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Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications

Book Description

This is a modern introductory book on sensors, combining underlying theory with bang up to date topics such as nanotechnology. The text is suitable for graduate students and research scientists with little background in analytical chemistry. It is user-friendly, with an accessible theoretical approach of the basic principles, and references for further reading. The book covers up-to-date advances in the sensor field, e.g. nanotechnology, microfluidics, and quantum dots. It includes calculation exercises and solutions, and contains a guide to Laboratory Exercises essential for course instructors and for experimental projects. An accompanying website contains colour illustrations and Powerpoint slides.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. List of Symbols
  8. List of Acronyms
  9. Chapter 1: What are Chemical Sensors?
    1. 1.1 Chemical Sensors: Definition and Components
    2. 1.2 Recognition Methods
    3. 1.3 Transduction Methods
    4. 1.4 Sensor Configuration and Fabrication
    5. 1.5 Sensor Calibration
    6. 1.6 Sensor Figures of Merit
    7. 1.7 Sensor Arrays
    8. 1.8 Sensors in Flow Analysis Systems
    9. 1.9 Applications of Chemical Sensors
    10. 1.10 Literature on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors
    11. 1.11 Organization of the Text
    12. References
  10. Chapter 2: Protein Structure and Properties
    1. 2.1 Amino Acids
    2. 2.2 Chemical Structure of Proteins
    3. 2.3 Conformation of Protein Macromolecules
    4. 2.4 Noncovalent Chemical Bonds in Protein Molecules
    5. 2.5 Recognition Processes Involving Proteins
    6. 2.6 Outlook
    7. References
  11. Chapter 3: Enzymes and Enzymatic Sensors
    1. 3.1 General
    2. 3.2 Enzyme Nomenclature and Classification
    3. 3.3 Enzyme Components and Cofactors
    4. 3.4 Some Enzymes with Relevance to Biosensors
    5. 3.5 Transduction Methods in Enzymatic Biosensors
    6. 3.6 Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions
    7. 3.7 Enzyme Inhibition
    8. 3.8 Concluding Remarks
    9. References
  12. Chapter 4: Mathematical Modeling of Enzymatic Sensors
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Enzymatic Sensor under External Diffusion Conditions
    3. 4.3 The Enzymatic Sensor under Internal Diffusion Control
    4. 4.4 The General Case
    5. 4.5 Outlook
    6. References
  13. Chapter 5: Materials and Methods in Chemical–Sensor Manufacturing
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Noncovalent Immobilization at Solid Surfaces
    3. 5.3 Covalent Conjugation
    4. 5.4 Supports and Support Modification
    5. 5.5 Affinity Reactions
    6. 5.6 Thin Molecular Layers
    7. 5.7 Sol-Gel Chemistry Methods
    8. 5.8 Hydrogels
    9. 5.9 Conducting Polymers
    10. 5.10 Encapsulation
    11. 5.11 Entrapment in Mesoporous Materials
    12. 5.12 Polymer Membranes
    13. 5.13 Microfabrication Methods in Chemical-Sensor Technology
    14. 5.14 Concluding Remarks
    15. References
  14. Chapter 6: Affinity–Based Recognition
    1. 6.1 General Principles
    2. 6.2 Immunosensors
    3. 6.3 Immobilization Methods in Immunosensors
    4. 6.4 Immunoassay Formats
    5. 6.5 Protein and Peptide Microarrays
    6. 6.6 Biological Receptors
    7. 6.7 Artificial Receptors
    8. 6.8 Outlook
    9. References
  15. Chapter 7: Nucleic Acids in Chemical Sensors
