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CCTV Surveillance: Analog and Digital Video Practices and Technology, Second Edition

Book Description

This revision of the classic book on CCTV technology, CCTV Surveillance, provides a comprehensive examination of CCTV, covering the applications of various systems, how to design and install a system, and how to choose the right hardware. Taking into account the ever-changing advances in technology using digital techniques and the Internet, CCTV Surveillance, Second Edition, is completely updated with the recent advancements in digital cameras and digital recorders, remote monitoring via the Internet, and CCTV integration with other security systems. Continuing in the celebrated tradition of the first edition, the second edition is written to serve as a useful resource for the end-user as well as the technical practitioner. Each chapter begins with an overview, and presents the latest information on the relevant equipment, describing the characteristics, features and application of each device. Coverage of aging or obsolete technology is reduced to a historical perspective, and eight brand new chapters cover digital video technology, multiplexers, integrated camera-lens-housing, smart domes, and rapid deployment CCTV systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Photo Credits
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Part I
    1. 1. Video’s Critical Role in the Security Plan
      1. 1.1. Protection of Assets
        1. 1.1.1. Overview
        2. 1.1.2. Background
      2. 1.2. The Role of Video in Asset Protection
        1. 1.2.1. Video as Part of the Emergency and Disaster Plan
          1. 1.2.1.1. Protecting Life and Minimizing Injury
          2. 1.2.1.2. Reducing Exposure of Physical Assets and Optimizing Loss Control
          3. 1.2.1.3. Restoring Normal Operations Quickly
          4. 1.2.1.4. Documenting an Emergency
          5. 1.2.1.5. Emergency Shutdown and Restoration
          6. 1.2.1.6. Testing the Plan
          7. 1.2.1.7. Standby Power and Communications
        2. 1.2.2. Security Investigations
        3. 1.2.3. Safety
        4. 1.2.4. The Role of the Guard
        5. 1.2.5. Employee Training and Education
      3. 1.3. Synergy through Integration
        1. 1.3.1. Integrated Functions
        2. 1.3.2. System Hardware
      4. 1.4. Video’s Role and Its Applications
        1. 1.4.1. Video System Solutions
        2. 1.4.2. Overt vs. Covert Video
        3. 1.4.3. Security Surveillance Applications
        4. 1.4.4. Safety Applications
        5. 1.4.5. Video Access Control
      5. 1.5. The Bottom Line
    2. 2. Video Technology Overview
      1. 2.1. Overview
      2. 2.2. The Video System
        1. 2.2.1. The Role of Light and Reflection
        2. 2.2.2. The Lens Function
        3. 2.2.3. The Camera Function
        4. 2.2.4. The Transmission Function
        5. 2.2.5. The Monitor Function
        6. 2.2.6. The Recording Function
      3. 2.3. Scene Illumination
        1. 2.3.1. Natural Light
        2. 2.3.2. Artificial Light
      4. 2.4. Scene Characteristics
        1. 2.4.1. Target Size
        2. 2.4.2. Reflectivity
        3. 2.4.3. Effects of Motion
        4. 2.4.4. Scene Temperature
      5. 2.5. Lenses
        1. 2.5.1. Fixed-Focal-Length Lens
        2. 2.5.2. Zoom Lens
        3. 2.5.3. Vari-Focal Lens
        4. 2.5.4. Panoramic—360° Lens
        5. 2.5.5. Covert Pinhole Lens
        6. 2.5.6. Special Lenses
      6. 2.6. Cameras
        1. 2.6.1. The Scanning Process
          1. 2.6.1.1. Raster Scanning
          2. 2.6.1.2. Digital and Progressive Scan
        2. 2.6.2. Solid-State Cameras
          1. 2.6.2.1. Analog
          2. 2.6.2.2. Digital
          3. 2.6.2.3. Internet
        3. 2.6.3. Low-Light-Level Intensified Camera
        4. 2.6.4. Thermal Imaging Camera
        5. 2.6.5. Panoramic 360° Camera
      7. 2.7. Transmission
        1. 2.7.1. Hard-Wired
          1. 2.7.1.1. Coaxial Cable
          2. 2.7.1.2. Unshielded Twisted Pair
          3. 2.7.1.3. LAN, WAN, Intranet and Internet
        2. 2.7.2. Wireless
        3. 2.7.3. Fiber Optics
      8. 2.8. Switchers
        1. 2.8.1. Standard
        2. 2.8.2. Microprocessor-Controlled
      9. 2.9. Quads and Multiplexers
      10. 2.10. Monitors
        1. 2.10.1. Monochrome
        2. 2.10.2. Color
        3. 2.10.3. CRT, LCD, Plasma Displays
        4. 2.10.4. Audio/Video
      11. 2.11. Recorders
        1. 2.11.1. Video Cassette Recorder (VCR)
        2. 2.11.2. Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
        3. 2.11.3. Optical Disk
      12. 2.12. Hard-copy Video Printers
      13. 2.13. Ancillary Equipment
        1. 2.13.1. Camera Housings
          1. 2.13.1.1. Standard-rectangular
          2. 2.13.1.2. Dome
          3. 2.13.1.3. Specialty
          4. 2.13.1.4. Plug and Play
        2. 2.13.2. Pan/Tilt Mounts
        3. 2.13.3. Video Motion Detector (VMD)
        4. 2.13.4. Screen Splitter
        5. 2.13.5. Camera Video Annotation
          1. 2.13.5.1. Camera ID
          2. 2.13.5.2. Time and Date
        6. 2.13.6. Image Reversal
      14. 2.14. Summary
  7. Part II
