatic Report Generation
          5. Reports
            1. Individual/Department Bill Reports
            2. Cisco IP Phone Services Reports
            3. Top N Calls Reports
            4. Traffic Summary Reports
            5. Gateway Reports
            6. Route Plan Reports
            7. Conference Bridge Reports
            8. Voice Messaging Reports
            9. QoS Reports
            10. System Overview Reports
            11. FAC/CMC Reports
            12. Malicious Call Detail Reports
            13. Precedence Call Summary Reports
            14. CDR Search
          6. CAR Database Maintenance
          7. Alerts
          8. Learn More About CAR
      2. Monitoring Tools
        1. Cisco CallManager Serviceability
          1. Alarm Configuration
          2. Alarm Definitions
          3. Tracing
          4. SDI Traces
            1. SDI Trace Output
          5. SDL Traces
          6. Trace Configuration
          7. Troubleshooting Trace Settings
          8. Trace Analysis
            1. Performance Impact
          9. Service Activation
          10. Control Center
          11. QRT Viewer
          12. Serviceability Reports Archive
          13. Component Version Information
          14. Learn More About Cisco CallManager Serviceability
        2. Real-Time Monitoring Tool (RTMT)
          1. RTMT View Tab
            1. Summary
            2. Server
            3. CallProcess
            4. Service
            5. Device
            6. CTI
            7. Performance
          2. RTMT Alert Tab
          3. Learn More About Real-Time Monitoring Tool
        3. Microsoft Performance
          1. Customizing Microsoft Performance
          2. Learn More About Microsoft Performance
        4. Trace Collection Tool
          1. Learn More About the Trace Collection Tool
        5. Event Viewer
          1. Learn More About Event Viewer
        6. Terminal Services Client
          1. Installing and Accessing Terminal Services Client
        7. Virtual Computer Networking (VNC) Viewer
        8. CiscoWorks IP Telephony Environment Monitor
          1. System Log Management
          2. Cisco Syslog Collector
          3. Cisco Syslog Analyzer
          4. Learn More About CiscoWorks and ITEM
        9. SNMP MIBs
          1. HP Insight Agent
          2. IBM Director Agent
          3. CCM MIB Extension Agent
          4. CDP MIB Extension Agent
          5. Updating the CISCO-CCM-MIB Information
          6. Updating the CISCO-CDP-MIB Information
          7. Downloading the Latest MIBs
        10. Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
        11. Voice Log Translator (VLT)
      3. Summary
    16. 7. Call Detail Records
      1. Overview of CDR Data
        1. Contents and Generation of CDRs
        2. Contents and Generation of CMRs
      2. Creation and Usage of CDR Data
        1. Enabling and Disabling CDR Data Generation
        2. Logging or Not Logging Calls with Zero Duration
        3. Enabling and Disabling CMR or Diagnostic Data Generation
      3. Storage and Maintenance of CDR Data
        1. Why Use a Central Database?
        2. What Happens When the Central Database Is Not Available?
        3. What Happens to CDR Data When a CallManager Node Fails?
        4. How to Control the Storage and Transport of CDR Data
          1. Where CDR Data Is Stored
          2. How CDR Data Is Stored
      4. Understanding Field Data in CDRs
        1. General Information About the Data Types Used
          1. Default Values for Unused Fields
        2. Field Data Conversions
          1. Time Values
          2. IP Addresses
          3. Example: Conversion of an IP Address Displayed as a Negative Number
          4. Example: Conversion Example Using a Positive Number
        3. Notes on Other Field Types
          1. Global Call Identifiers (GCID)
          2. Example: GCID Usage in a Call Transfer
          3. Example: GCID Usage in a Conference Call
          4. Call Leg Identifiers
          5. Directory Numbers
          6. Partitions
          7. Duration
        4. CDR Field Definitions
          1. Codec Types
          2. Cause Location Definitions
          3. Cause Code Definitions
          4. Legend for the OnBehalfOf Fields
          5. Reason for Redirect
          6. MLPP Precedence Levels
