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Cisco Access Control Security: AAA Administrative Services

Book Description

Hands-on techniques for enabling authentication, authorization, and accounting

  • Understand the security concepts behind the AAA framework

  • Learn message formats, communication, and message encryption using the TACACS+ and RADIUS protocols

  • Configure and troubleshoot AAA on Cisco routers

  • Understand where to position and install the CSACS in your network

  • Explore and customize the CSACS interface

  • Configure CSACS user accounts, user groups, and shared profile components

  • Add AAA clients and manage network connections

  • Configure external databases and perform database replication and backup

  • Explore the various reports and logs available in CSACS

  • Learn how AAA models apply to service provider environments

  • Install and configure Cisco Access Registrar

  • As network infrastructures evolve, it is increasingly important that access to vital corporate resources is vigilantly monitored and controlled. The Cisco identity management solutions, including Cisco Secure Access Control Server (CSACS), address this requirement, enabling security, control, and administration of the growing population of users that connect to corporate networks. CSACS, an essential component of the Cisco Identity Based Networking Services (IBNS) architecture, extends access security by combining authentication, user and administrator access, and policy control from a centralized identity-networking framework. This allows greater flexibility and mobility, increased security, and user productivity gains.

    Cisco Access Control Security provides you with the skills needed to configure authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) services on Cisco devices. Separated into three parts, this book presents hard-to-find configuration details of centralized identity networking solutions. Part I provides an overview of the AAA architecture, complete with discussions of configuring Cisco routers for AAA. Part II addresses enterprise AAA management with CSACS, including installation, configuration, and management details. Part III looks at service provider AAA management with Cisco Access Registrar.

    Full of detailed overviews, diagrams, and step-by-step instructions for enabling essential access control solutions, Cisco Access Control Security is a practical tool that can help enforce assigned access policies and simplify user management.

    "This book manages the rare combination of being highly accurate and technically astute, while maintaining an easy readability and flow. It is a great guide for system administrators looking to design or manage a reliable, scalable, and secure Access Control deployment for any size organization."
    -Jeremy Steiglitz, ACS Group Product Manager, Cisco Systems