    1. 7.1 Nucleic Acid Structure and Properties
    2. 7.2 Nucleic Acid Analogs
    3. 7.3 Nucleic Acids as Receptors in Recognition Processes
    4. 7.4 Immobilization of Nucleic Acids
    5. 7.5 Transduction Methods in Nucleic Acids Sensors
    6. 7.6 DNA Microarrays
    7. 7.7 Outlook
    8. References
  16. Chapter 8: Nanomaterial Applications in Chemical Sensors
    1. 8.1 Generals
    2. 8.2 Metallic Nanomaterials
    3. 8.3 Carbon Nanomaterials
    4. 8.4 Polymer and Inorganic Nanofibers
    5. 8.5 Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticles
    6. 8.6 Semiconductor Nanomaterials
    7. 8.7 Silica Nanoparticles
    8. 8.8 Dendrimers
    9. 8.9 Summary
    10. References
  17. Chapter 9: Thermochemical Sensors
    1. 9.1 Temperature Transducers
    2. 9.2 Enzymatic Thermal Sensors
    3. 9.3 Thermocatalytic Sensors for Combustible Gases
  18. Chapter 10: Potentiometric Sensors
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 The Galvanic Cell at Equilibrium
    3. 10.3 Ion Distribution at the Interface of Two Electrolyte Solutions
    4. 10.4 Potentiometric Ion Sensors – General
    5. 10.5 Sparingly Soluble Solid Salts as Membrane Materials
    6. 10.6 Glass Membrane Ion Sensors
    7. 10.7 Ion Sensors Based on Molecular Receptors. General Aspects
    8. 10.8 Liquid Ion Exchangers as Ion Receptors
    9. 10.9 Neutral Ion Receptors (Ionophores)
    10. 10.10 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Ion-Sensing Materials
    11. 10.11 Conducting Polymers as Ion-Sensing Materials
    12. 10.12 Solid Contact Potentiometric Ion Sensors
    13. 10.13 Miniaturization of Potentiometric Ion Sensors
    14. 10.14 Analysis with Potentiometric Ion Sensors
    15. 10.15 Recent Advances in Potentiometric Ion Sensors
    16. 10.16 Potentiometric Gas Sensors
    17. 10.17 Solid Electrolyte Potentiometric Gas Sensors
    18. 10.18 Potentiometric Biocatalytic Sensors
    19. 10.19 Potentiometric Affinity Sensors
    20. 10.20 Summary
    21. References
  19. Chapter 11: Chemical Sensors Based on Semiconductor Electronic Devices
    1. 11.1 Electronic Semiconductor Devices
    2. 11.2 FED Ion Sensors and Their Applications
    3. 11.3 FED Gas Sensors
    4. 11.4 Schottky-Diode-Based Gas Sensors
    5. 11.5 Carbon-Nanotube-Based Field-Effect Transistors
    6. 11.6 Concluding Remarks
    7. References
  20. Chapter 12: Resistive Gas Sensors (Chemiresistors)
    1. 12.1 Semiconductor Metal Oxide Gas Sensors
    2. 12.2 Organic-Material-Based Chemiresistors
    3. 12.3 Nanomaterial Applications in Resistive Gas Sensors
    4. 12.4 Resistive Gas Sensor Arrays
    5. 12.5 Summary
    6. References
  21. Chapter 13: Dynamic Electrochemistry Transduction Methods
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Electrochemical Cells in Amperometric Analysis
    3. 13.3 The Electrolytic Current and its Analytical Significance
    4. 13.4 Membrane-Covered Electrodes
    5. 13.5 Non-Faradaic Processes
    6. 13.6 Kinetics of Electrochemical Reactions
    7. 13.7 Electrochemical Methods
    8. 13.8 Electrode Materials
    9. 13.9 Catalysis in Electrochemical Reactions
    10. 13.10 Amperometric Gas Sensors
    11. References
  22. Chapter 14: Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    1. 14.1 First-Generation Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    2. 14.2 Second-Generation Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    3. 14.3 The Mediator as Analyte
