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Characterization of Metals and Alloys

Book Description

A better understanding of the microstructure of metals and alloys has led to great advances in the performance and useful applications of these, the oldest of mankind's engineered materials. This book in the Materials Characterizations series focuses on the particular molecular and atomistic properties of metals insofar as how they affect the different techniques for measuring and analyzing internal structure, surface structure, and chemical/physical properties. It provides a vital connection between commonly used characterization techniques like Scanning Electron Microscopy and how such can be used in the various ways that metals are processed, machined, and used. -- Review of relevant mechanical and chemical properties of metals and how they affect characterization techniques -- Characterization techniques used for melting and casting, machining, and metallic thin films processes -- Concise summaries of major characterization technologies for metals and alloys, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Transmission Electron Spectroscopy

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Materials Characterization Series
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  7. Preface to Series
  8. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Metals and Alloys
  9. Preface
  10. Acronyms Glossary
  11. Contributors
  12. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Purpose and Organization of the Book
  13. Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Analysis
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Grain Boundary Segregation
    3. 2.3 Temper Embrittlement
    4. 2.4 Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking
    5. 2.5 Hydrogen Embrittlement
    6. 2.6 Creep Embrittlement
    7. 2.7 Future Directions
  14. Chemical Properties
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Tools of the Trade—Unique Information Available
      1. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
      2. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
      3. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
      4. Rutherford Backscateering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and Ion Channeling
      5. Other Methods
    3. 3.3 Gaseous Corrosion
      1. High Temperature Corrosion—Influence of Alloy Additions and Coatings
    4. 3.4 Aqueous Corrosion
      1. Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking
      2. Pit Formation
    5. 3.5 Surface Electronic Structure and Chemistry
    6. 3.6 Surface Modification
    7. 3.7 Summary
  15. Surface and Thin Film Analysis of Diffusion In Metals
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Mathematics of Diffusion
    3. 4.3 Effects of Non-Uniform Cross Sections
    4. 4.4 Effects of Finite Thickness
    5. 4.5 Analysis Techniques for Diffusion
    6. 4.6 Case Studies of Diffusion
      1. Diffusion in Bulk Samples
      2. Diffusion in Thin Films
      3. Analysis of Surface Diffusion
    7. 4.7 Summary
  16. Mineral Processing and Metal Reclamation
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Techniques for Mineral Surface Characterization
      1. Direct Analysis of Solid Surfaces of Particles in a Fluid
      2. Surface Characterization of Mineral Particles Separated from the Processing Fluid
    3. 5.3 Surface Bonding in Mineral–Fluid Systems
      1. Oxide Mineral Surfaces
      2. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces
    4. 5.4 Complementary Composition Analyses of Rough and Polished Surfaces
    5. 5.5 Summary
  17. Melting and Casting
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Aluminum–Lithium Alloys
    3. 6.3 Aluminum–Magnesium Alloys
    4. 6.4 Rapidly Solidified Aluminum Alloy Powders
    5. 6.5 Cast Aluminum Alloy Metal Matrix Composites
    6. 6.6 Liquid Aluminum Alloys
    7. 6.7 Summary
  18. Machining and Working of Metals
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Physical and Chemical Characterization
      1. Physical Properties
      2. Chemical Properties
    3. 7.3 Lubrication
    4. 7.4 Surface Finish
    5. 7.5 Metalworking Example
    6. 7.6 Summary
  19. Characterization of the Cleaning of Surfaces of Metals and Metal Alloys
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Characterization of Cleaning Procedures
      1. Mechanical Cleaning
      2. Chemical Cleaning
      3. Cleaning in a Vacuum Chamber
      4. Detection of Hydrogen and Miscellaneous Cleaning
    3. 8.3 Specimen Handling and Interpretation of Data
    4. 8.4 Summary
  20. Coatings and Thin Films
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Techniques for Creating Coatings and Thin Films
      1. Deposition Techniques
      2. Thick Film Coatings
      3. Ion Implantation
      4. Surface Segregation
      5. Thin Film Structures
    3. 9.3 Techniques to Characterize Coatings and Thin Films
    4. 9.4 Studies of Coatings on Metals
      1. Polymeric Coatings
      2. Tribological Coatings
      3. Passivating Coatings
      4. Optical and Thermal Coatings
      5. Electrodeposition
      6. Surface Modifications by Ion Implantation
      7. Biocoatings
    5. 9.5 Studies of Thin Films on Metals
      1. Metal Thin Films
      2. Semiconductor Thin Films
      3. Oxide Thin Films
      4. Ceramic Thin Films
      5. Carbon-Based Thin Films
    6. 9.6 Summary
  21. Failure Analysis
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Collaboration with the Applications Engineering Team
      1. The Selection of Samples for Analysis
      2. The Handling and Shipping of Samples
      3. Providing Sample Background Information
    3. 10.3 Failure Analysis Case Histories
      1. Metal/Metal Interface and Metal Surface Failures
      2. Metal/Inorganic Film Failures
      3. Metal/Polymer Interface Failures
    4. 10.4 Summary
  22. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    2. 2 Cathodoluminescence (CL)
    3. 3 Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
    4. 4 Elastic Recoil Spectrometry (ERS)
    5. 5 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Transmission Electron Microscope (EELS)
    6. 6 Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPMA)
    7. 7 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    8. 8 Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)
    9. 9 Field Ion Microscopy (FIM)
    10. 10 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    11. 11 Glow-Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS)
    12. 12 High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS)
    13. 13 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS)
    14. 14 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
    15. 15 Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)
    16. 16 Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS)
    17. 17 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
    18. 18 Low-Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM)
    19. 19 Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE)
    20. 20 Medium-Energy Ion Scattering with Channeling and Blocking (MEIS)
    21. 21 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
    22. 22 Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)
    23. 23 Optical Micro-Reflectometry (OMR) and Differential Reflectometry (DR)
    24. 24 Optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG)
    25. 25 Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)
    26. 26 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS)
    27. 27 Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (PEEM)
    28. 28 Photoluminescence (PL)
    29. 29 Reflected Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (REELS)
    30. 30 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
    31. 31 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    32. 32 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    33. 33 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    34. 34 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM)
    35. 35 Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
    36. 36 Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS)
    37. 37 Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)
    38. 38 Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    39. 39 Surface Analysis by Laser Ionization (SALI)
    40. 40 Surface Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure and Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (SEXAFS/NEXAFS)
    41. 41 Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD)
    42. 42 Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF)
    43. 43 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    44. 44 Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)
    45. 45 Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
    46. 46 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    47. 47 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    48. 48 X-Ray Photoelectron and Auger Electron Diffraction (XPD and AED)
    49. 49 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
  23. Index