    1. 3. Natural and Artificial Lighting
      1. 3.1. Overview
      2. 3.2. Video Lighting Characteristics
        1. 3.2.1. Scene Illumination
          1. 3.2.1.1. Daytime/Nighttime
          2. 3.2.1.2. Indoor/Outdoor
        2. 3.2.2. Light Output
        3. 3.2.3. Spectral Output
        4. 3.2.4. Beam Angle
      3. 3.3. Natural Light
        1. 3.3.1. Sunlight
        2. 3.3.2. Moonlight and Starlight
      4. 3.4. Artificial Light
        1. 3.4.1. Tungsten Lamps
        2. 3.4.2. Tungsten-Halogen Lamps
        3. 3.4.3. High-Intensity-Discharge Lamps
        4. 3.4.4. Low-Pressure Arc Lamps
        5. 3.4.5. Compact Short-Arc Lamps
        6. 3.4.6. Infrared Lighting
          1. 3.4.6.1. Filtered Lamp Infrared Source
          2. 3.4.6.2. Infrared-Emitting Diodes
          3. 3.4.6.3. Thermal (Heat) IR Source
      5. 3.5. Lighting Design Considerations
        1. 3.5.1. Lighting Costs
          1. 3.5.1.1. Operating Costs
          2. 3.5.1.2. Lamp Life
        2. 3.5.2. Security Lighting Levels
        3. 3.5.3. High-Security Lighting
      6. 3.6. Summary
    2. 4. Lenses and Optics
      1. 4.1. Overview
      2. 4.2. Lens Functions and Properties
        1. 4.2.1. Focal Length and Field of View
          1. 4.2.1.1. Field-of-View Calculations
            1. 4.2.1.1.1. Tables for Scene Sizes vs. FL for 1/4-, 1/3-, and 1/2-Inch Sensors
            2. 4.2.1.1.2. Tables for Angular FOV vs. FL for 1/4-, 1/3-, and 1/2-Inch Sensor Sizes
          2. 4.2.1.2. Lens and Sensor Formats
        2. 4.2.2. Magnification
          1. 4.2.2.1. Lens–Camera Sensor Magnification
          2. 4.2.2.2. Monitor Magnification
          3. 4.2.2.3. Combined Camera and Monitor
        3. 4.2.3. Calculating the Scene Size
          1. 4.2.3.1. Converting One Format to Another
        4. 4.2.4. Calculating Angular FOV
        5. 4.2.5. Lens Finder Kit
        6. 4.2.6. Optical Speed: f-number
        7. 4.2.7. Depth of Field
        8. 4.2.8. Manual and Automatic Iris
          1. 4.2.8.1. Manual Iris
          2. 4.2.8.2. Automatic-Iris Operation
        9. 4.2.9. Auto-Focus Lens
        10. 4.2.10. Stabilized Lens
      3. 4.3. Fixed Focal Length Lens
        1. 4.3.1. Wide-Angle Viewing
        2. 4.3.2. Narrow-Angle Telephoto Viewing
      4. 4.4. Vari-Focal Lens
      5. 4.5. Zoom Lens
        1. 4.5.1. Zooming
        2. 4.5.2. Lens Operation
        3. 4.5.3. Optical Speed
        4. 4.5.4. Configurations
        5. 4.5.5. Manual or Motorized
        6. 4.5.6. Adding a Pan/Tilt Mechanism
        7. 4.5.7. Preset Zoom and Focus
        8. 4.5.8. Electrical Connections
        9. 4.5.9. Initial Lens Focusing
        10. 4.5.10. Zoom Pinhole Lens
        11. 4.5.11. Zoom Lens–Camera Module
        12. 4.5.12. Zoom Lens Checklist
      6. 4.6. Pinhole Lens
        1. 4.6.1. Generic Pinhole Types
        2. 4.6.2. Sprinkler Head Pinhole
        3. 4.6.3. Mini-Pinhole
      7. 4.7. Special Lenses
        1. 4.7.1. Panoramic Lens—360°
        2. 4.7.2. Fiber-Optic and Bore Scope Optics
        3. 4.7.3. Bi-Focal, Tri-Focal Image Splitting Optics
        4. 4.7.4. Right-Angle Lens
        5. 4.7.5. Relay Lens
      8. 4.8. Comments, Checklist and Questions
      9. 4.9. Summary
    3. 5. Cameras—Analog, Digital, and Internet
      1. 5.1. Overview
      2. 5.2. Camera Function
        1. 5.2.1. The Scanning Process
        2. 5.2.2. The Video Signal
          1. 5.2.2.1. Monochrome Signal
          2. 5.2.2.2. Color Signal
      3. 5.3. Camera Types
        1. 5.3.1. Analog Camera
          1. 5.3.1.1. Monochrome
          2. 5.3.1.2. Color—Single Sensor
          3. 5.3.1.3. Color—Monochrome Switchover
          4. 5.3.1.4. Color—Three Sensor
        2. 5.3.2. Digital Camera
          1. 5.3.2.1. Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
          2. 5.3.2.2. Smart Camera
          3. 5.3.2.3. Legal Considerations
        3. 5.3.3. Internet Camera
          1. 5.3.3.1. The IP Camera ID
          2. 5.3.3.2. Remote Viewing
          3. 5.3.3.3. Compression for Transmission
        4. 5.3.4. Low Light Level ICCD
        5. 5.3.5. Thermal IR
        6. 5.3.6. Universal System Bus (USB)
      4. 5.4. Basic Sensor Types
        1. 5.4.1. Solid State—Visible
          1. 5.4.1.1. Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
          2. 5.4.1.2. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
        2. 5.4.2. ICCD, SIT, ISIT—Visible/Near IR
        3. 5.4.3. Thermal IR
        4. 5.4.4. Sensor Fusion—Visible/IR
      5. 5.5. Camera Features—Analog/Digital
        1. 5.5.1. Video Motion Detection (VMD)
        2. 5.5.2. Electronic Zooming
        3. 5.5.3. Electronic Shuttering
        4. 5.5.4. White Balance
        5. 5.5.5. Video Bright Light Compression
        6. 5.5.6. Geometric Accuracy
      6. 5.6. Camera Resolution/Sensitivity
        1. 5.6.1. Vertical Resolution
        2. 5.6.2. Horizontal Resolution
        3. 5.6.3. Static vs. Dynamic Resolution
        4. 5.6.4. Sensitivity
      7. 5.7. Sensor Formats
        1. 5.7.1. Solid-State
        2. 5.7.2. Image Intensifier
        3. 5.7.3. Thermal IR
      8. 5.8. Camera Lens Mounts
        1. 5.8.1. C and CS Mounts
        2. 5.8.2. Mini-Lens Mounts
