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Chemical Process Equipment Design

Book Description

The Concise, Easy-to-Use Guide to Designing Chemical Process Equipment and Evaluating Its Performance

Trends such as shale-gas resource development call for a deeper understanding of chemical engineering equipment and design. Chemical Process Equipment Design complements leading texts by providing concise, focused coverage of these topics, filling a major gap in undergraduate chemical engineering education.

Richard Turton and Joseph A. Shaeiwitz present relevant design equations, show how to analyze operation of existing equipment, and offer a practical methodology for designing new equipment and for solving common problems. Theoretical derivations are avoided in favor of working equations, practical computational strategies, and approximately eighty realistic worked examples. The authors identify which equation applies to each situation, and show exactly how to use it to design equipment.

By the time undergraduates have worked through this material, they will be able to create preliminary designs for most process equipment found in a typical chemical plant that processes gases and/or liquids. They will also learn how to evaluate the performance of that equipment, even when operating conditions differ from the design case.

Coverage includes

  • Process fluid mechanics: designing and evaluating pumps, compressors, valves, and other piping systems

  • Process heat transfer: designing and evaluating heat exchange equipment

  • Separation equipment: understanding fundamental relationships underlying separation devices, designing them, and assessing their performance

  • Reactors: basic equations and specific issues relating to chemical reactor equipment design and performance

  • Other equipment: preliminary analysis and design for pressure vessels, simple phase-separators (knock-out drums), and steam ejectors

  • This guide draws on fifty years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University and elsewhere. It complements popular undergraduate textbooks for practical courses in fluid mechanics, heat transfer, reactors, or separations; supports senior design courses; and can serve as a core title in courses on equipment design.

