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Childhood and Adolescent Obesity by Lauren A. Stutts

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CHAPTER 2

Conceptualization

Obesity is understood to be caused by four major factors: genes, metabolism, environment, and behavior (Kazaks and Stern 2013). From a biological perspective, body fat typically increases when there is either increased energy intake or decreased energy expenditure or both. However, the process is highly complex and has significant individual variability. Ultimately, the interaction of multiple contributors is typically what leads to obesity. This chapter focuses on those major causes and addresses the multifaceted physical, cognitive, social, and psychological consequences of obesity.

Genetic Causes

Obesity is considered to be highly heritable based on twin, adoption, and family studies (Walley, Blakemore, and Froguel ...

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