          7. Video Resolution
          8. Comment Field in CDRs
      5. Understanding Field Data in CMRs
        1. Fields Contained in the CMR
        2. How to Identify the CDR Associated with a CMR
      6. Identifying CDR Data Generated for Each Call Type
        1. Calls Between Two Endpoints
          1. CDR Data for a Call Between Two IP Phones
          2. CDR Values for Calls Involving a Gateway
        2. Abandoned Calls
        3. Short Calls
        4. IP Phone Failures During a Call
        5. Forwarded or Redirected Calls
        6. Precedence Calls (MLPP)
        7. Malicious Calls
        8. Video Calls
        9. Immediate Divert (to Voice Mail)
        10. Transferred Calls and Examples
          1. Transferred Call Example 1: A Calls B, A Transfers B to C
          2. Transferred Call Example 2: A Calls B, B Transfers A to C
          3. Transferred Call Example 3: A Calls B, A Transfers B to C on a Blind Transfer
          4. Transferred Call Example 4: A Calls B, B Transfers A to C on a Blind Transfer
          5. Transferred Call Example 5: A Calls B, B Transfers A to C on a Blind Transfer, and C Is Forwarded to D
        11. Parked Call Example: A Calls B, A Parks B, and C Picks Up B
        12. Conference Calls and Examples
          1. Ad Hoc Conference Calls
            1. Ad Hoc Conference Example: A Calls B, A Calls C, A Sets Up Conference Among A, B, and C
          2. Meet-Me Conference Example: A Sets Up Meet-Me Conference, B and C Call into Conference
        13. Held Calls Example
        14. Calls with Busy or Bad Destinations
      7. Accessing CDR Data in the Central CDR Database
        1. Gaining Access to Database Tables
        2. Performance Issues Related to Processing and Removing CDR Data
        3. Maintaining CDR/CMR Data in the Database
          1. Administrator’s Responsibility
          2. System Actions and Limits on Record Storage
      8. Hints on Processing CDR Data
        1. Additional Configuration Data Needed
        2. OnNet Versus OffNet
        3. Gateway Directory Number Processing
      9. Troubleshooting CDR Data Generation and Storage
      10. Summary
    17. A. Feature List
      1. Cisco CallManager Feature List
        1. Abbreviated Dialing (AbbrDial)
        2. Annunciator
        3. Answer/Release
          1. Answer/Release on Cisco IP Phone Series 79xx
          2. Answer/Release on Cisco IP Phones 12SP+ and 30VIP
        4. Application Programming Interfaces (API)
          1. Call Detail Records (CDR) and Call Management Records (CMR) API
          2. Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) API
          3. AXL SOAP Database API
          4. LDAP Directory Integration API
          5. IP Phone Services API
        5. Audible Indicator of Ringing Phone
        6. Authentication/Encryption
          1. CallManager Administration Web Page Authentication
            1. Multilevel Administration
          2. Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page Authentication
          3. CallManager Web Page Encryption (HTTPS)
          4. LDAP over SSL (LDAPS) Support
          5. Extension Mobility Username/PIN Authentication
          6. SQL Database Access Authentication
          7. TFTP Directory Access Restrictions
          8. Phone File Authentication
          9. Device Authentication
          10. Signaling Encryption
          11. Media Encryption
            1. Visual Indication of Device Authentication/Encryption
        7. Auto Answer/Intercom
          1. Auto Answer with Zip Tone
          2. Hands-Free Intercom
        8. Automated Alternate Routing (AAR)
        9. Automated Change Notification/Database Replication
        10. Automated Installation and Recovery
        11. Automated Systemwide Software and Feature Upgrades
        12. Automatic Attenuation/Gain Adjustment
        13. Automatic Bandwidth Selection
        14. Automatic Number Identification (ANI)
        15. Auto-Registration
        16. Backup and Restore System (BARS)
        17. Barge/Conference Barge (cBarge)
        18. Broadcast Paging Support (with Third-Party Integration)
        19. Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)
        20. Call Admission Control (CAC)
        21. Call Back
        22. Call Connection
        23. Call Coverage
          1. Per-User Enhanced Call Coverage Paths