        3. 5.8.3. Bayonet Mount
        4. 5.8.4. Lens–Mount Interferences
      9. 5.9. Zoom Lens–camera Module
      10. 5.10. Panoramic 360° Camera
      11. 5.11. High Definition Television (HDTV)
      12. 5.12. Summary
    4. 6. Analog Video, Voice, and Control Signal Transmission
      1. 6.1. Overview
      2. 6.2. Base-band Signal Analysis
        1. 6.2.1. Video Picture Signal
        2. 6.2.2. Video Synchronization Signal
        3. 6.2.3. Voice Signal
        4. 6.2.4. Control Data Signals
        5. 6.2.5. Modulation and Demodulation
        6. 6.2.6. Signal Bandwidth
      3. 6.3. Wired Video Transmission
        1. 6.3.1. Coaxial Cable
          1. 6.3.1.1. Unbalanced Single-Conductor Cable
          2. 6.3.1.2. Connectors
          3. 6.3.1.3. Amplifiers
        2. 6.3.2. Balanced Two-Conductor Twin-axial Cable Transmission
          1. 6.3.2.1. Indoor Cable
          2. 6.3.2.2. Outdoor Cable
          3. 6.3.2.3. Electrical Interference
          4. 6.3.2.4. Grounding Problems
          5. 6.3.2.5. Aluminum Cable
          6. 6.3.2.6. Plenum Cable
        3. 6.3.3. Two-Wire Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Transmission
          1. 6.3.3.1. Balanced 2-Wire Attributes
          2. 6.3.3.2. UTP Technology
          3. 6.3.3.3. UTP Implementation with Video, Audio, and Control Signals
          4. 6.3.3.4. Slow-Scan Transmission
        4. 6.3.4. Fiber-Optic Transmission
          1. 6.3.4.1. Background
          2. 6.3.4.2. Simplified Theory
          3. 6.3.4.3. Cable Types
            1. 6.3.4.3.1. Multimode Step-Index Fiber
            2. 6.3.4.3.2. Multimode Graded-Index Fiber
            3. 6.3.4.3.3. Cable Construction and Sizes
            4. 6.3.4.3.4. Indoor and Outdoor Cables
          4. 6.3.4.4. Connectors and Fiber Termination
            1. 6.3.4.4.1. Coupling Efficiency
            2. 6.3.4.4.2. Cylindrical and Cone Ferrule Connector
            3. 6.3.4.4.3. Fiber Termination Kits
            4. 6.3.4.4.4. Splicing Fibers
          5. 6.3.4.5. Fiber-Optic Transmitter
            1. 6.3.4.5.1. Generic Types
            2. 6.3.4.5.2. Modulation Techniques
            3. 6.3.4.5.3. Operational Wavelengths
          6. 6.3.4.6. Fiber-Optic Receiver
            1. 6.3.4.6.1. Demodulation Techniques
          7. 6.3.4.7. Multi-Signal, Single-Fiber Transmission
          8. 6.3.4.8. Fiber Optic—Advantages/Disadvantages
            1. 6.3.4.8.1. Pro
            2. 6.3.4.8.2. Con
          9. 6.3.4.9. Fiber-Optic Transmission: Checklist
      4. 6.4. Wired Control Signal Transmission
        1. 6.4.1. Camera/Lens Functions
        2. 6.4.2. Pan/Tilt Functions
        3. 6.4.3. Control Protocols
      5. 6.5. Wireless Video Transmission
        1. 6.5.1. Transmission Types
        2. 6.5.2. Frequency and Transmission Path Considerations
        3. 6.5.3. Microwave Transmission
          1. 6.5.3.1. Terrestrial Equipment
          2. 6.5.3.2. Satellite Equipment
          3. 6.5.3.3. Interference Sources
        4. 6.5.4. Radio Frequency Transmission
          1. 6.5.4.1. Transmission Path Considerations
          2. 6.5.4.2. Radio Frequency Equipment
        5. 6.5.5. Infrared Atmospheric Transmission
          1. 6.5.5.1. Transmission Path Considerations
          2. 6.5.5.2. Infrared Equipment
      6. 6.6. Wireless Control Signal Transmission
      7. 6.7. Signal Multiplexing/De-multiplexing
        1. 6.7.1. Wideband Video Signal
        2. 6.7.2. Audio and Control Signal
      8. 6.8. Secure Video Transmission
        1. 6.8.1. Scrambling
        2. 6.8.2. Encryption
      9. 6.9. Cable Television
      10. 6.10. Analog Transmission Checklist
        1. 6.10.1. Wired Transmission
          1. 6.10.1.1. Coaxial Cable
          2. 6.10.1.2. Two-Wire UTP
          3. 6.10.1.3. Fiber-Optic Cable
        2. 6.10.2. Wireless Transmission
          1. 6.10.2.1. Radio Frequency (RF)
          2. 6.10.2.2. Microwave
          3. 6.10.2.3. Infrared
      11. 6.11. Summary
    5. 7. Digital Transmission—Video, Communications, Control
      1. 7.1. Overview
        1. 7.1.1. Migration from Analog to Digital
        2. 7.1.2. Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Wireless LAN (WiFi)
        3. 7.1.3. Internet
        4. 7.1.4. Wireless 802.11, Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM)
        5. 7.1.5. Digital Video Recorder (DVR), Network DVR (NDVR)
        6. 7.1.6. Network Security, Hackers, Viruses, Reliability
      2. 7.2. Communication Channels
        1. 7.2.1. Wired Channels
          1. 7.2.1.1. Local Area Network (LAN)
          2. 7.2.1.2. Power over Ethernet (PoE)
          3. 7.2.1.3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
          4. 7.2.1.4. Internet, World Wide Web (WWW)
          5. 7.2.1.5. Leased Land Lines, DSL, Cable
            1. 7.2.1.5.1. PSTN-ISDN Link
            2. 7.2.1.5.2. DSL Link
            3. 7.2.1.5.3. T1 and T3 Links
            4. 7.2.1.5.4. Cable
          6. 7.2.1.6. Fiber Optic
        2. 7.2.2. Wireless Channels
          1. 7.2.2.1. Wireless LAN (WLAN, WiFi)
          2. 7.2.2.2. Mesh Network
          3. 7.2.2.3. Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO)