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    Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. About the Authors
    9. Chapter 1. Process Fluid Mechanics
      1. 1.0 Introduction
      2. 1.1 Basic Relationships in Fluid Mechanics
        1. 1.1.1 Mass Balance
        2. 1.1.2 Mechanical Energy Balance
        3. 1.1.3 Force Balance
      3. 1.2 Fluid Flow Equipment
        1. 1.2.1 Pipes
        2. 1.2.2 Valves
        3. 1.2.3 Pumps
        4. 1.2.4 Compressors
      4. 1.3 Frictional Pipe Flow
        1. 1.3.1 Calculating Frictional Losses
        2. 1.3.2 Incompressible Flow
        3. 1.3.3 Compressible Flow
        4. 1.3.4 Choked Flow
      5. 1.4 Other Flow Situations
        1. 1.4.1 Flow Past Submerged Objects
        2. 1.4.2 Fluidized Beds
        3. 1.4.3 Flowrate Measurement
      6. 1.5 Performance of Fluid Flow Equipment
        1. 1.5.1 Base-Case Ratios
        2. 1.5.2 Net Positive Suction Head
        3. 1.5.3 Pump and System Curves
        4. 1.5.4 Compressors
        5. 1.5.5 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process
      7. References
      8. Problems
    10. Chapter 2. Process Heat Transfer
      1. 2.0 Introduction
      2. 2.1 Basic Heat-Exchanger Relationships
        1. 2.1.1 Countercurrent Flow
        2. 2.1.2 Cocurrent Flow
        3. 2.1.3 Streams with Phase Changes
        4. 2.1.4 Nonlinear Q versus T Curves
        5. 2.1.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U, Varies along the Exchanger
      3. 2.2 Heat-Exchange Equipment Design and Characteristics
        1. 2.2.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
      4. 2.3 LMTD Correction Factor for Multiple Shell and Tube Passes
        1. 2.3.1 Background
        2. 2.3.2 Basic Configuration of a Single-Shell-Pass, Double-Tube-Pass (1–2) Exchanger
        3. 2.3.3 Multiple Shell-and-Tube-Pass Exchangers
        4. 2.3.4 Cross-Flow Exchangers
        5. 2.3.5 LMTD Correction and Phase Change
      5. 2.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients—Resistances in Series
      6. 2.5 Estimation of Individual Heat Transfer Coefficients and Fouling Resistances
        1. 2.5.1 Heat Transfer Resistances Due to Fouling
        2. 2.5.2 Thermal Conductivities of Common Metals and Tube Properties
        3. 2.5.3 Correlations for Film Heat Transfer Coefficients
      7. 2.6 Extended Surfaces
        1. 2.6.1 Rectangular Fin with Constant Thickness
        2. 2.6.2 Fin Efficiency for Other Fin Geometries
        3. 2.6.3 Total Heat Transfer Surface Effectiveness
      8. 2.7 Algorithm and Worked Examples for the Design of Heat Exchangers
        1. 2.7.1 Pressure Drop Considerations
        2. 2.7.2 Design Algorithm
      9. 2.8 Performance Problems
        1. 2.8.1 What Variables to Specify in Performance Problems
        2. 2.8.2 Using Ratios to Determine Heat-Exchanger Performance
        3. 2.8.3 Worked Examples for Performance Problems
      10. References
      11. Appendix 2.A Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness Charts
      12. Appendix 2.B Derivation of Fin Effectiveness for a Rectangular Fin
      13. Problems
    11. Chapter 3. Separation Equipment
      1. 3.0 Introduction
      2. 3.1 Basic Relationships in Separations
        1. 3.1.1 Mass Balances
        2. 3.1.2 Energy Balances
        3. 3.1.3 Equilibrium Relationships
        4. 3.1.4 Mass Transfer Relationships
        5. 3.1.5 Rate Expressions
      3. 3.2 Illustrative Diagrams
        1. 3.2.1 TP-xy Diagrams
        2. 3.2.2 McCabe-Thiele Diagram
        3. 3.2.3 Dilute Solutions—The Kremser and Colburn Methods
      4. 3.3 Equipment
        1. 3.3.1 Drums
        2. 3.3.2 Tray Towers
        3. 3.3.3 Packed Towers
        4. 3.3.4 Tray Tower or Packed Tower?
        5. 3.3.5 Performance of Packed and Tray Towers
      5. Case Study
      6. 3.4 Extraction Equipment
        1. 3.4.1 Mixer-Settlers
        2. 3.4.2 Static and Pulsed Columns
        3. 3.4.3 Agitated Columns
        4. 3.4.4 Centrifugal Extractors
      7. 3.5 Gas Permeation Membrane Separations
        1. 3.5.1 Equipment
        2. 3.5.2 Models for Gas Permeation Membranes
        3. 3.5.3 Practical Issues
      8. References
      9. Problems
        1. Short Answer Problems
        2. Problems to Solve
    12. Chapter 4. Reactors
      1. 4.0 Introduction
      2. 4.1 Basic Relationships
        1. 4.1.1 Kinetics
        2. 4.1.2 Equilibrium
        3. 4.1.3 Additional Mass Transfer Effects
        4. 4.1.4 Mass Balances
        5. 4.1.5 Energy Balances
        6. 4.1.6 Reactor Models
      3. 4.2 Equipment Design for Nonisothermal Conditions
        1. 4.2.1 Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
        2. 4.2.2 Nonisothermal Plug Flow Reactor
        3. 4.2.3 Fluidized Bed Reactor
      4. 4.3 Performance Problems
        1. 4.3.1 Ratios for Simple Cases
        2. 4.3.2 More Complex Examples
      5. References
      6. Problems
        1. Short Answer Problems
        2. Problems to Solve
    13. Chapter 5. Other Equipment
      1. 5.0 Introduction
      2. 5.1 Pressure Vessels
        1. 5.1.1 Material Properties
        2. 5.1.2 Basic Design Equations
      3. 5.2 Knockout Drums or Simple Phase Separators
        1. 5.2.1 Vapor-Liquid (V-L) Separation
        2. 5.2.2 Design of Vertical V-L Separators
        3. 5.2.3 Design of Horizontal V-L Separators
        4. 5.2.4 Mist Eliminators and Other Internals
        5. 5.2.5 Liquid-Liquid (L-L) Separation
      4. 5.3 Steam Ejectors
        1. 5.3.1 Estimating Air Leaks into Vacuum Systems and the Load for Steam Ejectors
        2. 5.3.2 Single-Stage Steam Ejectors
        3. 5.3.3 Multistage Steam Ejectors
        4. 5.3.4 Performance of Steam Ejectors
      5. References
      6. Problems
        1. Short Answer Problems
        2. Problems to Solve
    14. Index