    4. 14.4 Conducting Polymers in Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    5. 14.5 Direct Electron Transfer: 3rd-Generation Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    6. 14.6 NAD/NADH++ as Mediator in Biosensors
    7. 14.7 Summary
    8. References
  23. Chapter 15: Mathematical Modeling of Mediated Amperometric Enzyme Sensors
    1. 15.1 External Diffusion Conditions
    2. 15.2 Internal Diffusion Conditions
    3. References
  24. Chapter 16: Electrochemical Affinity and Nucleic Acid Sensors
    1. 16.1 Amperometric Affinity Sensors
    2. 16.2 Electrochemical Nucleic Acid-Based Sensors
    3. References
  25. Chapter 17: Electrical-Impedance-Based Sensors
    1. 17.1 Electrical Impedance: Terms and Definitions
    2. 17.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry
    3. 17.3 Electrochemical Impedance Affinity Sensors
    4. 17.4 Biocatalytic Impedimetric Sensors
    5. 17.5 Outlook
    6. 17.6 Nucleic Acid Impedimetric Sensors
    7. 17.7 Conductometric Sensors
    8. 17.8 Impedimetric Sensors for Gases and Vapors
    9. References
  26. Chapter 18: Optical Sensors – Fundamentals
    1. 18.1 Electromagnetic Radiation
    2. 18.2 Optical Waveguides in Chemical Sensors
    3. 18.3 Spectrochemical Transduction Methods
    4. 18.4 Transduction Schemes in Spectrochemical Sensors
    5. 18.5 Fiber Optic Sensor Arrays
    6. 18.6 Label-Free Transduction in Optical Sensors
    7. 18.7 Transduction by Photonic Devices
    8. References
  27. Chapter 19: Optical Sensors – Applications
    1. 19.1 Optical Sensors Based on Acid–Base Indicators
    2. 19.2 Optical Ion Sensors
    3. 19.3 Optical Oxygen Sensors
    4. 19.4 Optical Enzymatic Sensors
    5. 19.5 Optical Affinity Sensors
    6. 19.6 Optical DNA Sensors and Arrays
    7. References
  28. Chapter 20: Nanomaterial Applications in Optical Transduction
    1. 20.1 Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)
    2. 20.2 Carbon Nanotubes as Optical Labels
    3. 20.3 Metal Nanoparticle in Optical Sensing
    4. 20.4 Porous Silicon
    5. 20.5 Luminescent Lanthanide Compound Nanomaterials
    6. 20.6 Summary
    7. References
  29. Chapter 21: Acoustic-Wave Sensors
    1. 21.1 The Piezoelectric Effect
    2. 21.2 The Thickness–Shear Mode Piezoelectric Resonator
    3. 21.3 QCM Gas and Vapor Sensors
    4. 21.4 QCM Affinity Sensors
    5. 21.5 QCM Nucleic Acid Sensors
    6. 21.6 Surface-Launched Acoustic-Wave Sensors
    7. 21.7 Summary
    8. References
  30. Chapter 22: Microcantilever Sensors
    1. 22.1 Principles of Microcantilever Transduction
    2. 22.2 Measurement of Cantilever Deflection
    3. 22.3 Functionalization of Microcantilevers
    4. 22.4 Microcantilever Gas and Vapor Sensors
    5. 22.5 Microcantilever Affinity Sensors
    6. 22.6 Enzyme Assay by Microcantilever Sensors
    7. 22.7 Microcantilever Nucleic Acid Sensors
    8. 22.8 Outlook
    9. References
  31. Chapter 23: Chemical Sensors Based on Microorganisms, Living Cells and Tissues
    1. 23.1 Living Material Biosensors: General Principles
    2. 23.2 Sensing Strategies in Living-Material-Based Sensors
    3. 23.3 Immobilization of Living Cells and Microorganisms
    4. 23.4 Electrochemical Microbial Biosensors
    5. 23.5 Optical Whole-Cell Sensors
    6. 23.6 Improving the Selectivity of Microorganism Biosensors
    7. 23.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  32. Index
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