You are previewing Characterization of Ceramics.
O'Reilly logo
Characterization of Ceramics

Book Description

Ceramics are, in a general definition, materials that consist of man-made, inorganic, non-metallic solid material -- either existing in a crystalline state or non-crystalline state (i.e., glasses). Materials characterization techniques are used to ensure the structural and surface integrity of ceramics for their use in a wide variety of applications, from thermal resistance to advanced electronic and optical technologies like fiber optics to structural uses. This book presents those techniques along with views on future trends in ceramics processing and advanced characterization technologies particularly appropriate to ceramics materials. Readers will find more on: -- Ceramic Materials preparation routes, including powder preparation by solution techniques and gas-phase techniques -- Formation techniques for ceramic films and coatings, thick films and bulk ceramics -- A review of ceramic microstructure, reactions, phase behavior, mechanical properties and electronic and magnetic ceramics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  6. Preface to Series
  7. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Ceramics
  8. Preface
  9. Contributors
  10. Powder and Precursor Preparation by Solution Techniqu
    1. 1.1 Introduction
      1. Mixed Oxide Processing
      2. Chemical Synthesis of Powders
    2. 1.2 Powder Characterization
      1. Physical Characteristics
      2. Chemical Properties
    3. 1.3 Precursor Powder Synthesis
      1. Speciation and Supersaturation
      2. Growth
      3. Nucleation
      4. Agglomeration
    4. 1.4 Summary
  11. Powder Preparation by Gas-Phase Techniques
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Powder Production by Thermal Decomposition Techniques
      1. Aerosol Precursor Processes
      2. Vapor Precursor Processes
    3. 2.3 Powder Production by Plasma Techniques
    4. 2.4 Powder Production by Supercritical Fluid Techniques
    5. 2.5 Powder Characterization
    6. 2.6 Summary
  12. Formation of Ceramic Films and Coatings
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Film Deposition and Coating Processes
      1. Physical Vapor Deposition
      2. Chemical Vapor Deposition
      3. Solution and Sol–Gel Techniques
      4. Thermal Spray Processing
      5. Hard Carbon Coatings
    3. 3.3 Physical Characterization
      1. Density, Porosity and Voids
      2. Morphology
      3. Thickness
      4. Surface Finish
    4. 3.4 Chemical Characterization
      1. Elemental Analysis
      2. Chemical State Analysis
      3. Microstructure
    5. 3.5 Mechanical Characterization
      1. Adhesion
      2. Hardness
      3. Internal Stress
    6. 3.6 Summary
  13. Consolidation of Ceramic Thick Films
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Thick Film Processing
    3. 4.3 Characterization of Ceramic Thick Film Consolidation
      1. Characterization of Films Before Thermal Processing
      2. Characterization of Thick Films During Thermal Processing
      3. Characterization of Sintered Thick Films
    4. 4.4 Summary
  14. Consolidation of Bulk Ceramics
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Ceramic Consolidation
      1. Green Body Fabrication
      2. Pre-Sinter Thermal Processing
      3. Sintering/Thermal Consolidation
    3. 5.3 Characterization of Ceramics
      1. Characteristics and Characterization of Green Ceramic Compacts
      2. Characterization of Pre-Sinter Thermal Processes
      3. Characteristics and Characterization of Sintered Ceramics
    4. 5.4 Summary
  15. Inorganic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Possible Surface Analytical Artifacts
    3. 6.3 XPS Studies of Bonding in Glass
    4. 6.4 Corrosion in Water
      1. Water Vapor
      2. Aqueous Solutions
    5. 6.5 Glass Crystallization
  16. Ceramic Microstructures
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Bulk Microstructural Features
      1. Grain Size, Shape, and Growth
      2. Connectivity
      3. Boundary Layers and Inclusions
      4. Porosity and Density
    3. 7.3 Interfaces and Planar Defects
      1. Grain Boundaries and Domain Boundaries
      2. Heterogeneous Interfaces
      3. Stacking Faults and Twins
    4. 7.4 Dislocations
    5. 7.5 Methods of Phase Identification
      1. Phase Distribution
      2. Crystal Structure of Phases
      3. Chemical Composition of Phases
    6. 7.6 Stereology for Phase Quantification
      1. Grain Size and Mean Lineal Intercept