        24. Call Detail Records (CDR) and Call Management Records (CMR)
        25. Call Forwarding
          1. Forward All/CFwdAll
          2. Call Forward Busy
          3. Per-Line Configurable Call Forward Busy Trigger
          4. Call Forward No Answer
          5. Call Forward on Failure (CFF)
          6. Call Forward No Coverage (CFNC)
          7. Call Forward Reason Codes
        26. Call Forwarding Support for Third-Party Applications
          1. Call Forward Number Expansion to Voice Mail
        27. Call Park
        28. Configuring Call Park
        29. Call Pickup/Group Call Pickup (PickUp/GPickUp)
        30. Call Preservation for Active Calls During CallManager Server Outage
        31. Call Status per Line
        32. Call Waiting/Retrieve
        33. Calling Line Identification (CLID or Caller ID)
        34. Calling Line ID Restriction (CLIR) on a Per-Call Basis
        35. Calling Party Name Identification (CNID)
          1. CNID over Q.931 Facility Information Element
        36. Calling Party Display Restriction
        37. CAPF Report Generation
        38. CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR) Tool (formerly Administrative Reporting Tool)
        39. Centralized System Administration, Monitoring, and Reporting
        40. Cisco ATA-186 2-Port Analog Gateway Support
        41. Cisco Bulk Trace Analysis
        42. Cisco CallManager Administration Enhancements for Large System Administration
        43. Cisco CallManager Attendant Console (Formerly Cisco WebAttendant)
        44. Cisco CallManager Serviceability
        45. Cisco CallManager Trace Collection Tool
        46. Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page
        47. Cisco Conference Connection (CCC) Support
        48. Cisco CTL Client
        49. Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) Support
        50. Cisco Emergency Responder (CER) Support
        51. Cisco IP Manager-Assistant
        52. Cisco IP Phone 7902, 7905, 7912, Expansion Module 7914, Wireless 7920, Conference Station 7936 and 7935, 7940, 7941, 7960, 7961, 7970, and 7971 Support
        53. Cisco IP Phone Services
        54. Cisco IP Software-Based Phone Support (IP SoftPhone and IP Communicator)
          1. Cisco IP SoftPhone Support for Microsoft NetMeeting
        55. Cisco Personal Address Book
        56. Cisco VG248 48-Port Analog Gateway Support
        57. CISCO-CCM-MIB Updates
        58. Click to Dial/Click to Call
          1. Cisco WebDialer Click-to-Dial Service
        59. Client Matter Codes
        60. Codec Support (Audio and Video)
          1. Cisco Wideband Audio Codec Support
          2. Cisco Wideband Video Codec Support
          3. GSM-EFR/FR Support Through Use of Hardware Transcoder
          4. H.261 and H.263 Video Codec Support
          5. H.264 Video Codec Support
          6. G.728 and G.722 Audio Codec Support
        61. Closest Match Routing
        62. Clustering
        63. Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) Support
        64. Conference/Confrn
          1. Drop Last Conference Party
          2. List Conference Participants
          3. Drop Conference When Initiator Leaves
          4. Drop Conference When No OnNet Parties Remain
          5. Release Conference Bridge When Only Two Parties Remain
        65. Context-Sensitive Help
        66. Contrast/LCD Contrast
        67. CTI Redundancy with CTIManager
        68. Date/Time Zone Display Format Configurable per Phone
        69. Dependency Records
        70. Device Type-Based Information and Resets
        71. Device Downloadable Feature Upgrade
        72. Device Pool
        73. Device Search in CallManager Administration
        74. Device Wizard
        75. DHCP IP Assignment for Phones and Gateways
        76. Dial Plan Partitions and Calling Search Spaces
        77. Dialed Number Analyzer (DNA)
        78. Dialed Number Translation Table (Inbound and Outbound Translation)
        79. Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS) and RDNIS
          1. Redirected Number Identification Service (RDNIS)
          2. Outbound RDNIS to H.323 Gateways
        80. Digit Analysis (Calling Party Number and Called Party Number)
        81. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Resource Management
