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Characterization in Silicon Processing

Book Description

With a focus on the use of materials characterization techniques for silicon-based semiconductors, this volume in the Materials Characterization series focuses on the process flow of silicon wafer manufacture where materials properties, processing and ass

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Materials Characterization Series
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  7. Preface to Series
  8. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization in Silicon Processing
  9. Preface
  10. Contributors
  11. Application of Materials Characterization Techniques to Silicon Epitaxial Growth
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Silicon Epitaxial Growth
      1. Basic Chemical Reactions
      2. Precleaning Considerations
      3. Reactor Types
    3. 1.3 Film and Process Characterization
      1. Crystal Quality
      2. Preclean Quality
      3. Thickness
      4. Dopant Concentration and Dopant Profiling
    4. 1.4 Selective Growth
      1. Basic Process Considerations
      2. Defect Density and Growth Morphology
      3. Preclean Quality
      4. Thickness
    5. 1.5 Si1 – xGex Epitaxial Growth
      1. Material Considerations
      2. Reactor Types
    6. 1.6 Si1 – xGex Material Characterization
      1. Composition and Thickness
      2. Growth Morphology
      3. Lattice Strain and Critical Thickness
      4. Relaxation Kinetics
      5. Bandgap Measurements
      6. Interfacial Abruptness and Outdiffusion
      7. Impurity Profiles
    7. 1.7 Summary
  12. Polysilicon Conductors
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Deposition
      1. Surface Preparation
      2. Nucleation and Growth
      3. Postgrowth Analysis
      4. High-Quality Polysilicon
      5. Integrated Circuit Fabrication Issues
    3. 2.3 Doping
      1. Dopant Distribution
      2. Deglaze
      3. Ion Implantation Doping
    4. 2.4 Patterning
      1. Lithography
      2. Etching
    5. 2.5 Subsequent Processing
      1. Polycides
      2. Dielectric Encapsulation
  13. Silicides
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Formation of Silicides
      1. Sheet Resistance Measurements
      2. Rutherford Backscattering Measurements
      3. X-Ray Diffraction Measurements
      4. Ellipsometric Measurements
    3. 3.3 The Silicide–Silicon Interface
    4. 3.4 Oxidation of Silicides
    5. 3.5 Dopant Redistribution During Silicide Formation
    6. 3.6 Stress in Silicides
    7. 3.7 Stability of Silicides
    8. 3.8 Summary
  14. Aluminum- and Copper-Based Conductors
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. History
    2. 4.2 Film Deposition
      1. Techniques
      2. Problems with Deposition
    3. 4.3 Film Growth
      1. Substrate Surface Properties
      2. Surface Preparation
      3. Film Formation
      4. Microstructure
      5. Patterning and Etching
    4. 4.4 Encapsulation
    5. 4.5 Reliability Concerns
  15. Tungsten-Based Conductors
    1. 5.1 Applications for ULSI Processing
    2. 5.2 Deposition Principles
    3. 5.3 Blanket Tungsten Deposition
      1. Film Thickness
      2. Film Conformality
      3. Film Resistivity
      4. Film Stress
      5. Surface Roughness
      6. Film Microstructure
    4. 5.4 Selective Tungsten Deposition
      1. Selectivity Breakdown
      2. Substrate Interaction
  16. Barrier Films
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Characteristics of Barrier Films
    3. 6.3 Types of Barrier Films
    4. 6.4 Processing Barrier Films
      1. Inert Sputtering
      2. Reactive Sputtering
      3. Chemical Vapor Deposition
      4. Nitridation and Rapid Thermal Annealing
    5. 6.5 Examples of Barrier Films
      1. Titanium Thin Films
      2. Tungsten–Titanium Thin Films
      3. Titanium Nitride
    6. 6.6 Summary
  17. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    2. 2 Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM)
    3. 3 Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) Measurements
    4. 4 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)
    5. 5 Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
    6. 6 Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) Microscopy
    7. 7 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    8. 8 Focused Ion Beams (FIBs)
    9. 9 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    10. 10 Hall Effect Resistivity Measurements
    11. 11 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS)
    12. 12 Light Microscopy
    13. 13 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
    14. 14 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
    15. 15 Optical Scatterometry
    16. 16 Photoluminescence (PL)
    17. 17 Raman Spectroscopy
    18. 18 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
    19. 19 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    20. 20 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    21. 21 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    22. 22 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM)
    23. 23 Sheet Resistance and the Four Point Probe
    24. 24 Spreading Resistance Analysis (SRA)
    25. 25 Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    26. 26 Surface Roughness: Measurement, Formation by Sputtering, Impact on Depth Profiling
    27. 27 Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF)
    28. 28 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    29. 29 Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
    30. 30 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    31. 31 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    32. 32 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
  18. Index