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Characterization of Optical Materials

Book Description

Optical materials are prized for their properties such as reflection, refraction, absorption, emission, scattering, and diffraction of light in wavelengths ranging from 100 nm to 10 mm. Because small surface or atomic structure defects can have significant affects on those properties, characterization techniques that are sensitive to structures at those scales are presented for the relative effectiveness and particular applications.

Inside you'll find:

  • A review of surface roughness as it relates to desired optical properties
  • Characterization of optical materials used for III-V semiconductor systems, group IV materials, and amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors
  • Coverage of on the stability and modification of film and surface optical properties, including optical coatings, optical films, and laser-induced damage to optical materials
  • Concise summaries of major characterization technologies for integrated circuit packaging materials, including acoustic microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, and many more

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Materials Characterization Series
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  7. Preface to Series
  8. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Optical Materials
  9. Preface
  10. Contributors
  11. Introduction
  12. Part I: Influence of Surface Morphology and Microstructure On Optical Response
    1. Characterization of Surface Roughness
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 What Surface Roughness Is
      3. 1.3 How Surface Roughness Affects Optical Measurements
      4. 1.4 How Surface Roughness and Scattering Are Measured
      5. 1.5 Characterization of Selected Surfaces
      6. 1.6 Future Directions
    2. Characterization of the Near-Surface Region Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Techniques
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Ellipsometry
        1. Experimental Implementations of Ellipsometry
        2. Analysis of Ellipsometry Data
      3. 2.3 Microstructural Determinations from Ellipsometry Data
        1. Temperature Dependence of the Optical Properties of Silicon
        2. Determination of the Optical Functions of Glasses Using SE
        3. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of SiO2/Si
        4. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for Complicated Film Structures
        5. Time-Resolved Ellipsometry
        6. Single-Wavelength Real-Time Monitoring of Film Growth
        7. Multiple-Wavelength Real-Time Monitoring of Film Growth
        8. Infrared Ellipsometry Studies of Film Growth
    3. The Composition, Stoichiometry, and Related Microstructure of Optical Materials
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Aspects of Raman Scattering
      3. 3.3 III–V Semiconductor Systems
      4. 3.4 Group IV Materials
      5. 3.5 Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors 59 Chalcogenide Glasses 60, Group IV Microcrystalline Semiconductors
      6. 3.6 Summary
    4. DIAMOND AS AN OPTICAL MATERIAL
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Deposition Methods
      3. 4.3 Optical Properties of CVD Diamond
      4. 4.4 Defects in CVD Diamond
      5. 4.5 Polishing CVD Diamond
      6. 4.6 X-ray Window
      7. 4.7 Summary
  13. Part II: Stability and Modification of Film and Surface Optical Properties
    1. Multilayer Optical Coatings
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Single-Layer Optical Coatings
        1. Optical Constants
        2. Composition Measurement Techniques
      3. 5.3 Multilayer Optical Coatings
        1. Compositional Analysis
        2. Surface Analytical Techniques
        3. Microstructural Analysis of Multilayer Optical Coatings
      4. 5.4 Stability of Multilayer Optical Coatings
      5. 5.5 .Future Compositional and Microstructural Analytical Techniques
    2. Characterization and Control of Stress In Optical Films
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Origins of Stress
      3. 6.3 Techniques for Modifying or Controlling Film Stress
        1. Effect of Deposition Parameters
        2. Effect of Ion-Assisted Deposition
        3. Effect of Impurities
        4. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing
      4. 6.4 Stress Measurement Techniques
        1. Substrate Deformation
        2. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
        3. Raman Spectroscopy
      5. 6.5 Future Directions
    3. Surface Modification of Optical Materials
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Fundamental Processes
        1. Ion–Solid Interactions
        2. Defect Production, Rearrangement, and Retention
      3. 7.3 Ion Implantation of Some Optical Materials
        1. Glasses and Amorphous Silica
        2. α-Quartz (SKO2)
        3. Halides
        4. Sapphire (α-Al2O3)
        5. LiNbO3
        6. Preparation of Optical Components by Ion Implantation
    4. Laser-Induced Damage To Optical Materials
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Laser Damage Definition and Statistics
        1. Defining Damage
        2. Collecting Damage Statistical Data
        3. Types of Damage Probability Distributions
        4. Identification of Pre-Damage Sites
        5. Changing the Damage Threshold
      3. 8.3 In Situ Diagnostics
        1. Photothermal Techniques
        2. Particle Emission
      4. 8.4 Postmortem Diagnostics
        1. Surface Charge State
        2. Surface Phase and Structure Analysis
      5. 8.5 Future Directions
  14. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    2. 2 Cathodoluminescence (CL)
    3. 3 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Transmission Electron Microscope (EELS)
    4. 4 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    5. 5 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    6. 6 Light Microscopy
    7. 7 Modulation Spectroscopy
    8. 8 Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)
    9. 9 Optical Scatterometry
    10. 10 Photoluminescence (PL)
    11. 11 Photothermal Displacement Technique
    12. 12 Raman Spectroscopy
    13. 13 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    14. 14 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    15. 15 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    16. 16 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM)
    17. 17 Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    18. 18 Surface Roughness: Measurement, Formation by Sputtering, Impact on Depth Profiling
    19. 19 Total Internal Reflection Microscopy
    20. 20 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    21. 21 Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
    22. 22 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    23. 23 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    24. 24 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
  15. Index