    This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Introduction
      1. How This Book Is Organized
      2. Target Audience
      3. Features of this Book
      4. Troubleshooting
    6. I. AAA Overview
      1. 1. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Overview
        1. Authentication Overview
        2. Authentication Example
        3. Authorization Overview
        4. Authorization Example
        5. Accounting Overview
          1. Network Accounting
          2. Connection Accounting
          3. EXEC Accounting
          4. System Accounting
          5. Command Accounting
          6. Resource Accounting
        6. Accounting Example
        7. Cisco Device Support for AAA
        8. Summary
        9. End Notes
      2. 2. TACACS+ and RADIUS
        1. A Brief Overview of TACACS+
        2. A Brief Overview of RADIUS
        3. TACACS+ in Detail
          1. TACACS+ Communication
          2. TACACS+ Format and Header Values
          3. Encrypting TACACS+
          4. TACACS+ Operation
            1. TACACS+ and Authentication
            2. TACACS+ and Authorization
            3. TACACS+ Accounting
        4. RADIUS in Detail
          1. RADIUS Operation
          2. RADIUS Encryption
          3. RADIUS Authentication and Authorization
          4. RADIUS Accounting
        5. Summary
        6. End Notes
      3. 3. Authentication Configuration on Cisco Routers
        1. Local Authentication
          1. Enabling AAA on the Router
          2. Method Lists
        2. Authentication Configurations Using Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server and Cisco Secure ACS Solution Engine
        3. Debugging Authentication
        4. Authentication Command References
        5. Summary
    7. II. Enterprise AAA and Cisco Secure Access Control Server
      1. 4. Enterprise Authentication Servers
        1. Cisco Secure Access Control Server Software and Versions
          1. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 2.0
          2. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 2.1
          3. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 2.3
          4. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 2.4 and 2.5
          5. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 2.6
          6. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 3.0
          7. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 3.1
          8. Cisco Secure ACS for Windows Server Version 3.2
        2. Cisco Secure Solution Engine
        3. Summary
      2. 5. Deploying Cisco Secure Access Control Server for Windows Server
        1. What Is ACS?
        2. How to Obtain ACS
        3. Requirements to Run ACS Version 3.2
        4. Installing ACS
        5. Reinstalling ACS and Using an Existing ACS Database
        6. Positioning ACS in Your Network
          1. Dialup Access
          2. Virtual Private Networks
          3. Wireless Deployment
          4. Other Deployments
        7. Summary
      3. 6. Getting Familiar with CSACS
        1. Navigating the HTML Interface
          1. User Setup
          2. Group Setup
          3. Shared Profile Components
          4. Network Configuration
          5. System Configuration
          6. Interface Configuration
          7. Administration Control
          8. External User Database
          9. Reports and Activity
          10. Online Documentation
        2. Starting Point for Configuring Your Server
        3. Configuring Your Interface
          1. TACACS+ Settings
          2. Advanced Options
        4. Preparing to Add Users
        5. Summary
      4. 7. Configuring User Accounts
        1. Adding Users to the Database
          1. Authenticating a User
          2. Adding a New AAA Client
        2. User Changeable Passwords
          1. Preparing the Web Server
          2. Preparing ACS for UCP
          3. Enabling SSL on the Web Server
          4. Installing the UCP Module
        3. Authenticating Users to a Windows NT/2000 Database
          1. Authenticating to a Windows Domain
          2. Authentication and Password Options
          3. User Callback and Client IP Assignment
        4. Advanced Configurations
          1. EAP Support
          2. Configuring Switches
          3. Enable an Administrative Policy
        5. Summary
        6. End Notes
      5. 8. Configuring User Groups
        1. Group-Level Configuration of ACS
          1. Modifying User Groups
          2. Configuring Voice over IP Support
          3. Configuring Time-of-Day Access Settings
        2. PPP Callback Configuration
        3. Configuring Network Access Restrictions
          1. How a NAR Finds a Match
          2. Configuring the NAR
          3. Applying a NAR to a User
          4. A Look at Shared Network Access Restrictions
        4. Max Sessions, Usage Quotas, and Password Aging Rules
          1. Max Sessions
          2. Usage Quotas
          3. Password Aging Rules
        5. IP Assignment and Downloadable ACLs
          1. Address Assignment
          2. Downloadable IP ACLs
        6. Using TACACS+ for Group Configuration
          1. Basic TACACS+
          2. Shell Command Authorization Sets
          3. User-Level Authorization
        7. Summary
        8. End Notes
      6. 9. Managing Network Configurations
        1. Configuring a Distributed System
        2. Configuring Network Device Groups
        3. Configuring Proxy Distribution Tables
        4. Using Remote Accounting
        5. Using Network Device Searches
        6. Creating a Complete Distributed Network
        7. Client Configuration
          1. Cisco IOS Routers
          2. Cisco IOS Switches
          3. Cisco Set-Based Switches
          4. Cisco PIX Firewalls
          5. Cisco 3000 Series VPN Concentrators
          6. Cisco Wireless Access Points
        8. Troubleshooting Network Configurations
        9. Summary
      7. 10. Configuring Shared Profile Components
        1. Downloadable ACLs
          1. Understanding Downloadable ACLs
          2. Creating an ACL
          3. Working with ACLs After They Are Created
        2. Network Access Restrictions
          1. Types of NARs
          2. Working with NARs
            1. IP-Based NARs
            2. Non-IP–Based NARs
        3. Configuring Network Access Restrictions
          1. Creating Shared NARs
          2. Configuration Details and Tips
          3. Creating a Non-IP–Based NAR
          4. Editing Shared NARs
          5. Deleting a Shared NAR
        4. Command Authorization Sets
          1. Working with Command Authorization Sets
          2. PIX Command Authorization Sets Versus Shell Command Authorization Sets
          3. Configuration Considerations for Command Authorization Sets
            1. Router Preparation for Command Authorization
            2. PIX Firewall Preparation for Command Authorization
            3. Configuring Shared Profile Components for Command Authorization
            4. Deleting Command Authorization Sets
            5. Editing Shell Command Authorization Sets
            6. Configuring the Group Profile
            7. Configuring the User Profile
            8. Testing Command Authorization
