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Chemical Sensors: Fundamentals of Sensing Materials Volume 1: General Approaches

Book Description

Chemical sensors are integral to the automation of myriad industrial processes, as well as everyday monitoring of such activities as public safety, engine performance, medical therapeutics, and many more. This massive reference work will cover all major categories of chemical sensor materials and devices, and their general functional usage ...from monitoring and analyzing gases, to analyzing liquids and compounds of all kinds. This is THE reference work on sensors used for chemical detection and analysis. In this first volume will be found a comprehensive introduction to all key materials used for chemical sensors, beginning with the essential foundations like desired properties, as well as methods of synthesis, methods of deposition, and methods for modification of sensing materials properties.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface to Chemical Sensors: Fundamentals of Sensing Materials
  6. Preface to Volume 1: General Approaches
  7. About the Editor
  8. Contributors
  9. 1 Basic Principles of Chemical Sensor Operation
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Electrochemical Sensors
      1. 2.1 Amperometric Sensors
      2. 2.2 Conductometric Sensors
      3. 2.3 Potentiometric Sensors
    3. 3 Capacitance Sensors
    4. 4 Work-Function Sensors
    5. 5 Field-Effect Transistor Sensors
    6. 6 chemFET-Based Sensors
    7. 7 Schottky Diode–Based Sensors
    8. 8 Catalytic Sensors
    9. 9 Conductometric Sensors
    10. 10 Acoustic Wave Sensors
      1. 10.1 Thickness Shear Mode Sensors
      2. 10.2 Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
    11. 11 Mass-Sensitive Sensors
    12. 12 Optical Sensors
      1. 12.1 Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors
      2. 12.2 Fluorescence Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors
      3. 12.3 Absorption Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors
      4. 12.4 Refractometric Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors
      5. 12.5 Absorption-Based Sensors
      6. 12.6 Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
    13. 13 Photoacoustic Sensors
    14. 14 Thermoelectric Sensors
    15. 15 Thermal Conductivity Sensors
    16. 16 Flame Ionization Sensors
    17. 17 Langmuir-Blodgett Film Sensors
    18. References
  10. 2 Desired Properties for Sensing Materials
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Common Characteristics of Metal Oxides
      1. 2.1 Crystal Structure of Metal Oxides
      2. 2.2 Electronic Structure of Metal Oxides
      3. 2.3 Role of the Electronic Structure of Metal Oxides in Surface Processes
    3. 3 Surface Properties of Sensing Materials
      1. 3.1 Electronic Properties of Metal Oxide Surfaces
      2. 3.2 Role of Adsorption/Desorption Parameters in Gas-Sensing Effects
      3. 3.3 Catalytic Activity of Sensing Materials
    4. 4 Stability of Parameters in Sensing Materials
      1. 4.1 Thermodynamic Stability
      2. 4.2 Chemical Stability
      3. 4.3 Long-Term Stability
    5. 5 Electrophysical Properties of Sensing Materials
      1. 5.1 Oxygen Diffusion in Metal Oxides
      2. 5.2 Conductivity Type
      3. 5.3 Band Gap
      4. 5.4 Electroconductivity
      5. 5.5 Other Important Parameters for Sensing Materials
    6. 6 Structural Properties of Sensing Materials
      1. 6.1 Grain Size
      2. 6.2 Crystal Shape
      3. 6.3 Surface Geometry
      4. 6.4 Film Texture
      5. 6.5 Surface Stoichiometry (Disordering)
      6. 6.6 Porosity and Active Surface Area
      7. 6.7 Agglomeration
    7. 7 Outlook
    8. 8 Acknowledgments
    9. References
  11. 3 Combinatorial Concepts for Development of Sensing Materials
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 General Principles of Combinatorial Materials Screening
    3. 3 Opportunities for Sensing Materials
    4. 4 Designs of Combinatorial Libraries of Sensing Materials
    5. 5 Discovery and Optimization of Sensing Materials Using Discrete Arrays
      1. 5.1 Radiant Energy Transduction Sensors
      2. 5.2 Mechanical Energy Transduction Sensors
      3. 5.3 Electrical Energy Transduction Sensors
    6. 6 Optimization of Sensing Materials Using Gradient Arrays
      1. 6.1 Variable Concentration of Reagents
      2. 6.2 Variable Thickness of Sensing Films
      3. 6.3 Variable 2-D Composition
      4. 6.4 Variable Operation Temperature and Diffusion-Layer Thickness
    7. 7 Emerging Wireless Technologies for Combinatorial Screening of Sensing Materials
    8. 8 Summary and Outlook
    9. 9 Acknowledgments
    10. References
  12. 4 Synthesis and Deposition of Sensor Materials
    1. 1 Deposition Technology: Introduction and Overview
    2. 2 Vacuum Evaporation and Vacuum Deposition
