“*Take the best that exists and make it better. If it does not exist, design it*.”

**—Henry Royce, 1863–1933, Engineer**

All the relationships presented in Chapter 6 apply directly to circular pipes. However, many of these results caSn also, with appropriate modifications, be applied to conduits with noncircular cross sections. It should be recalled that the derivation of the momentum equation for uniform flow in a tube, for example, Equation 5.44, involved no assumption about the shape of the tube cross section. The result is that the friction loss is a function of a geometric parameter called the “hydraulic diameter”:

${D}_{h}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}=\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4\frac{A}{{W}_{p}}$ |
(7.1) |

where

*A* is the area of the flow cross section

*W _{p}*

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