          4. 7.2.2.4. Environmental Factors: Indoor–Outdoor
          5. 7.2.2.5. Broadband Microwave
          6. 7.2.2.6. Infrared (IR)
      3. 7.3. Video Image Quality
        1. 7.3.1. Quality of Service (QoS)
        2. 7.3.2. Resolution vs. Frame Rate
        3. 7.3.3. Picture Integrity, Dropout
      4. 7.4. Video Signal Compression
        1. 7.4.1. Lossless Compression
        2. 7.4.2. Lossy Compression
          1. 7.4.2.1. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT)
          2. 7.4.2.2. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
        3. 7.4.3. Video Compression Algorithms
          1. 7.4.3.1. Joint Picture Experts Group: JPEG
          2. 7.4.3.2. Moving—Joint Picture Experts Group: M-JPEG
          3. 7.4.3.3. Moving Picture Experts Group: MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-4 Visual
            1. 7.4.3.3.1. MPEG-2 Standard
            2. 7.4.3.3.2. MPEG-4 Standard
            3. 7.4.3.3.3. MPEG-4 Visual Standard
          4. 7.4.3.4. MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC)/H.264
          5. 7.4.3.5. JPEG 2000, Wavelet
          6. 7.4.3.6. Other Compression Methods: H.263, SMICT
            1. 7.4.3.6.1. H.263 Standard
            2. 7.4.3.6.2. SMICT Standard
      5. 7.5. Internet-Based Remote Video Monitoring—Network Configurations
        1. 7.5.1. Point to Multi-Point
        2. 7.5.2. Point to Point
        3. 7.5.3. Multi-Point to Point
        4. 7.5.4. Video Unicast and Multicast
      6. 7.6. Transmission Technology Protocols: WiFi, Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM)
        1. 7.6.1. Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM)
          1. 7.6.1.1. Background
          2. 7.6.1.2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Technology (FHSS)
          3. 7.6.1.3. Slow Hoppers
          4. 7.6.1.4. Fast Hoppers
          5. 7.6.1.5. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
        2. 7.6.2. WiFi Protocol: 802.11 Standards
          1. 7.6.2.1. 802.11b Standard
          2. 7.6.2.2. 802.11a Standard
          3. 7.6.2.3. 802.11g Standard
          4. 7.6.2.4. 802.11n Standard
          5. 7.6.2.5. 802.11i Standard
        3. 7.6.3. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
      7. 7.7. Transmission Network Security
        1. 7.7.1. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
        2. 7.7.2. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
        3. 7.7.3. WiFi Protected Access (WPA)
        4. 7.7.4. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Digital Encryption Standard (DES)
        5. 7.7.5. Firewalls, Viruses, Hackers
      8. 7.8. Internet Protocol Network Camera, Address
        1. 7.8.1. Internet Protocol Network Camera
        2. 7.8.2. Internet Protocol Camera Protocols
        3. 7.8.3. Internet Protocol Camera Address
          1. Method 1
          2. Method 2
          3. Method 3
      9. 7.9. Video Server, Router, Switch
        1. 7.9.1. Video Server
        2. 7.9.2. Video Router/Access Point
        3. 7.9.3. Video Switch
      10. 7.10. Personal Computer, Laptop, PDA, Cell Phone
        1. 7.10.1. Personal Computer, Laptop
        2. 7.10.2. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
        3. 7.10.3. Cell Phone
      11. 7.11. Internet Protocol Surveillance Systems: Features, Checklist, Pros, Cons
        1. 7.11.1. Features
        2. 7.11.2. Checklist
        3. 7.11.3. Pros
        4. 7.11.4. Cons
      12. 7.12. Summary
    6. 8. Analog Monitors and Digital Displays
      1. 8.1. Overview
      2. 8.2. Analog Monitor
        1. 8.2.1. Cathode Ray Tube Technology
          1. 8.2.1.1. Beam Deflection
          2. 8.2.1.2. Spot Size, Resolution
          3. 8.2.1.3. Phosphors
          4. 8.2.1.4. Interlacing and Flicker
          5. 8.2.1.5. Brightness
          6. 8.2.1.6. Audio/Video
          7. 8.2.1.7. Standards
        2. 8.2.2. Monochrome Monitor
        3. 8.2.3. Color Monitor
        4. 8.2.4. Color Model
      3. 8.3. Flat-Screen Digital Monitor
        1. 8.3.1. Digital Technology
          1. 8.3.1.1. Pixels, Resolution
        2. 8.3.2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
          1. 8.3.2.1. Brightness
          2. 8.3.2.2. Liquid Crystal Display Modes of Operation
        3. 8.3.3. Plasma
        4. 8.3.4. Organic LED (OLED)
      4. 8.4. Monitor Display Formats
        1. 8.4.1. Standard 4:3
        2. 8.4.2. High Definition 16:9
        3. 8.4.3. Split-Screen Presentation
        4. 8.4.4. Screen Size, Resolution
        5. 8.4.5. Multistandard, Multi-Sync
        6. 8.4.6. Monitor Magnification
      5. 8.5. Interfacing Analog Signal to Digital Monitor
      6. 8.6. Merging Video with PCs
      7. 8.7. Special Features
        1. 8.7.1. Interactive Touch-Screen
          1. 8.7.1.1. Infrared
          2. 8.7.1.2. Resistive
          3. 8.7.1.3. Capacitive
          4. 8.7.1.4. Projected Capacitance Technology (PCT)
        2. 8.7.2. Anti-Glare Screen
        3. 8.7.3. Sunlight-Readable Display
      8. 8.8. Receiver/Monitor, Viewfinder, Mobile Display
      9. 8.9. Projection Display
      10. 8.10. Summary
    7. 9. Analog, Digital Video Recorders
