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Chemical Sensors: Fundamentals of Sensing Materials Volume 2: Nanostructured Materials

Book Description

Chemical sensors are integral to the automation of myriad industrial processes, as well as everyday monitoring of such activities as public safety, engine performance, medical therapeutics, and many more. This massive reference work will cover all major categories of chemical sensor materials and devices, and their general functional usage...from monitoring and analyzing gases, to analyzing liquids and compounds of all kinds. This is THE reference work on sensors used for chemical detection and analysis. In this second volume will be found new developments in the use of nano-sized materials for chemical sensing applications. The latest findings on one-dimensional metal oxide structures, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and metal nanoparticles for use in new chemical sensing technologies are covered, along with the materials processing and physical and chemical properties of nano-scaled sensing materials.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface to Chemical Sensors: Fundamentals of Sensing Materials
  6. Preface to Volume 2: NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS
  7. About the Editor
  8. Contributors
  9. 1 Introduction to Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    1. 1 What Are Nanomaterials?
    2. 2 A Brief History of Nanotechnology
    3. 3 What Distinguishes Nanomaterials from Bulk Materials?
    4. 4 Nanomaterials Manufacturing
    5. 5 Nanotechnology and Its Possibilities
    6. 6 Nanotechnology: Future Trends
    7. 7 Acknowledgments
    8. References
  10. 2 Quasi-One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Structures: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application as Chemical Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Synthesis of Q1D Nanomaterials
      1. 2.1 Vapor-Phase Growth Methods
      2. 2.2 Solution-Phase Growth Methods
      3. 2.3 Template-Based Growth Methods
    3. 3 Electrical Transport Properties and Optical Characteristics
      1. 3.1 Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors and Electrical Properties
      2. 3.2 Photoluminescence Characteristics
    4. 4 Metal Oxide Nanowire Chemical Sensors
      1. 4.1 Sensor Device Fabrication
      2. 4.2 Mechanism of Nanowire Sensor Detection
      3. 4.3 Other Types of Q1D Structured Sensors
    5. 5 Summary and Future Outlook
    6. References
  11. 3 Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes in Chemical Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
      1. 1.1 History of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes
      2. 1.2 Structure of Fullerenes
      3. 1.3 Structure of Carbon Nanotubes
    2. 2 Synthesis of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes
      1. 2.1 Synthesis of Fullerenes
      2. 2.2 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes
    3. 3 Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
      1. 3.1 Physical/Mechanical Properties
      2. 3.2 Electronic Properties
      3. 3.3 Spectroscopic Properties
    4. 4 Chemical Modification and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Noncovalent Functionalization
      3. 4.3 Covalent Functionalization
    5. 5 Solid-State Electrical Conductivity CNT Sensors
      1. 5.1 Nanotube FET for Gas-Sensing Applications
      2. 5.2 NO2 Detection Using Resistivity Measurements
      3. 5.3 Gas and Vapor Detection Using Functionalized CNTs
      4. 5.4 Chemicapacitors
      5. 5.5 Nanotube FETs for Detecting DNA Hybridization
      6. 5.6 Employing NTFETs for Protein Detection
      7. 5.7 Conductometric Glucose Biosensor
    6. 6 Raman Sensors
      1. 6.1 A Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)–Based pH Sensor
      2. 6.2 “Multicolored” Raman Probes for Biological Imaging and Detection
    7. 7 Optical Sensors
      1. 7.1 Employing SWNTs as Fluorophores for Long-Term Optical Glucose Sensing
      2. 7.2 Employing Spectroscopic Properties of SWNTs to Detect DNA Hybridization
    8. 8 Electrochemical Sensors
      1. 8.1 Employing Electrochemistry to Monitor DNA Hybridization
      2. 8.2 Electrochemical-Based Glucose Sensing
    9. 9 Field-Emission Sensors
      1. 9.1 A CNT-Based Triode Sensor That Employs the Field-Emission Effect to Detect Gas Density
    10. 10 Electromechanical Resonators
      1. 10.1 Nanomechanical Nanotube Resonators for the Detection of Evaporated Chromium Atoms
