Specifying a default gateway leads to a single point of failure. Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is one method for hosts to dynamically discover gateways, but it has issues in a highly-available environment. With Proxy ARP:
Hosts ARP for all destinations, even remote.
Router responds with its MAC.
Problem: Slow failover because ARP entries take minutes to timeout.
Instead of making the host responsible for choosing a new gateway, Layer 3 redundancy protocols allow two or more routers to support a shared MAC address. If the primary router is lost, the backup router assumes control of traffic forwarded to that MAC. This section refers to routers, but includes those Layer 3 switches that can also implement Layer ...