      1. 9.1. Overview
        1. 9.1.1. Analog Video Cassette Recorder (VCR)
        2. 9.1.2. Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
          1. 9.1.2.1. DVR in a Box
          2. 9.1.2.2. Basic DVR
          3. 9.1.2.3. Multiplex DVR
          4. 9.1.2.4. Multi-channel DVR
          5. 9.1.2.5. Network Video Recorder (NVR)
      2. 9.2. Analog Video Recorder
        1. 9.2.1. Video Cassette Recorder
        2. 9.2.2. VCR Formats
          1. 9.2.2.1. VHS, VHS-C, S-VHS
          2. 9.2.2.2. 8 mm, Hi-8 Sony
          3. 9.2.2.3. Magnetic Tape Types
        3. 9.2.3. Time-Lapse (TL) VCR
        4. 9.2.4. VCR Options
          1. 9.2.4.1. Camera Switching/Selecting
          2. 9.2.4.2. RS-232 Communications
          3. 9.2.4.3. Scrambling
          4. 9.2.4.4. On-Screen Annotating and Editing
      3. 9.3. Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
        1. 9.3.1. DVR Technology
          1. 9.3.1.1. Digital Hardware Advances
            1. 9.3.1.1.1. Hard Disk Drive storage
            2. 9.3.1.1.2. Video Motion Detection (VMD)
            3. 9.3.1.1.3. Optical-Disk Image Storage
            4. 9.3.1.1.4. Non-Erasable, Write-Once Read-Many (WORM) Disk
            5. 9.3.1.1.5. Erasable Optical Disk
            6. 9.3.1.1.6. Digital Audio Tape (DAT)
          2. 9.3.1.2. Digital Storage Software Advances
          3. 9.3.1.3. Transmission Advances
          4. 9.3.1.4. Communication Control
        2. 9.3.2. DVR Generic Types
          1. 9.3.2.1. DVR in a Box
          2. 9.3.2.2. DVR Basic Plug-and-Play VCR Replacement
          3. 9.3.2.3. Multiplex
          4. 9.3.2.4. Multi-Channel
            1. 9.3.2.4.1. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
          5. 9.3.2.5. Network Video Recorder (NVR)
          6. 9.3.2.6. Hybrid NVR/DVR System
        3. 9.3.3. DVR Operating Systems (OS)
          1. 9.3.3.1. Windows 9X, NT, XP, and 2000 Operating Systems
          2. 9.3.3.2. UNIX
        4. 9.3.4. Mobile DVR
        5. 9.3.5. Digital Compression, Encryption
          1. 9.3.5.1. JPEG
          2. 9.3.5.2. MPEG-X
          3. 9.3.5.3. Wavelet
          4. 9.3.5.4. SMICT
        6. 9.3.6. Image Quality
          1. 9.3.6.1. Resolution
          2. 9.3.6.2. Frame Rate
          3. 9.3.6.3. Bandwidth
        7. 9.3.7. Display Format—CIF
        8. 9.3.8. Network/DVR Security
          1. 9.3.8.1. Authentication
          2. 9.3.8.2. Watermark
          3. 9.3.8.3. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
            1. 9.3.8.3.1. Trusted VPNs
            2. 9.3.8.3.2. Secure VPNs
            3. 9.3.8.3.3. Hybrid VPNs
          4. 9.3.8.4. Windows Operating System
        9. 9.3.9. VCR/DVR Hardware/Software Protection
          1. 9.3.9.1. Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)
          2. 9.3.9.2. Grounding
          3. 9.3.9.3. Analog/Digital Hardware Precautions
          4. 9.3.9.4. Maintenance
      4. 9.4. Video Recorder Comparison: Pros, Cons
        1. 9.4.1. VCR Pros and Cons
        2. 9.4.2. DVR Pros and Cons
      5. 9.5. Checklist and Guidelines
        1. 9.5.1. Checklist
        2. 9.5.2. Guidelines
      6. 9.6. Summary
    8. 10. Hard Copy Video Printers
      1. 10.1. Overview
      2. 10.2. Background
      3. 10.3. Printer Technology
        1. 10.3.1. Thermal
          1. 10.3.1.1. Monochrome
          2. 10.3.1.2. Wax Transfer
          3. 10.3.1.3. Color-Dye Diffusion
        2. 10.3.2. Ink Jet, Bubble Jet
        3. 10.3.3. Laser, LED
        4. 10.3.4. Dye-Diffusion, Wax-Transfer
        5. 10.3.5. Film
      4. 10.4. Printer Comparison
        1. 10.4.1. Resolution and Speed
        2. 10.4.2. Hardware, Ink Cartridge Cost Factors
        3. 10.4.3. Paper Types
      5. 10.5. Summary
    9. 11. Video Switchers
      1. 11.1. Overview
      2. 11.2. Background and Evolution
        1. 11.2.1. Small System Switchers
        2. 11.2.2. Midsize Systems
        3. 11.2.3. Analog Matrix Switcher
        4. 11.2.4. Digital Matrix Switcher
        5. 11.2.5. Virtual Matrix Switcher
      3. 11.3. Small Analog System Switcher Types
        1. 11.3.1. Manual
        2. 11.3.2. Homing Sequential
        3. 11.3.3. Bridging Sequential
        4. 11.3.4. Looping-Sequential
        5. 11.3.5. Alarming
        6. 11.3.6. Synchronous, Non-Synchronous Video Signal
        7. 11.3.7. Switcher Choice
      4. 11.4. Matrix Switcher
        1. 11.4.1. Analog Technology
        2. 11.4.2. Matrix Switcher Control Functions and Features
        3. 11.4.3. Multiple Locations
        4. 11.4.4. Digital Switcher
      5. 11.5. Virtual Matrix Switcher (VMS)
        1. 11.5.1. Evolution
        2. 11.5.2. Technology
        3. 11.5.3. Remote/Multiple Site Monitoring
        4. 11.5.4. Features and Advantages
      6. 11.6. Summary
    10. 12. Quads and Multiplexers
      1. 12.1. Overview
      2. 12.2. Background
      3. 12.3. Quad Split-Screen Displays
        1. 12.3.1. Quad-4 Image
        2. 12.3.2. Multi-Image 9, 16, 32
      4. 12.4. Multiplexer Technology
        1. 12.4.1. Image Rate vs. Number of Cameras
        2. 12.4.2. Encoder/Decoder
      5. 12.5. Hardware Implementation
        1. 12.5.1. Simplex
