You are previewing Characterization in Compound Semiconductor Processing.
O'Reilly logo
Characterization in Compound Semiconductor Processing

Book Description

Compound semiconductors such as Gallium Arsenide, Gallium Aluminum Arsenide, and Indium Phosphide are often difficult to characterize and present a variety of challenges from substrate preparation, to epitaxial growth to dielectric film deposition to dopa

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Materials Characterization Series
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Reissue of the Materials Characterization Series
  7. Preface to Series
  8. Preface to the Reissue of Characterization of Compound Semiconductor Processing
  9. Preface
  10. Contributors
  11. Characterization of III–V Thin Films for Electronic Devices
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Surface Characterization of GaAs Wafers
      1. Dislocations
      2. Surface Composition and Chemical State
    3. 1.3 Ion Implantation
    4. 1.4 Epitaxial Crystal Growth
    5. 1.5 Summary
  12. III–V Compound Semiconductor Films for Optical Applications
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Growth Rate/Layer Thickness
      1. In Situ Growth Monitors
      2. Post-Growth Structural Analysis
    3. 2.3 Composition Analysis
    4. 2.4 Impurity and Dopant Analysis
    5. 2.5 Electrical Properties in Optical Structures
    6. 2.6 Optical Properties in Single and Multilayer Structures
    7. 2.7 Interface Properties in Multilayer Structures
    8. 2.8 Summary
  13. Contacts
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 In Situ Probes
      1. Surface Preparation and Characterization
      2. Initial Metal Deposition
      3. Subsequent Metal Deposition
    3. 3.3 Unpatterned Test Structures
      1. Electrical Characterization
      2. Concentration Profiling
      3. Electron Microscopy
    4. 3.4 Patterned Test Structures
      1. Barrier Height
      2. Contact Resistance
      3. Morphology
  14. Dielectric Insulating Layers
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Oxides and Oxidation
    3. 4.3 Heteromorphic Insulators
    4. 4.4 Chemical Modification of GaAs Surfaces
    5. 4.5 Indium Phosphide-Insulator Interfaces
    6. 4.6 Heterojunction Quasi-Insulator Interfaces
    7. 4.7 Epitaxial Fluoride Insulators
    8. 4.8 Commentary
  15. Other Compound Semiconductor Films
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. A Focus on HgCdTe
      2. Objective and Scope
      3. Background
      4. Representative Device Structure
    2. 5.2 Substrates and the CdTe Surface (Interface 1)
      1. Substrate Quality
      2. Substrate Surface Preparation
    3. 5.3 Epitaxial HgCdTe Materials (Between Interfaces 2 and 5)
      1. Desired Characteristics of the Active Layers
      2. Composition
      3. Crystalline Quality
      4. Doping
      5. Minority Carrier Lifetime
    4. 5.4 Heterojunction Interfaces (Interface 3)
      1. Advantages of the Heterojunction
      2. Desired Characteristics
      3. Characterizations
    5. 5.5 HgCdTe Surface Preparation (Interfaces 4 and 5)
      1. Importance of the Chemically Etched Surface
      2. Monitoring of the Surface Cleanliness by Ellipsometry
      3. Characterization of Thin Native Oxides on HgCdTe by XPS
      4. Surface Analysis by UPS
    6. 5.6 Summary
  16. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Gaas
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 DLTS Technique: General Features
    3. 6.3 Fabrication and Qualification of Schottky Diodes
    4. 6.4 DLTS System
    5. 6.5 DLTS Measurement Procedure
    6. 6.6 Data Analysis
      1. DLTS Spectrum
      2. Activation Energy for Thermal Emission
      3. Trap Densities
    7. 6.7 EL2 Center
    8. 6.8 Summary
  17. Appendix: Technique Summaries
    1. 1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
    2. 2 Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM)
    3. 3 Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) Measurements
    4. 4 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS)
    5. 5 Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (D-SIMS)
    6. 6 Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) Microscopy
    7. 7 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
    8. 8 Focused Ion Beams (FIBs)
    9. 9 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    10. 10 Hall Effect Resistivity Measurements
    11. 11 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS)
    12. 12 Light Microscopy
    13. 13 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
    14. 14 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
    15. 15 Optical Scatterometry
    16. 16 Photoluminescence (PL)
    17. 17 Raman Spectroscopy
    18. 18 Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
    19. 19 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)
    20. 20 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    21. 21 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    22. 22 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM)
    23. 23 Sheet Resistance and the Four Point Probe
    24. 24 Spreading Resistance Analysis (SRA)
    25. 25 Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    26. 26 Surface Roughness: Measurement, Formation by Sputtering, Impact on Depth Profiling
    27. 27 Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF)
    28. 28 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    29. 29 Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
    30. 30 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    31. 31 X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    32. 32 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
  18. Index