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Characterization of Biomaterials

Book Description

Biomaterials and medical devices must be rigorously tested in the laboratory before they can be implanted. Testing requires the right analytical techniques. Characterization of biomaterials reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials.

Beginning with an introduction to microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials, Characterization of biomaterials goes on to discuss scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, motility and differentiation, and the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors. Further topics considered include studying molecular-scale protein-surface interactions in biomaterials, analysis of the cellular genome and abnormalities, and the use of microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials. Finally, the book concludes by outlining standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Characterization of biomaterials is an authoritative reference tool for all those involved in the development, production and application of biomaterials.

  • Reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials
  • Discusses scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, and motility and differentiation
  • Examines the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
  7. Chapter 1: Microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1 Introduction: basic imaging concepts
    3. 1.2 Image perception and interpretation
    4. 1.3 Light microscopy
    5. 1.4 Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM)
    6. 1.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
    7. 1.6 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  8. Chapter 2: Scattering techniques for structural analysis of biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Light scattering
    4. 2.3 Wide-angle X-ray diffraction
    5. 2.4 Measuring orientation using X-ray diffraction
    6. 2.5 Small-angle scattering techniques
    7. 2.6 Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
    8. 2.7 Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)
    9. 2.8 Acknowledgment
  9. Chapter 3: Quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion and motility in biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Cell attachment assays
    4. 3.3 Cell adhesion strength
    5. 3.4 Collective motility of cell populations
    6. 3.5 Individual cell motility
    7. 3.6 Conclusion and future trends
  10. Chapter 4: Assays for determining cell differentiation in biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) assays
    4. 4.3 Protein and chemical assays
    5. 4.4 Imaging assays
    6. 4.5 Future trends
  11. Chapter 5: Bioreactors for evaluating cell infiltration and tissue formation in biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Bioreactor designs
    4. 5.3 Evaluation of cell infiltration and cell seeding
    5. 5.4 Evaluation of tissue formation
    6. 5.5 Importance of computational fluid mechanics in modeling, imaging, and simulation of the bioreactors
    7. 5.6 Failure of bioreactors
    8. 5.7 Future trends
    9. 5.8 Conclusion
    10. 5.9 Sources of further information and advice
  12. Chapter 6: Studying molecular-scale protein–surface interactions in biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction: surface-induced thrombosis on artificial surfaces
    3. 6.2 Process and changes during protein adsorption
    4. 6.3 Factors affecting protein adsorption
    5. 6.4 Models of protein adsorption and adsorption isotherms
    6. 6.5 Protein adsorption kinetics
    7. 6.6 The Vroman effect
    8. 6.7 Structure and functions of fibrinogen
    9. 6.8 Intermolecular forces and interactions
    10. 6.9 Adsorption profile and interfacial kinetics
    11. 6.10 Competitive adsorption
    12. 6.11 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
    13. 6.12 Interfacial properties of fibrinogen studied by AFM
    14. 6.13 Future trends
    15. 6.14 Conclusion
  13. Chapter 7: Assessing the mutagenic effects of biomaterials: analyzing the cellular genome and abnormalities
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 DNA structure
    4. 7.3 Genetic mutations
    5. 7.4 Cytogenetic mutations
    6. 7.5 Types of mutations that can occur at the chromosomal level
    7. 7.6 Methods of detection of cytogenetic mutations
    8. 7.7 Analyzing genomic organization and variations in genomic copy number
    9. 7.8 Copy number variations (CNVs)
    10. 7.9 Epigenetic effects on the genome
    11. 7.10 Effects of biomaterials on mutagenesis
    12. 7.11 Conclusion
  14. Chapter 8: Using microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 What do we measure?
    4. 8.3 Normalization
    5. 8.4 Analysis
    6. 8.5 Conclusion
  15. Chapter 9: Standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Regulatory definition of medical devices
    4. 9.3 International Standards Organization (ISO) regulation and guidance
    5. 9.4 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation and guidance
    6. 9.5 Regulation and guidance in Japan and other countries
    7. 9.6 Biological tests
    8. 9.7 Phasing (timing) of non-clinical testing of medical devices
  16. Index