        2. 12.5.2. Duplex/Full Duplex
        3. 12.5.3. Triplex
      6. 12.6. Recording and Playback
        1. 12.6.1. Analog and Digital Recording
        2. 12.6.2. Video Playback
      7. 12.7. Video Motion Detection
      8. 12.8. Alarm Response
      9. 12.9. Integrated Multiplexer and DVR
      10. 12.10. Remote Distributed Multiplexing
      11. 12.11. Summary
    11. 13. Video Motion Detectors
      1. 13.1. Overview
      2. 13.2. Background
      3. 13.3. Functional Operation
        1. 13.3.1. Surveillance
        2. 13.3.2. Detection Probability
        3. 13.3.3. Motion Assessment
        4. 13.3.4. Scene Lighting
        5. 13.3.5. Training Function
      4. 13.4. Analog Video Motion Detector (AVMD)
        1. 13.4.1. Technology
      5. 13.5. Digital Video Motion Detector (DVMD)
        1. 13.5.1. Mode of Operation
        2. 13.5.2. Technology
          1. 13.5.2.1. Programming the digital VMD
          2. 13.5.2.2. DVMD Setup Procedures
          3. 13.5.2.3. Sensitivity Settings
          4. 13.5.2.4. Motion Detection Sensitivity
        3. 13.5.3. Hardware
          1. 13.5.3.1. Normal Mode
          2. 13.5.3.2. Trace Mode
          3. 13.5.3.3. DVMD Graphic Site Display Maps
        4. 13.5.4. Features
      6. 13.6. Guidelines, Pros and Cons
      7. 13.7. Summary
    12. 14. Dome Cameras
      1. 14.1. Overview
      2. 14.2. Speed-Dome Background
      3. 14.3. Fixed Dome
        1. 14.3.1. Technology
        2. 14.3.2. Housing
        3. 14.3.3. Hardware
      4. 14.4. Speed Dome
        1. 14.4.1. Technology
        2. 14.4.2. Housing
        3. 14.4.3. Hardware
      5. 14.5. Dome Mounting Hardware
        1. 14.5.1. Fixed Dome
        2. 14.5.2. Moveable Speed Dome
      6. 14.6. Cabling-Video Signal and Controls
      7. 14.7. Special Features
      8. 14.8. Special Applications
        1. 14.8.1. Outdoor Building Mounts
        2. 14.8.2. Pole Mounts
      9. 14.9. Summary
    13. 15. Integrated Cameras, Camera Housings, and Accessories
      1. 15.1. Overview
      2. 15.2. Indoor Housings
        1. 15.2.1. Functional Requirements
        2. 15.2.2. Indoor Types
      3. 15.3. Outdoor Housings
        1. 15.3.1. Functional Requirements
        2. 15.3.2. Outdoor Design Materials
        3. 15.3.3. Outdoor Types
      4. 15.4. Integrated Cameras
        1. 15.4.1. Indoor
        2. 15.4.2. Outdoor
      5. 15.5. Specialty Housings
        1. 15.5.1. High Security
        2. 15.5.2. Elevator
        3. 15.5.3. Dust-Proof and Explosion-Proof
        4. 15.5.4. Pressurized and Air- or Water-Cooled
      6. 15.6. NEMA Environmental Ratings
      7. 15.7. Housing Accessories
      8. 15.8. Housing Guidelines
      9. 15.9. Summary
    14. 16. Electronic Video Image Splitting, Reversal, and Annotation
      1. 16.1. Overview
      2. 16.2. Electronic Image Splitting—Multiple Image Displays
        1. 16.2.1. Electronic Image-Splitting
        2. 16.2.2. Picture-in-a-Picture
      3. 16.3. Video Text, Graphics Annotation
        1. 16.3.1. Time/Date Generator
        2. 16.3.2. Camera ID, Title Inserter
        3. 16.3.3. Message Generator
        4. 16.3.4. Transaction Inserter
      4. 16.4. Image Reversal
      5. 16.5. Pre- and Post-Alarm Video Recording
      6. 16.6. Alarms Over Video Cable
      7. 16.7. Multiple Camera Synchronizing Generator
      8. 16.8. Summary
    15. 17. Camera Pan/Tilt Mechanisms
      1. 17.1. Overview
      2. 17.2. Scene Coverage Required
        1. 17.2.1. Point Scenes
        2. 17.2.2. Area Scenes
        3. 17.2.3. Volume Scenes
      3. 17.3. Panning and Tilting
      4. 17.4. Pan/Tilt Mechanism
      5. 17.5. Mechanical Configurations
        1. 17.5.1. Above-Mounted
        2. 17.5.2. Side-Mounted
      6. 17.6. Indoor
      7. 17.7. Outdoor
        1. 17.7.1. Materials and Design
        2. 17.7.2. Wind Loading
        3. 17.7.3. Ice and Snow Loading
        4. 17.7.4. Temperature
        5. 17.7.5. Precipitation Dust, Dirt, and Corrosion
        6. 17.7.6. Outdoor Domes
        7. 17.7.7. Rugged-Precision Platform
      8. 17.8. Pan/Tilt—Components vs. Integrated System
      9. 17.9. Pan/Tilt/Lens Control Techniques
      10. 17.10. Pan/Tilt Mounting
      11. 17.11. Slip-Rings and Optical-Couplers
      12. 17.12. High-Speed Video-Dome PTZ Systems
        1. 17.12.1. Background
        2. 17.12.2. Technology
          1. 17.12.2.1. Pan/Tilt Mechanism
          2. 17.12.2.2. Camera, Lens
        3. 17.12.3. Hardware: Domes, Pan/Tilt Cameras
          1. 17.12.3.1. American Dynamic
          2. 17.12.3.2. General Electric
          3. 17.12.3.3. Panasonic
          4. 17.12.3.4. Pelco
          5. 17.12.3.5. Sony
      13. 17.13. Covert Mirror Pan/Tilt System
      14. 17.14. Gimbal Mounting
      15. 17.15. Servicing
        1. 17.15.1. Cabling
        2. 17.15.2. Mechanical
        3. 17.15.3. Environmental
      16. 17.16. Summary
    16. 18. Covert Video Surveillance
      1. 18.1. Overview
      2. 18.2. Covert Techniques—Background
      3. 18.3. Covert Lens/Camera Types
        1. 18.3.1. Pinhole Lenses
        2. 18.3.2. Convertible Pinhole Lens Kit
        3. 18.3.3. Mini-Lenses
          1. 18.3.3.1. Off-Axis Optics