      2. Volume Fraction of Phases
    7. 7.7 Summary
  17. Ceramic Reactions and Phase Behavior
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Starting Materials
    3. 8.3 Phase Equilibria
      1. General Aspects
      2. Determining the Chemical and Structural Aspects
      3. Determining the Physical Variables
    4. 8.4 Rates and Mechanisms of Reaction
      1. General Considerations
      2. Decomposition of Precursors
      3. Solid-Solid Reactions
      4. Solid–Liquid Reactions
      5. Solid–Gas Reactions
    5. 8.5 Summary
  18. Mechanical Properties and Fracture
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 The Fracture Process
      1. Mechanical Strength of Brittle Materials
      2. Flaws, Statistics of Fracture, and Measurement Techniques
      3. Subcritical Crack Growth
    3. 9.3 Generation of Fracture Surface Features
      1. Features Produced by Crack Interactions
      2. Mist and Velocity Hackle
    4. 9.4 Procedures and Equipment Used in Fractography
    5. 9.5 Applications of Fractography
      1. Failure Analysis Using Fractography
      2. The Use of Fractography in Design Development
      3. Fractography in Materials Development
      4. Fractography in Materials Research
  19. Ceramic Composites
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Composites
      1. R-Curve Behavior
      2. Creep
      3. Fracture Toughess
      4. Flaws
      5. Fatigue Crack Propagation Resistance
      6. Fracture Mode
      7. Adhesion
    3. 10.3 Oxidation Resistance of Ceramic Composites
    4. 10.4 Electrical Properties of Ceramic Composites
      1. Piezoelectricity
      2. Voltage-Dependent Conductivity
    5. 10.5 Summary
  20. Glass and Ceramic Joints
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Characterization of Interfaces
    3. 11.3 Methods of Joining
      1. Mechanical Joining
      2. Direct Joining
      3. Indirect Joining
    4. 11.4 Fundamentals of Interfacial Bonding: Wetting and Spreading
    5. 11.5 Reactive Metal Brazing of Aluminum Nitride
      1. Wetting Studies
      2. Interfacial Reactions
      3. XPS Characterization of Ti-AlN Interfaces
      4. TEM Characterization of Ti-AlN Interfaces
    6. 11.6 Summary
  21. Electronic and Magnetic Ceramics
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Insulators and Capacitor Materials
      1. Ceramic Insulators
      2. Ceramic Capacitor Materials
    3. 12.3 Piezoelectrics
    4. 12.4 Pyroelectric Ceramics
    5. 12.5 Ferroelectric Ceramics
    6. 12.6 Ceramic Superconductors
    7. 12.7 Ferrites
    8. 12.8 Ceramic Sensors
    9. 12.9 Ceramic Thin Films
  22. Nondestructive Evaluation
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 X-ray Techniques
      1. Radiography
      2. Tomography
    3. 13.3 Ultrasonic Techniques
      1. Background
      2. Ultrasonic Time of Flight
      3. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy
      4. Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscopy (SLAM)
      5. Acoustic Microscopy
      6. Ultrasonic Birefringence
    4. 13.4 Other Techniques
      1. Strain-Induced Optical Birefringence
      2. Penetrant Techniques
      3. Photoacoustic Microscopy
      4. Infrared Microscopy
      5. Acoustic Emission
      6. Shearography
      7. Lattice Distortion
    5. 13.5 Summary
  23. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    2. 2 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Transmission Electron Microscope (EELS)
    3. 3 Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPMA)
    4. 4 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    5. 5 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    6. 6 Light Microscopy
    7. 7 Neutron Diffraction
    8. 8 Physical and Chemical Adsorption for the Measurement of Solid State Areas
    9. 9 Raman Spectroscopy
    10. 10 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    11. 11 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    12. 12 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    13. 13 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM)
    14. 14 Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
    15. 15 Surface Roughness: Measurement, Formation by Sputtering, Impact on Depth Profi ling
    16. 16 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    17. 17 Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
    18. 18 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    19. 19 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    20. 20 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
  24. Index