In any given octet of an IP address, the 8 bits can be defined as follows:
To convert a decimal number into binary, you must turn on the bits (make them a 1) that would add up to that number, as follows:
187 = 10111011 = 128+32+16+8+2+1
224 = 11100000 = 128+64+32
To convert a binary number into decimal, you must add the bits that have been turned on (the 1s), as follows:
10101010 = 128+32+8+2 = 170
11110000 = 128+64+32+16 = 240
The IP address 18.104.22.168 ...