          2. 18.3.3.2. Optical Attenuation Techniques
          3. 18.3.3.3. Mini-Camera/Mini-Lens Combination
        4. 18.3.4. Comparison of Pinhole Lens and Mini-Lens
        5. 18.3.5. Sprinkler-Head Pinhole Lenses
        6. 18.3.6. Mirror-Pinhole Lens
        7. 18.3.7. Fiber-Optic Lenses
          1. 18.3.7.1. Configuration
          2. 18.3.7.2. Rigid Fiber Pinhole Lens
          3. 18.3.7.3. Flexible Fiber
          4. 18.3.7.4. Image Quality
        8. 18.3.8. Bore-Scope Lenses
      4. 18.4. Special Covert Cameras
        1. 18.4.1. PC-Board Cameras
        2. 18.4.2. Remote-Head Cameras
      5. 18.5. Infrared Covert Lighting
        1. 18.5.1. Concealment Means
        2. 18.5.2. IR Sources
      6. 18.6. Low-light-level Cameras
      7. 18.7. Imbeded Covert Camera Configurations
      8. 18.8. Wireless Transmission
      9. 18.9. Covert Checklist
      10. 18.10. Summary
    17. 19. Low-Light-Level Cameras, Thermal Infrared Imagers
      1. 19.1. Overview
      2. 19.2. History and Background
      3. 19.3. Image-Intensifying Mechanism
      4. 19.4. Active vs. Passive
        1. 19.4.1. Active Image Converter
        2. 19.4.2. Passive Image Intensifier
      5. 19.5. GEN 1 Image Intensifier
      6. 19.6. GEN 2 Micro-Channel Plate Image Intensifier
        1. 19.6.1. Sensitivity
        2. 19.6.2. Resolution
        3. 19.6.3. Light Overload
        4. 19.6.4. Gating MCP Image Intensifier
      7. 19.7. GEN 3 Image Intensifier
      8. 19.8. Intensified CCD Camera
        1. 19.8.1. GEN 1 Coupled to CCD Camera
        2. 19.8.2. GEN 2 Coupled to CCD Camera
        3. 19.8.3. Comparison of Intensifier Sensitivities
      9. 19.9. SIT and Intensified SIT Cameras
        1. 19.9.1. Sensitivity/Gain Mechanism
        2. 19.9.2. Resolution and Image Lag
        3. 19.9.3. Light-Level Overload
      10. 19.10. Multi-Sensor Cameras—Image Fusion
        1. 19.10.1. Multi-Sensor
        2. 19.10.2. Sensor Fusion
      11. 19.11. Thermal-IR Cameras
        1. 19.11.1. Background
        2. 19.11.2. Micro-Bolometer
        3. 19.11.3. Infrared Optics
      12. 19.12. Low-Light-Level Optics
        1. 19.12.1. Comparison of Eye and LLL Camera Optics
        2. 19.12.2. Low Light Level Objective Lenses
      13. 19.13. Target Detection and Recognition Parameters
      14. 19.14. Summary
    18. 20. Control Room/Console Design
      1. 20.1. Overview
      2. 20.2. Human Engineering
        1. 20.2.1. Viewing Angles
        2. 20.2.2. Viewing Distance vs. Monitor Size
        3. 20.2.3. Guard/Monitor Console Configurations
        4. 20.2.4. Split-Screen Monitor Displays
      3. 20.3. Security Operator Tasks
      4. 20.4. Control Room Layout, Location
      5. 20.5. Console Design
        1. 20.5.1. Video Monitors
        2. 20.5.2. Full-Screen, Split-Screen, and Sequencing Monitor Presentation
      6. 20.6. International Control Room Standard
      7. 20.7. Checklist
      8. 20.8. Summary
    19. 21. Rapid Deployment Video Systems
      1. 21.1. Overview
      2. 21.2. System Requirements
      3. 21.3. Technology
        1. 21.3.1. Hardware
        2. 21.3.2. System Operation
        3. 21.3.3. Remote Monitoring, Command, and Control
      4. 21.4. Applications and Scenario
        1. 21.4.1. VIP on Travel
        2. 21.4.2. Vehicle, Boat, and Aircraft Protection
        3. 21.4.3. Options and Accessories
      5. 21.5. Summary
    20. 22. Applications and Solutions—Sample Scenarios
      1. 22.1. Overview
      2. 22.2. Lobby Surveillance
        1. 22.2.1. Case: Analog Three-Camera Video Lobby Surveillance System
        2. 22.2.2. Lobby Video Checklist
      3. 22.3. Elevator Surveillance
        1. 22.3.1. 100% Viewing of Elevator Cab
        2. 22.3.2. Case: Analog Six-Camera Video Elevator Cab and Lobby System
        3. 22.3.3. Elevator Video Checklist
      4. 22.4. Office Surveillance
        1. 22.4.1. Case: Analog/Digital Six-Camera Office Video System
        2. 22.4.2. Office Covert Video Checklist
      5. 22.5. Retail Store Surveillance
        1. 22.5.1. Small Retail Stores
        2. 22.5.2. Large Retail Stores
          1. 22.5.2.1. Overt Showroom Floor Surveillance
          2. 22.5.2.2. Covert Showroom Floor Surveillance
          3. 22.5.2.3. Case: Analog/Digital Eight-Camera Showroom Floor Video System
          4. 22.5.2.4. Showroom Floor Video Checklist
      6. 22.6. Video Rapid Deployment System (RDS)
        1. 22.6.1. Case: Analog/Wired/Wireless Rapid Deployment Video System
        2. 22.6.2. RDS System Checklist
      7. 22.7. Outdoor Parking Lot and Perimeter Surveillance
        1. 22.7.1. Case: Digital Wireless Twelve-Camera Parking Lot and Perimeter Video System
        2. 22.7.2. Parking Lot/Perimeter Video Checklist
      8. 22.8. Single Site Digital Video over Wired and Wireless Network
        1. 22.8.1. Case: Digital Video Surveillance at Distribution Warehouse
        2. 22.8.2. Distribution Warehouse Checklist
      9. 22.9. Multiple Site Digital Video over Internet
        1. 22.9.1. Case: Digital Video and Control over Internet to Remote Sites
        2. 22.9.2. Internet to Remote Site Checklist
      10. 22.10. Correctional Facility Surveillance