        82. Direct Inward Dial
        83. Direct Outward Dial
        84. Direct Transfer (DirTrfr)
        85. Directories Button on Cisco IP Phones
          1. Missed Calls
          2. Received Calls
          3. Placed Calls
          4. Corporate Directory
        86. Directory Dial from Cisco IP Phones
        87. Distinctive Ring: Internal Versus External
        88. Distinctive Ring Selection
        89. Distributed CallManager Server Architecture
        90. Distributed and Topologically Aware Resource Sharing
        91. Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) Support
        92. Embedded Directory for User Data
        93. Emergency 911 Service (E911) Support
        94. EndCall
        95. Extension Mobility
        96. External Route Plan Wizard
        97. External/Internal Trunk Designation
        98. Failover
        99. FAX/Modem over IP Support
          1. Cisco Fax Relay
          2. Fax Pass-Through
          3. T.38 Support
        100. Forced Authorization Codes
        101. FXO and FXS Support
        102. Group Call Pickup/GPickUp
        103. H.323 Client, Gateway, and Gatekeeper Support
          1. H.323v2 Gatekeeper Support
          2. Multiple Gatekeepers per Cluster
          3. H.323 Call Scalability Improvements
          4. H.323 Trunks and Scalability Improvements
          5. Microsoft NetMeeting Support
          6. Videoconferencing Support
          7. H.323 FastStart Signaling Support
        104. Hold/Resume
          1. Hold on Cisco IP Phone Model 12SP+
          2. Hold on Cisco IP Phones 7902, 7910, and 30VIP
          3. Hold/Resume on Cisco IP Phones
        105. Hookflash/Hookflash Transfer
        106. HTTP Server Support
        107. Hunt Lists and Line Groups
        108. Inline Power Support on Cisco IP Phones
          1. IEEE 802.3af Inline Power Support
        109. Internationalization/Localization
          1. International Dial Plan
        110. ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Support
        111. Join
        112. JTAPI Computer Telephony Interface (CTI)
        113. JTAPI Control of Analog (FXS) Gateway Ports
        114. LDAPv3 Directory Interface
        115. Least Cost Routing Support
        116. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Support
          1. Embedded Directory
          2. External LDAP Directory Support
        117. Line
          1. Multiple Line Appearances per Phone
          2. Shared-Line Appearances/Bridged-Line Appearances
          3. Unassigned Directory Numbers
        118. Manager Assistant Services
        119. Mappable Softkeys
        120. Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) Support
          1. MGCP Gateway Fallback to H.323
          2. MGCP ISDN T1/E1 PRI and T1-CAS with Q.931 Backhaul
          3. Network-Specific Facilities (NSF) Support
        121. Media Resource Group List Support
        122. Meet-Me Conference/MeetMe
        123. Messages Button on Cisco IP Phones
        124. Message Waiting Indicator
          1. Message Waiting Indicator on Legacy Cisco IP Phones 12SP+ and 30VIP
          2. Message Waiting Indicator on Cisco IP Phones
          3. Set Message Waiting Lamp Policy on a Per-Line Basis
        125. Microsoft NetMeeting
        126. Multilevel Administration (MLA)
        127. Multilevel Precedence and Preemption (MLPP)
        128. Multiple Calls per Line
        129. Multiple Line Appearances per Phone
        130. Music on Hold
        131. Mute
        132. NewCall
        133. North American Numbering Plan (NANP) and Non-NANP Support
          1. Non-NANP Support
        134. On-Hook and Off-Hook Dialing
        135. Overlap Sending/Receiving
        136. Paperless Phone
        137. Performance Monitoring and Alarms
        138. Privacy
        139. Private Line Automatic RingDown (PLAR) Support
        140. QSIG Support
          1. Support for QSIG and Non-QSIG Devices in Route Lists
          2. Message Waiting Indication Support
          3. Call Diversion (Also Known as Call Forward)
          4. Call Completion (Also Known as Call Back)
          5. Path Replacement
          6. QSIG over H.323 (Annex M.1)
        141. Quality of Service (QoS)
          1. Differentiated Services (DiffServ) and IP Precedence (ToS)
          2. 802.1p Class of Service (CoS)
