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Characterization of Composite Materials

Book Description

Composite materials make their way into all aspects of modern technological society, but particularly so for applications requiring great strength and light weight such as in the aerospace industry. Because they are hybrid heterogeneous materials, they can be difficult to characterize with any one single methodology.

This volume in the Materials Characterization Series will guide engineers and technicians on which methods work best and what to look for when reading results, be they from X-Ray diffraction, or Nuclear Magnetic Imaging.

Inside, you'll find:

  • Major types of characterization techniques that work best for composite materials, including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, NMR Imaging and more
  • Advanced characterization methods using Scanning Probe Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy
  • Concise summaries of all major characterization technologies for composite materials

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Materials Characterization Series
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  7. Preface to Series
  8. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Composite Materials
  9. Preface
  10. Acronyms
  11. Contributors
  12. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Fundamental Principles: XPS and ESCA
    3. 1.3 Applications of XPS/ESCA to Composites
      1. Fibers
      2. Polymer Matrix Materials
      3. Composites
      4. Failure Modes
    4. 1.4 Summary
  13. Raman Spectroscopy
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Normal Raman Scattering
    3. 2.3 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
    4. 2.4 Polymer–Metal Composites
      1. Adsorption of Polymer to Metal
      2. Adhesive–Adherent Interactions
    5. 2.5 Polymer–Polymer Composites
      1. Polymer–Polymer Interdiffusion
      2. Surface Segregation in Polymer Blends
    6. 2.6 Fiber–Polymer Composites
      1. Stress Transfer at Interfaces
      2. Surface Structure of Carbon Materials
    7. 2.7 Summary
  14. Nmr Imaging of Composites
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. Basis of NMR Imaging
      2. Relaxation Parameters in NMR Imaging
      3. Pulse Sequences for Generating Contrast in Imaging
      4. Resolution in NMR Imaging
      5. Utility of NMRI
      6. Image Processing
    2. 3.2 Advanced Imaging Techniques
      1. Chemical Shift Imaging
    3. 3.3 NMRI of Solids
      1. Design Limitations of High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Composites
      2. Interfacial Bond Quality and Defect Characteristics of Composites
      3. NMR Imaging as a Composite Inspection Technique: Detection of Internal Voids
      4. Detection of Nonuniform Dispersion of Filler
      5. Aging of Composites
      6. MRI as an Environmental Monitoring Technique
      7. Adsorption of Liquids in Polymers
      8. 1 H Imaging of Solids
      9. 13 C Imaging of Solids
    4. 3.4 Conclusions
  15. Nmr Studies of Isotope-Enriched Species at Interfaces
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Practical NMR Considerations
    3. 4.3 Surface Modifiers
    4. 4.4 Conclusions
  16. Inverse Gas Chromatography
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Characterizing Solid Surfaces
    3. 5.3 Inverse Gas Chromatography
      1. IGC Versus Traditional Adsorption Methods
      2. The Gas Chromatographic Adsorption Process
      3. Chromatographic Peaks and the Adsorption Isotherm
      4. Experimental Equipment
    4. 5.4 Applications of IGC
      1. Infinite Dilution IGC on Studies on Cellulose Materials
      2. Adsorption Isotherm Studies on Cellulose Materials
      3. Acid–Base Surface Properties of Materials
      4. Thermodynamic Interaction Parameters for Polymer–Polymer and Polymer–Solute Systems
      5. Presence of Contaminants on Fiber Surfaces
      6. Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures using IGC
    5. 5.5 Future Applications
      1. Site Energy Distributions on Heterogeneous Solid Surfaces
      2. Characterizing Organic Adsorbates on Particulate Surfaces
      3. In Situ Column Reaction Studies
  17. Dielectric Spectroscopy
    1. 6.1 Dielectric Spectroscopy of Composite Media
      1. Dielectric Relaxation in Solids
      2. Dielectric Properties of Heterogeneous Media
    2. 6.2 Dielectric Spectra of Composites: Examples
      1. Nonpolymeric Composites
      2. Polymeric Composites
    3. 6.3 Conclusion
  18. Imaging and Characterization of Materials by the New Scanning Probe Techniques (STM/AFM)
    1. 7.1 Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
    2. 7.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Spectroscopy
    3. 7.3 Atomic Force Microscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Dynamic Force Microscopy
    4. 7.4 Surface Modifications with STM/AFM
    5. 7.5 Related Scanning Techniques
      1. Related Tunneling Techniques
      2. Related Nontunneling Techniques
    6. 7.6 Applications to Polymer Composite Materials
    7. 7.7 The Future of SPM
  19. Elastic and Viscoelastic Behavior Of Composites
    1. 8.1 Viscoelastic Properties
    2. 8.2 Isotropic Multiphase Materials
    3. 8.3 Nonisotropic Multiphase Materials
    4. 8.4 Summary
  20. Infrared Spectroscopy for Composites
    1. 9.1 Introduction
      1. Introduction to Spectroscopy
      2. Spectrometers
    2. 9.2 Transmission Spectroscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Lambert–Beer’s Law
      3. Another Derivation of Lambert–Beer’s Law
      4. Reference Spectrum
      5. Spectral Subtraction
      6. Application Example
    3. 9.3 Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (ATR)
      1. Total Reflection
      2. Attenuated Total Reflection
      3. Penetration Depth
      4. Depth Profiles
      5. Geometry of IRE
      6. Application Example
    4. 9.4 Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (RAS)
      1. Introduction
      2. TO Modes, LO Modes, and Surface Modes
      3. Reflection and Absorption at Two Interfaces
      4. Polarization Modulation RAS
      5. Application Example
    5. 9.5 Grazing Angle Metal Overlayer ATR Spectroscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Application Example
    6. 9.6 Reflection Spectroscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. External Reflection
      3. Normal Incidence Specular Reflection
    7. 9.7 Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT)
      1. Introduction
      2. Diffuse Reflectance
      3. DRIFT Attachment
      4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum
      5. Kubelka–Munk Theory
      6. Problems
      7. Solutions to the Problems
      8. General Flow to Perform DRIFT
      9. Application Example
    8. 9.8 Emission Spectroscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Blackbody
      3. Data Analysis
      4. Quantification
      5. Application Example
    9. 9.9 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS)
      1. Introduction
      2. Modulation Frequency
      3. Heat Transfer
      4. Optical Absorption Length and Thermal Diffusion Length
      5. Depth Profiles
      6. Quantification
      7. Application Example
    10. 9.10 Infrared Microspectroscopy
      1. Introduction
      2. Spatial Resolution
      3. Reflection Mode
      4. Mapping
      5. Application Example
    11. 9.11 Appendix
      1. Relationship between Optical Constants and Dielectric Constants
      2. Spectral Simulation
      3. Anisotropic Sample
      4. About the Complex Representation
      5. Symbols
  21. Index