        1. 22.10.1. Overt Surveillance
          1. 22.10.1.1. Perimeter
          2. 22.10.1.2. Cell Blocks and Activity Areas
        2. 22.10.2. Covert Surveillance
      11. 22.11. Banking and Financial Surveillance
        1. 22.11.1. Public Areas
        2. 22.11.2. Computer, Vault, and Money-Counting Rooms
        3. 22.11.3. Check Identification
        4. 22.11.4. Automatic Teller Machine
        5. 22.11.5. Auto-Teller Drive-In
      12. 22.12. Lodging and Casino Surveillance Areas
        1. 22.12.1. Hallway or Corridor
        2. 22.12.2. Casino Floor
      13. 22.13. Airport, Seaport, and Highway Surveillance
      14. 22.14. Video Access Control
        1. 22.14.1. Video ID System
        2. 22.14.2. Video Storage and Retrieval System
        3. 22.14.3. Video Turnstile
        4. 22.14.4. Video Portal
        5. 22.14.5. Video Vehicle Control
        6. 22.14.6. Video Facial Recognition
        7. 22.14.7. Video Iris and Retina Personnel Identification
      15. 22.15. Video to Train Security Personnel
      16. 22.16. Choosing a Professional Security Designer and Installer
      17. 22.17. Video Applications Checklist
      18. 22.18. Summary
    21. 23. System Power Sources
      1. 23.1. Overview
      2. 23.2. AC Power
      3. 23.3. DC Power
        1. 23.3.1. DC Power Supply
        2. 23.3.2. Batteries
          1. 23.3.2.1. Lead-Acid
          2. 23.3.2.2. Carbon–Zinc
          3. 23.3.2.3. Nickel Cadmium
          4. 23.3.2.4. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)
          5. 23.3.2.5. Lithium
          6. 23.3.2.6. Alkaline
          7. 23.3.2.7. Mercury
      4. 23.4. Power-Line Disturbances
        1. 23.4.1. Voltage Surges
        2. 23.4.2. Voltage Spikes
        3. 23.4.3. Voltage Dips
        4. 23.4.4. Brownouts
        5. 23.4.5. Blackouts
        6. 23.4.6. Electrical Noise
      5. 23.5. Equipment Requiring Backup Power
      6. 23.6. Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) Systems
        1. 23.6.1. On-Line UPS System
        2. 23.6.2. Line-Conditioner UPS
        3. 23.6.3. Line-Interactive UPS
      7. 23.7. Solar Power
        1. 23.7.1. Silicon Solar Cells
        2. 23.7.2. Flexible Solar Panel Array
        3. 23.7.3. Solar Powered Wireless Video
      8. 23.8. Power/Signal Distribution System
        1. 23.8.1. Parallel Network
        2. 23.8.2. Radial Network
      9. 23.9. Ground Loops
      10. 23.10. Summary
    22. 24. Video-Security Systems Integration
      1. 24.1. Overview
      2. 24.2. Integration Evolution
      3. 24.3. Integration Function
        1. 24.3.1. Security System Integration
        2. 24.3.2. Overall Facility Control
      4. 24.4. Technology and Equipment
      5. 24.5. Potential Problems-Solutions
      6. 24.6. Summary
    23. 25. Video System Test Equipment
      1. 25.1. Overview
      2. 25.2. Video Signal Test Equipment
        1. 25.2.1. Waveform Monitor
        2. 25.2.2. Vectorscope
        3. 25.2.3. Hand-Held Meters
      3. 25.3. Digital Signal Test Equipment
      4. 25.4. Wireless RF and Microwave Meters
      5. 25.5. Visible Light Illumination and IR Power Level Meters
      6. 25.6. Optical Design and Test Devices
        1. 25.6.1. Lens Field of View (FOV) Calculator
        2. 25.6.2. Fiber-Optic Transmission Meters
        3. 25.6.3. Hidden Camera Detector
      7. 25.7. Summary
    24. 26. Video Check List
      1. 26.1. Overview
      2. 26.2. Checklist
        1. 26.2.1. General
        2. 26.2.2. Electrical
          1. 26.2.2.1. Power
          2. 26.2.2.2. Control
        3. 26.2.3. Mechanical
        4. 26.2.4. Lighting
        5. 26.2.5. Cameras
        6. 26.2.6. Video Motion Detector
        7. 26.2.7. Optical
        8. 26.2.8. Transmission
        9. 26.2.9. Security/Encryption
        10. 26.2.10. Recording, Printing
        11. 26.2.11. Console
        12. 26.2.12. Integration
      3. 26.3. Video Project Checklist Form
      4. 26.4. Summary
    25. 27. Education, Standards, Certification
      1. 27.1. Overview
      2. 27.2. Educational Seminars, Exhibitions
      3. 27.3. Industry Associations
      4. 27.4. Standards—Laboratory Testing
      5. 27.5. Certification
      6. 27.6. Summary
    26. 28. New Video Technology
      1. 28.1. Overview
      2. 28.2. Camera Technology
        1. 28.2.1. Smart Cameras
        2. 28.2.2. Infrared Cameras
        3. 28.2.3. Millimeter Wave Technology
        4. 28.2.4. Two Camera Three Dimensions (3D)
        5. 28.2.5. Multi-Camera Three Dimensions (3D)
        6. 28.2.6. Hybrid Eye Camera
      3. 28.3. Monitor Display Technology
        1. 28.3.1. Organic LED
        2. 28.3.2. Three-Dimensional Monitor
      4. 28.4. Video Recording
      5. 28.5. Integrated Systems
      6. 28.6. Remote Surveillance
      7. 28.7. Transmission
      8. 28.8. Summary
  8. Glossary
  9. Bibliography
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 5
    5. Chapter 6
    6. Chapter 7
    7. Chapter 8
    8. Chapter 9
    9. Chapter 10
    10. Chapter 19
    11. Chapter 23
    12. Chapter 24
    13. Chapter 18
    14. Chapter 23
    15. Chapter 24
    16. Chapter 25
    17. Chapter 27
    18. Chapter 28
    19. Other Video References