          3. QoS Statistics
        142. Quality Reporting Tool (QRT)
        143. Redial/REDL
        144. Redirected Number Identification Service (RDNIS)
        145. Redundancy/Failover
          1. CallManager Failover Interoperability with Cisco IOS H.323 Gateways
          2. CTI Redundancy
        146. Remote Site Survivability for MGCP Gateways
        147. Scalability Enhancements Through H.323 Gatekeeper (Beyond Ten Sites)
        148. Serviceability Enhancements Through SNMP, CDP, CiscoWorks
        149. Service URLs on Line/Feature Buttons
        150. Services on Cisco IP Phones
          1. Personal Directory
        151. Settings Button on Cisco IP Phones
          1. Contrast/LCD Contrast/Viewing Angle
          2. Ring Type
          3. Network Configuration/Network Settings
          4. Model Information
          5. Status/Phone Info
          6. Device Configuration
        152. Single CDR Repository per CallManager Cluster
        153. Single Point for System/Device Configuration
        154. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Support
        155. Speakerphone/SPKR
        156. Speed Dial
        157. Supplementary Services
          1. Supplementary Services to Cisco IOS H.323 Gateways Without Media Termination Point (MTP)
        158. Survivable Remote Site Telephony (SRST)
        159. Syslog Support for Debugging Output
        160. System Event Reporting
        161. T1/E1 PRI Support
        162. T1/E1-CAS Support
        163. Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) and JTAPI Support
          1. TAPI/JTAPI Redundancy Support
        164. Time-of-Day Routing
        165. Time Zone Configuration
        166. Toll Restriction/Toll Fraud Prevention
        167. Tone on Hold
        168. Tool for Auto-Registered Phone Support (TAPS)
        169. Transcoding and Media Termination Point (MTP) Support
        170. Transfer/XFER/Transf...
          1. External Transfer Restrictions (to Reduce Toll Fraud)
        171. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Support
        172. Turn off Phone Display
        173. Unicast Conference
        174. Video Telephony Support
        175. Virus Protection Certification
        176. Visual Indicator of Ringing Phone
        177. Voice Activity Detection (VAD)/Silence Suppression Support
        178. Voice Mail Support
        179. Volume Controls
        180. XML Support
        181. Zero-Cost Automated Phone Adds and Moves
    18. B. Cisco Integrated Solutions
      1. Infrastructure Solutions
        1. Cisco Analog Telephone Adaptors (ATA)
        2. Cisco DPA Voice Mail Gateways
        3. Cisco VG248 FXS or Voice Mail Gateway
        4. Cisco IP Videoconferencing (Cisco IP/VC)
        5. Cisco Survivable Remote Site Telephony (SRST)
      2. Telephony Service Solutions
        1. AXL SOAP API
        2. Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)
        3. Cisco EGW/PGW
        4. CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR)
        5. Cisco CallManager Express
        6. Cisco CallManager Serviceability
        7. Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page
          1. Forwarding All Calls
          2. Configuring Speed Dials/Abbreviated Dialing
          3. Configuring IP Phone Services
          4. Configuring Service URLs
          5. Configuring the Cisco Personal Address Book
          6. Changing the Message Waiting Indicator Policy
          7. Changing the Ring Settings
          8. Changing the Phone Locale
          9. Changing the Device Profile Locale
          10. Changing the Password
          11. Changing the PIN
          12. Viewing the User Guide for the Phone
        8. Cisco Messaging Interface (CMI)
        9. LDAP Support
        10. Real-Time Monitoring Tool (RTMT)
        11. Tool for Auto-Registered Phones Support (TAPS)
      3. Client Solutions
        1. Cisco IP Communicator (Predecessor: Cisco IP SoftPhone)
        2. Cisco VT Advantage
      4. Application Solutions
        1. Cisco TAPI Software
          1. Cisco TSP Processes
          2. Cisco Wave Driver
        2. Cisco JTAPI Software
        3. Cisco CallManager Attendant Console (formerly Cisco WebAttendant)
        4. Cisco Emergency Responder (CER)
        5. Cisco IP Contact Center (IPCC)
        6. Cisco IP Manager Assistant (IPMA)
        7. Cisco IP Phone Address Book Synchronizer
        8. Cisco IP Phone Services Software Development Kit (SDK)
        9. Cisco MeetingPlace
        10. Cisco MeetingPlace Express
        11. Cisco Personal Assistant
        12. Cisco Unity
        13. Cisco Unity Express
        14. Cisco WebDialer
      5. System Tools
        1. Cisco CallManager Trace Collection Tool
        2. Cisco Dialed Number Analyzer
        3. Cisco IP Interactive Voice Response (IP IVR) and Cisco IP Queue Manager (IP QM)
        4. Cisco Security Agent (CSA)
        5. CiscoWorks Internet Telephony Environment Monitor (ITEM) and CiscoWorks QoS Policy Manager (QPM)
    19. C. Protocol Details
      1. H.323 Signaling
        1. RAS Messaging Details
        2. H.225 Messaging Details
      2. QSIG
        1. Call Completion
        2. Call Diversion
        3. Call Transfer
        4. Message Waiting Indicator
        5. Name Services
        6. Path Replacement
      3. SIP Signaling
      4. SCCP Call Signaling
      5. Application Protocols
        1. JTAPI Package Support
          1. Core Package
          2. Call Center Package
          3. Call Center Capabilities Package
          4. Call Center Events Package
          5. Call Control Package
          6. Call Control Capabilities Package
          7. Call Control Events Package
          8. Capabilities Package
          9. Events Package
          10. Media Package
          11. Media Capabilities Package
          12. Media Events Package
          13. XML Data Types
          14. Menu
          15. IconMenu
          16. Text
          17. Image
          18. ImageFile
          19. GraphicMenu
          20. GraphicFileMenu
          21. Directory
          22. Input
          23. Softkeys
          24. IPPhoneStatus
          25. IPPhoneExecute
          26. IPPhoneResponse
          27. IPPhoneError
          28. Phone-Supported URIs
          29. Key URI
          30. QueryStringParam URI
          31. RTP Streaming Control URIs
          32. Init URI
          33. Dial URI
          34. EditDial URI
          35. Play URI
    20. Glossary