      1. 2.1 Principles of Film Deposition by the Vacuum Evaporation Method
      2. 2.2 Disadvantages of the Vacuum Evaporation Method
      3. 2.3 Film Deposition by Thermal Evaporation
    3. 3 Sputtering Technology
      1. 3.1 Principles of Deposition by Sputtering
      2. 3.2 Sputtering Techniques
      3. 3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sputtering Technology
      4. 3.4 Properties of Films Deposited by Sputtering
    4. 4 The RGTO Technique
      1. 4.1 Particulars of the RGTO Method
      2. 4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of RGTO
    5. 5 Laser Ablation or Pulsed Laser Deposition
      1. 5.1 Principles of Pulsed Laser Deposition
      2. 5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of PLD
      3. 5.3 Technical Approaches to Improving PLD Results
      4. 5.4 Some Particulars of Film Deposition by the PLD Method
    6. 6 Ion-Beam–Assisted Deposition (IBAD)
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Principles of the IBAD Method
    7. 7 Chemical Vapor Deposition
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Principles of the CVD Process
      3. 7.3 Chemical Precursors and Reaction Chemistry
      4. 7.4 Particulars of CVD Technology
      5. 7.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of CVD
      6. 7.6 Variants of CVD Methods
    8. 8 Deposition from Aerosol Phase
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Principles and Mechanism of the Deposition Process
      3. 8.3 Atomization Techniques
      4. 8.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deposition from an Aerosol Phase
      5. 8.5 Technology of the Pyrolysis Process
      6. 8.6 Regularities of Metal Oxide Growth During Spray Pyrolysis Deposition
    9. 9 Deposition from Aqueous Solutions
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD)
      3. 9.3 Selective Ion-Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) or Successive Ionic-Layer Deposition (SILD)
      4. 9.4 Liquid-Phase Deposition (LPD)
      5. 9.5 Electroless Deposition (ED)
      6. 9.6 Electrochemical Deposition (ECD)
      7. 9.7 Ferrite Plating
      8. 9.8 Liquid Flow Deposition (LFD)
      9. 9.9 Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD)
      10. 9.10 Photochemical Deposition (PCD). Applying External Forces or Fields
      11. 9.11 Summary
    10. 10 The Sol-Gel Process
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Principles of the Sol-Gel Process
      3. 10.3 Sol-Gel Chemistry and Technology
      4. 10.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sol-Gel Techniques
      5. 10.5 Calcination of Sol-Gel–Obtained Oxides
      6. 10.6 Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials (OIHM)
      7. 10.7 Summary
    11. 11 Powder Technology
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Gas Processing Condensation (GPC)
      3. 11.3 Chemical Vapor Condensation (CVC)
      4. 11.4 Microwave Plasma Processing (MPP)
      5. 11.5 Combustion Flame Synthesis (CFS)
      6. 11.6 Nanopowder Collection
      7. 11.7 Mechanical Milling of Powders
      8. 11.8 Summary
    12. 12 Polymer Technology
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Methods of Polymer Synthesis
      3. 12.3 Fabrication of Polymer Films
    13. 13 Deposition on Fibers
      1. 13.1 Specifics of Film Deposition on Fibers
      2. 13.2 Coating Design and Tooling
    14. 14 Outlook
    15. 15 Acknowledgments
    16. References
  13. 5 Modification of Sensing Materials: Metal Oxide Materials Engineering
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Control of Sensor Response Through Structural Engineering of Metal Oxides
      1. 2.1 Structural Engineering—What Does It Mean?
      2. 2.2 Structural Engineering of Metal Oxides—Technical Approaches
    3. 3 Sensor Response Control Through Modification of Metal Oxide Composition
      1. 3.1 Phase Modification of Metal Oxides
      2. 3.2 Methods of Phase Modification
      3. 3.3 Influence of Additives on Structural Properties of Multicomponent Metal Oxides
      4. 3.4 Gas-Sensing Properties of Multicomponent Metal Oxides
    4. 4 Sensor Response Control Through Surface Modification of Metal Oxides
      1. 4.1 Methods of Surface Modification
      2. 4.2 Influence of Surface Modification on Gas-Sensing Properties of Metal Oxides
      3. 4.3 Surface Additives as Active and Passive Filters
    5. 5 Improved Operating Characteristics of Gas Sensors Through Materials Engineering of Metal Oxides: What Determines the Choice?
      1. 5.1 Device Application
      2. 5.2 The Nature of the Gas to Be Detected
      3. 5.3 Detection Mechanism
      4. 5.4 Environmental Conditions During Use
      5. 5.5 Required Rate of Sensor Response
      6. 5.6 Required Sensitivity
      7. 5.7 Sensor Response Selectivity
      8. 5.8 Compatibility with Peripheral Measuring Devices
    6. 6 Summary
    7. 7 Acknowledgments
    8. References
  14. Index