        5. Troubleshooting Extended Configurations
          1. Troubleshooting New Downloadable ACL Configurations
          2. Troubleshooting Existing Downloadable ACL Configurations
          3. Troubleshooting New NAR Configurations
          4. Troubleshooting Existing NAR Configurations
          5. Troubleshooting New Command Authorization Set Configurations
          6. Troubleshooting Existing Command Authorization Set Configurations
        6. Common Issues of Network Access Restrictions
        7. And Do Not Forget the Importance of Documentation
        8. Summary
      8. 11. System Configuration
        1. How Users Interact with Your External Database Configuration
        2. External Database Configuration
          1. Windows NT/2000
          2. Novell NDS
          3. Generic LDAP
          4. External ODBC Database
          5. LEAP Proxy RADIUS Server
          6. RADIUS Token Server
          7. VASCO Token Server
          8. ActivCard Token Server
          9. PassGo Defender Token Server
          10. CRYPTOCard Token Server
          11. SafeWord Token Server
          12. RSA SecurID Token Server
        3. Database Group Mappings
        4. Unknown User Policy
        5. Database Replication
          1. Understanding Database Replication
          2. Replication Versus Backup
          3. Configuring the Primary Server
          4. Configuring a Secondary Server
          5. Immediate Replication
          6. Backing Up the Cisco Secure Database
            1. Manual Backups
            2. Scheduled Backups
            3. Canceling a Scheduled Backup
            4. Recovering ACS from a Backup file
        6. Synchronization of ACS Devices
          1. Components of Synchronization
            1. CSDBSync
            2. accountActions Table
            3. CSDBSync and accountActions Table Working Together
          2. Preparing for Synchronization
          3. RDBMS Synchronization Options
        7. Summary
        8. End Notes
      9. 12. Reports and Logging for Windows Server
        1. ACS Reports
        2. Logging Attributes in ACS Reports
          1. User-Defined Attributes
          2. Access Device
          3. Network Device Group
          4. Device Command Set
          5. Filter Information
          6. ExtDB Info
        3. ACS Reports
          1. Accounting Reports
            1. TACACS+ Accounting
            2. RADIUS Accounting
            3. VoIP Accounting
          2. Failed Attempts Report
          3. Passed Authentications Report
          4. Administrative Reports
            1. TACACS+ Administration Report
            2. Logged-In Users and Disabled Accounts Reports
          5. System Reports
            1. ACS Backup and Restore
            2. RDBMS Synchronization
            3. Database Replication
            4. Administration Audit
            5. User Password Changes
            6. ACS Service Monitoring
        4. Remote Logging with ACS
          1. Configuring Remote Logging
          2. Configuring the Remote ACS to Send Logging Information
          3. Disabling Remote Logging
        5. Additional Logs Maintained by ACS
          1. Understanding the Options for Configuring Service Logs
          2. Configuring Service Log Options
        6. Summary
      10. 13. Exploring TACACS+ Attribute Values
        1. TACACS+ AV Pairs Overview
        2. Attributes of TACACS+ AV Pairs
          1. acl=
          2. addr=
          3. addr-pool=
          4. autocmd=
          5. callback-dialstring=, callback-line=, and callback-rotary=
          6. cmd=
          7. cmd-arg=
          8. dns-servers=
          9. gw-password=
          10. idletime=
          11. inacl#n
          12. inacl=
          13. interface-config#<n>
          14. ip-addresses=
          15. link-compression=
          16. load-threshold=n
          17. max-links=n
          18. nas-password
          19. nocallback-verify
          20. noescape=
          21. nohangup=
          22. old-prompts=
          23. outacl=
          24. outacl#n
          25. pool-def#n
          26. pool-timeout=
          27. ppp-vj-slot-compression=
          28. priv-lvl=
          29. protocol=
          30. route=
          31. route#n
          32. routing=
          33. rte-ftr-in#n
          34. rte-ftr-out#n
          35. sap-fltr-in#n
          36. sap-fltr-out#n
          37. sap#n
          38. service=
          39. source-ip=
          40. timeout=
          41. tunnel-id
          42. wins-servers=
          43. zonelist=
        3. AV Pair Example PPP Network
          1. Completing the Configuration
          2. Applying an ACL to the Dial Interface
        4. Understanding TACACS+ AV Pairs in the ACS Interface
          1. AV Pair Discussion #1
          2. AV Pair Discussion #2
          3. AV Pair Discussion #3
          4. AV Pair Discussion #4
          5. AV Pair Discussion #5
        5. Summary
    8. III. Service Provider AAA and the Cisco Access Registrar
      1. 14. Service Provider AAA and the Cisco CNS Access Registrar
        1. Service Provider (SP) Model
        2. Service Provider Challenge
        3. Value Added Services
        4. Cisco CNS Access Registrar
        5. Options of AR
        6. AR's Architecture
          1. Policy Engine
          2. Extension Points
          3. Extension Point Scripting Examples
            1. Basic Examples
            2. Selecting the Service
            3. Handling Accounting Requests
            4. Ignoring Accounting Signatures
            5. Controlling Debugging
            6. Filtering Attributes
          4. Proxy AAA
          5. AAA
        7. Installation Requirements for AR on Solaris 8
        8. Installing AR
        9. AR's Subdirectories
        10. Configuring Cisco CNS AR
        11. Summary
        12. End Notes
      2. 15. Configuring the Cisco Access Registrar
        1. Using aregcmd to Configure AR
          1. aregcmd Syntax
          2. Categories of aregcmd Commands
            1. Navigation Commands
            2. Object Commands
            3. Property Commands
            4. Server Commands
            5. Application Commands
            6. Session Management Commands
        2. AR's Server Object Hierarchy
        3. Configuring the ACE ISP as a Basic Site
        4. Configuring AR's Administrators
        5. Configuring the RADIUS Server
          1. Checking the System-Level Defaults
          2. Displaying the UserLists
          3. Working with Users
          4. Displaying and Configuring UserGroups
          5. Configuring AAA Clients in AR
          6. Configuring Profiles
        6. Validating and Saving Your Changes to AR
        7. Testing Your Configuration
        8. Troubleshooting Your Configuration with trace
        9. Summary
        10. End Notes
    9. IV. Appendix
      1. A. RADIUS Attribute Tables
        1. 3000 Series Concentrator VSAs
        2. Cisco VPN 5000 Concentrator RADIUS VSAs
        3. Cisco Building Broadband Service Manager Dictionary of RADIUS VSA
        4. IETF Dictionary of RADIUS Attribute Value Pairs
        5. Microsoft Radius VSAs
        6. Ascend RADIUS
        7. Nortel RADIUS
        8. Juniper RADIUS