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Characterization of Polymers

Book Description

Polymers are organic, often complex molecular compounds used as the building blocks for plastics, elastomers and various types of synthetic engineered materials. Polymer scientists and chemists are not always familiar with the characterization methods best used for polymeric materials. And knowing what characterization technology works best can make a huge difference in getting an accurate understanding of internal and surface microstructure and ultimately desired properties for the myriads of polymer applications in use today. Useful case studies help to better illustrate the common types of problems and challenges when characterizing polymers. -- Review of basic polymer structures and synthesis routes, as well as chemical composition -- Characterization techniques appropriate for morphology of surfaces, interfaces and thin films -- Useful background on polymer surface thermodynamics, as well as adhesion properties and polymer-polymer interfaces properties and characterization techniques

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Materials Characterization Series
  6. Contents
  7. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  8. Preface to Series
  9. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Polymers
  10. Preface
  11. Contributors
  12. Polymer Structures and Synthesis Methods
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Chain Structures in Natural and Synthetic Polymers
      1. The Nature of Polymeric Materials
      2. The Composition of Polymeric Materials
      3. Molecular Weight and Its Distribution
      4. Polymer Chain Configurations
      5. Polymer Chain Conformations
      6. Polymer Solid-State Structure, Morphology, and Transitions
      7. Polymer Surface Structure
    3. 1.3 Polymer Synthesis
      1. Chain Reaction Polymerization
      2. Coordination Polymerization
      3. Step Reaction Polymerization
    4. 1.4 Summary
  13. Polymer Fabrication Techniques
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Processing Techniques
      1. Foam Processing
      2. Film-Forming Processes
      3. Composites
      4. Extrusion
      5. Molding
      6. Coatings
      7. Other Methods
    3. 2.3 Applications
      1. Development of Spray-On Insulation for the Thermal Protection System of the External Tank in the Space Shuttle Program
      2. Development of Thick, Thin, and Ultrathin Polyimide Films
      3. Langmuir–Blodgett (L–B) Films
      4. Polymer Composites
      5. Molding Processes
      6. Fiber Drawing and Surface Modification Processes
  14. Chemical Composition of Polymers
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Chemical Composition: Questions to Ask
    3. 3.3 Techniques for Determination of Chemical Composition: What to Use to Ask the Questions
    4. Illustrative Examples of Characterization of Chemical Composition of Polymers
      1. Stoichiometry
      2. Functionality
      3. Phase Separation
      4. Surface Modification
      5. Interfacial Chemical Composition
      6. Impurities
    5. 3.5 Summary: New Horizons
  15. Characterization of the Morphology of Polymer Surfaces, Interfaces, and Thin Films by Microscopy Techniques
    1. 4.1 Overview of Polymer Interfaces and Thin Films
    2. 4.2 Introduction to Microscopy Techniques
    3. 4.3 Optical Microscopy
    4. 4.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy
      1. Low-Voltage High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy
      2. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy
    5. 4.5 Transmission Electron Microscopy
    6. 4.6 Scanning Probe Microscopy
    7. 4.7 New Microscopies
  16. Structure and Morphology of Interfaces and Thin Films by Scattering Techniques
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Industrial Applications
      1. Adhesion
      2. Biomedical Applications
      3. Langmuir–Blodgett Films and Other Thin Films
    3. 5.3 Integrated Optics Method
      1. Wave-Guiding
      2. Nonlinear Optical Method
    4. 5.4 Reflectivity
    5. 5.5 Grazing Incidence X-Ray Scattering
  17. Surface Thermodynamics
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Theory of Wetting, Spreading, and Adhesion
    3. 6.3 Experimental Methods
      1. Contact Angles
      2. Adsorption and Calorimetry
      3. Inverse Gas Chromatography
      4. Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
  18. Surface Modification of Polymers
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Wet-Chemical Modification of Polymer Surfaces
      1. Surface Roughening and Seeding in Placing Operations
      2. Surface Treatment for Bondability
      3. Surface Treatment Using Adhesion Promoters
      4. Surface Modification by Photochemical Methods
    3. 7.3 Dry Modification Techniques
      1. Modification by High- and Low-Energy Ion Beams
      2. Plasma Modification of Polymer Surfaces
      3. Other Dry Treatment Techniques
    4. 7.4 Summary
  19. Adhesion
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Physical Meaning of Adhesion
    3. 8.3 Theoretical Analysis of Adhesion
    4. 8.4 Experimental Measurement of Adhesion
    5. 8.5 Standardization of Test Procedure
    6. 8.6 Locus of Failure
    7. 8.7 Key Adhesion Issues
    8. 8.8 Illustrative Examples
    9. 8.9 Summary
  20. Chemistry, Reactivity, and Fracture of Polymer Interfaces
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Polyimide Structure and Properties
    3. 9.3 Polymer–Polymer Interfaces
    4. 9.4 Metal–Polymer Interfaces
    5. 9.5 Polymer–Metal Interfaces
    6. 9.6 Thermal Stress and Interfacial Fracture
  21. The Polymer–Polymer Interface
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Techniques for Measuring Diffusion Distances Much Greater Than Molecular Size
    3. 10.3 Techniques for Measuring Concentration Profiles on the Order of Molecular Size
    4. 10.4 Summary
  22. Friction and Wear (Tribology)
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Basic Concepts
    3. 11.3 Tribological Applications
    4. 11.4 Mechanisms of Friction and Wear
      1. Friction
      2. Wear
    5. 11.5 Correlation of Properties with Friction and Wear
      1. Energy-to-Rupture and Abrasive Wear
      2. Cohesive Energy and Abrasive Wear
      3. Ratio of Applied Stress to Failure Strength and Wear
      4. Molecular Weight and Wear
      5. Crystallinity and Wear
      6. Loss Tangent and Friction
      7. Closure
    6. 11.6 Measurement of Friction and Wear
      1. ASTM Laboratory Tests
      2. Designing Laboratory Tests
    7. 11.7 Reporting and Interpretation of Measurements
    8. 11.8 Summary
  23. References for Future Study
  24. Index