      2. 10.2 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Devices That Employ Buckminsterfullerene (C60) for the Detection of Toxic Organic Vapors
    11. 11 Outlook
    12. References
  12. 4 Sensors Based on Monolayer-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Synthesis of MCNPs and Deposition of Solid MCNP Films
      1. 2.1 Synthesis of MCNPs
      2. 2.2 Surface Functionalization of Metal Nanoparticles
      3. 2.3 Methods of MCNP Film Deposition
    3. 3 Four Good Reasons to Use Monolayer-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles for Chemical Sensing
      1. 3.1 Controllable Chemical Composition
      2. 3.2 Controllable Size and Shape
      3. 3.3 Controllable Nanoparticle Assembly
      4. 3.4 Biocompatibility
    4. 4 Chemical Sensors Based on MCNPs
      1. 4.1 Basic Principles
      2. 4.2 “Lock-and-Key” Sensor Versus “Electronic Nose”
      3. 4.3 The Role of the Number of Nanoparticles in Chemical Sensing
    5. 5 Categories of MCNP-Based Chemical Sensors
      1. 5.1 Optical Sensors
      2. 5.2 Chemiresistors
      3. 5.3 Electrochemical Sensors
      4. 5.4 Piezoelectric Sensors
    6. 6 Concluding Remarks
    7. 7 Acknowledgments
    8. References
  13. 5 POROUS SEMICONDUCTORS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FOR GAS SENSOR APPLICATIONS
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Porous Semiconductors: Principles of Fabrication and Properties
      1. 2.1 Principles of Porous Silicon Fabrication
      2. 2.2 Properties of Porous Silicon
      3. 2.3 Techniques for Forming the Porous Silicon Layer
      4. 2.4 Porosification of Standard Semiconductors
    3. 3 Gas Sensors Based on Porous Semiconductors—Approaches and Characteristics
      1. 3.1 Capacitance-Type Gas Sensors
      2. 3.2 Gas Sensors Employing Photoluminescence Quenching
      3. 3.3 Sensors Based on Optical Measurements
      4. 3.4 Conductometric-Type Gas Sensors
      5. 3.5 Gas Sensors Based on Schottky Barriers and Heterostructures
      6. 3.6 Gas Sensors Based on Measurement of Contact Potential Difference
      7. 3.7 Gas Sensors Based on Simultaneous Control of Several Parameters of the Porous Material
      8. 3.8 Disadvantages of Porous Semiconductor Gas Sensors
      9. 3.9 Surface Modification of Porous Semiconductors to Improve Gas-Sensing Characteristics
    4. 4 Advantages of Porous Silicon for Applications in Micromachining Sensor Technology
    5. 5 Outlook
    6. 6 Acknowledgments
    7. References
  14. 6 Ordered Mesoporous Films and Membranes: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications in Gas Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Porosity in Resistive Gas Sensors
      1. 2.1 Categories of Porosity
      2. 2.2 Gas Diffusion in Porous Materials
      3. 2.3 Porous Films for Selective Gas Sensing
      4. 2.4 Other Porosity-Related Nanostructural Aspects
    3. 3 Synthesis Methods
      1. 3.1 Mesoporous Metal Oxides by Conventional Synthesis Methods
      2. 3.2 Mesoporous Materials by Supramolecular Structure Directors
      3. 3.3 Mesoporous Materials by Structure Replication
    4. 4 Summary
    5. References
  15. 7 Chemical Sensors Based on Zeolites
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Zeolites—Properties and Applications
    3. 3 Zeolites as an Auxiliary Phase in Chemical Sensors
      1. 3.1 Zeolites as Host Materials
      2. 3.2 Zeolites as Filters
      3. 3.3 Zeolites as Preconcentrators
      4. 3.4 Zeolites as Templates
    4. 4 Zeolites as the Functional (Sensitive) Phase
      1. 4.1 Adsorptivity
      2. 4.2 Ionic Conductivity
      3. 4.3 Catalytic Activity
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. References
  16. 8 Nanocomposites: From Fabrication to Chemical Sensor Applications
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Types of Nanocomposites
    3. 3 General Approaches to Nanocomposite Fabrication
    4. 4 Metal Oxide—Based Nanocomposites
      1. 4.1 Synthesis
      2. 4.2 Properties
      3. 4.3 Application in Chemical Sensors
    5. 5 Polymer-Based Nanocomposites
      1. 5.1 Synthesis
      2. 5.2 Properties
      3. 5.3 Application in Chemical Sensors
    6. 6 Carbon Nanotube—Based Nanocomposites
      1. 6.1 Synthesis
      2. 6.2 Properties
      3. 6.3 Application in Chemical Sensors
    7. 7 Noble Metal—Based Nanocomposites
      1. 7.1 Synthesis
      2. 7.2 Properties
      3. 7.3 Application in Chemical Sensors
    8. 8 Outlook
    9. 9 Acknowledgment
    10. References
  17. Index