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Characterization of Integrated Circuit Packaging Materials

Book Description

With a particular emphasis on fabrication quality control, this volume in the Materials Characterization series focuses on characterization techniques used for critical junctures in package design like mold compound adhesion and strength, mechanical stres

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Materials Characterization Series
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  8. Preface to Series
  9. Preface to the Reissue of Integrated Circuit Packaging Materials
  10. Preface
  11. Contributors
  12. IC Package Reliability Testing
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 In-Process Quality Measurements
      1. Wire Bond Quality
      2. Die Attach Quality
      3. Other Process Control Measurements
    3. 1.3 Package-Oriented Reliability Testing of Finished Devices: Moisture Testing
      1. Failure Analysis of Moisture-Related Failures
      2. Root Causes of Corrosion Failures
    4. 1.4 Package-Oriented Reliability Testing of Finished Devices: Thermal Cycle Testing
      1. Bond Failures: Bond Pad Contamination
      2. Intermetallic Formation and Other Elements of Bond Formation
    5. 1.5 Reliability Test Preconditioning: A New Direction
    6. 1.6 Summary
  13. Mold Compound Adhesion and Strength
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Thermodynamic Consideration of Adhesion
      1. Work of Adhesion
      2. The Work of Adhesion from Contact Angle Measurements
      3. Work of Adhesion in the Presence of Moisture and Lubricants
    3. 2.3 Adhesive Strength for Various Mold Compound Types
      1. Adhesive Strength Measurements
      2. Mold Compound Types
      3. Adhesive Strength of Various Mold Compounds
    4. 2.4 Various Factors Which Influence Adhesion Strength
      1. Effects of Lead Frame Oxides
      2. Effects of Different Lead Frame Materials
      3. Effects of Adhesion Promoters
      4. Effects of Various Mold Release and Processing Aids
      5. Effects of Mold Compound Rheology
    5. 2.5 Role of Adhesion in Surface Mount Operations
      1. Moisture Absorption and Its Effect on Adhesion
      2. Package Delamination and Cracking in VPR and SDIP
    6. 2.6 Role of Adhesion in Package Reliability
      1. Metal Line Movement
      2. Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST)
    7. 2.7 Physical Characterization of Mold Compounds
      1. Physical Properties of Various Mold Compounds
      2. Cure Kinetics
    8. 2.8 Outlook for Future Mold Compounds
    9. 2.9 Summary
  14. Mechanical Stress in IC Packages
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Stress and Strain Relations: An Overview
    3. 3.3 Stress Generation in IC Packages
    4. 3.4 Tools for Stress Determination in IC Packages
      1. Finite Element Analysis
      2. Strain Gauges for Stress Analysis
      3. Moire Interferometry
      4. Indirect Stress Determination
    5. 3.5 Application of Techniques to IC Packaging Problems
      1. Eutectic Die Attach
      2. Passivation Damage at Chip Corners
      3. Ball Bond Stresses
      4. Solder Reflow Damage
      5. Tape Automated Bonding Inner Lead Stresses
      6. Filler Particle-Induced Damage
      7. Mechanical Warpage
      8. Mechanical Damage
      9. Parametric Shifts Related to Package Stresses
    6. 3.6 Solder Joint Stress and the Coffin–Manson Relation
    7. 3.7 Summary
  15. Moisture Sensitivity and Delamination
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Evaluations
      1. Moisture Sensitivity Classification
      2. Moisture Absorption: Preconditioning
      3. Solder Reflow Damage
    3. 4.3 Impact on Temperature-Cycle Performance
    4. 4.4 Impact on THB Performance
    5. 4.5 Moisture Desorption: Bake-Out
    6. 4.6 Summary
  16. Thermal Management
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 IC Package Thermal Characteristics
    3. 5.3 Factors Affecting Package Thermal Resistance
      1. Package Design
      2. Package Material Thermal Conductivity
      3. Die Attach Material
      4. Package Size and Die Size Effects
      5. Package Defects
      6. PCB Effect on Thermal Performance
      7. The Effect of Neighboring Components
      8. Heat Fins
    4. 5.4 Thermal Design Challenges of Multi-Chip Modules
    5. 5.5 Summary
  17. Electrical Performance of IC Packages
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Designing for Performance
    3. 6.3 Electrical Models for Packages and Interconnects
      1. Low Frequency Models
    4. 6.4 Propagation Delay and Packaging
      1. Clock Frequency, Bandwidth, and Rise Time
      2. Propagation Delay
      3. RC Delay
      4. Time of Flight
    5. 6.5 Switching Noise
    6. 6.6 Signal Integrity
    7. 6.7 Crosstalk
    8. 6.8 Materials and Design Trends for High-Performance Packaging
    9. 6.9 Summary
  18. Solderability of Integrated Circuits
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Electronic Soldering Basics
      1. Soldering Definitions
      2. Solder Joints for Electronic Packages
      3. Solderability Defect Classifications
    3. 7.3 IC Package Designs, Materials, and Solderability Test Methods
      1. Through-Hole Package Designs and Materials
      2. Surface Mount Package Designs and Materials
      3. Tape Automated Bonding Package Design and Materials
    4. 7.4 IC Solderability Defects
      1. Through-Hole Solderability Problems
      2. SMT Solder Electroplating Process Defects
      3. SMT Lead Finish Defects
      4. SMT Solderability Problems Due to Mechanical Damage
      5. TAB Solderability Problems
    5. 7.5 Solderability of IC Packages to PCBs
      1. Printed Circuit Boards
      2. Electronic Solders, Fluxes, and Pastes
    6. 7.6 Summary
  19. Hermeticity and Joining in Ceramic IC Packages
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Materials for Hermetic IC Packaging
    3. 8.3 Hermeticity Testing—History
    4. 8.4 Theory of Hermeticity Testing
    5. 8.5 Gross-Leak Testing Methodology
    6. 8.6 Hermeticity Failure Analysis
    7. 8.7 Alternatives to Hermetic Packaging
    8. 8.8 Summary
  20. Advanced Interconnect Technology
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 MCM Technology Classifications
    3. 9.3 MCM Materials Selection
      1. Substrate Materials and Design
      2. Polyimide Dielectrics
      3. Test Substrates
      4. Power Density
    4. 9.4 Die Mounting and Stress
      1. Die Bond Adhesive Strength
      2. Flip-Chip Technology
    5. 9.5 Die Interconnection
      1. Wire Bond Technology
      2. Bond Optimization
    6. 9.6 MCM Packages
      1. Substrate-Based Packages
    7. 9.7 Summary
  21. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1   Acoustic Microscopy (C-AM)
    2. 2   Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)
    3. 3   Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    4. 4   Ceramic Plate Test (CPT) for Evaluating Solderability of IC Devices
    5. 5   Coulometric Method for Solderability Evaluation
    6. 6   Decapsulation Techniques
    7. 7   Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
    8. 8   Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
    9. 9   Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
    10. 10 Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPMA)
    11. 11 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    12. 12 Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
    13. 13 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    14. 14 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS)
    15. 15 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
    16. 16 In Situ Strain Gauges
    17. 17 Ion Chromatography
    18. 18 Mechanical Testing in IC Packaging
    19. 19 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    20. 20 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM)
    21. 21 Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    22. 22 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
    23. 23 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)
    24. 24 Torsional Braid Analysis (TBA)
    25. 25 Wetting Balance Method to Evaluate the Solderability of IC Devices
    26. 26 X-Ray Laminography
    27. 27 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
    28. 28 X-Ray Radiographic Inspection
  22. Index