You are previewing CCNA Quick Reference Sheets (CCNA Exam 640-802).
O'Reilly logo
CCNA Quick Reference Sheets (CCNA Exam 640-802)

Book Description

CCNA Quick Reference Sheets (Digital Short Cut)

Eric Rivard, Jim Doherty

ISBN-10: 1-58705-460-4

ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-460-0

As a final exam preparation tool, the CCNA Quick Reference Sheets provide a concise review of all objectives on the new CCNA exam (640-802). This digital Short Cut provides you with detailed, graphic-based information, highlighting only the key topics in cram-style format.

With this document as your guide, you will review topics on router and switch configuration and troubleshooting, wireless LAN (WLAN), security, IPv6, access control lists (ACL), NAT, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), OSPF, EIGRP configuration and troubleshooting, Frame Relay, and VPNs. These fact-filled Quick Reference Sheets allow you to get important information at a glance, helping you to focus your study on areas of weakness and to enhance memory retention of essential exam concepts.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Authors
  3. I. Summarizing Network Technology
    1. 1. Building a Simple Network
      1. Exploring the Functions of Networking
        1. Common Physical Components of a Network
        2. Networking Fundamentals
        3. Why Network Computers?
      2. Resource-Sharing Functions and Benefits
        1. Networking Applications
          1. Network User Applications
          2. Categories of Network Applications
          3. Network Administration Applications
        2. Characteristics of a Network
      3. Network Security
        1. Classes of Attacks
        2. Network Security Process
        3. Mitigating Physical and Environmental Threats
        4. Reconnaissance Attacks
        5. Access Attacks
        6. Application Layer Attacks
        7. Application Layer Attacks and Mitigation
        8. Management Protocol and Vulnerabilities
      4. Host-to-Host Communication Model
        1. OSI Reference Model
        2. Encapsulation and De-encapsulation
        3. Peer-to-Peer Communication
        4. TCP/IP Stack
        5. TCP/IP Stack Versus OSI Model
    2. 2. Understanding TCP/IP
      1. TCP/IP Overview
      2. Internet Protocol (IP)
        1. IP Addressing
        2. IP Address Classes
        3. Reserved IP Addresses
        4. Private IP Addresses
        5. Tools to Determine the IP Address of a Host
      3. TCP/IP Transport Layer
        1. UDP
        2. TCP
      4. TCP/IP Applications
      5. Port Numbers
      6. Establishing a TCP Connection
        1. Three-Way Handshake
        2. TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment Numbers
        3. TCP Flow Control
        4. TCP Windowing
      7. Exploring the Packet Delivery Process
        1. Layer 1 Devices
        2. Layer 2 Devices
        3. Layer 3 Devices
        4. Mapping Layer 2 Addressing to Layer 3 Addressing
    3. 3. Understanding Ethernet
      1. Definition of a LAN
      2. Ethernet
        1. Role of CSMA/CD in Ethernet
        2. Ethernet LAN Traffic
        3. Ethernet Addresses
      3. Connecting to an Ethernet LAN
        1. Network Media Types
        2. UTP Implementation
  4. II. Growing the Network (LANs)
    1. 4. LAN Network Topologies
      1. Choosing the Right Network Topology
      2. The Challenges of Shared LANs
        1. Extending a LAN Segment
        2. Collisions and Collision Domains
      3. Solving Network Challenges with Switched LAN Technology
        1. Bridges
        2. Switches
          1. Switch Frame Transmission Modes
          2. How Switches Segment the Ethernet Network
          3. Switches in Action
    2. 5. Operating Cisco IOS
      1. Cisco Device Startup
      2. External Configuration Sources
      3. Console Connection
      4. Cisco IOS Software Command-Line Interface Functions
        1. Keyboard Help in the CLI
        2. Enhanced Editing Commands
        3. Command History
        4. Console Error Messages
    3. 6. Configuring a Cisco Switch
      1. Starting a Switch
      2. Switch LED Indicators
      3. Configuring a Switch from the Command Line
        1. Configuring a Host Name
        2. Configuring the Switch IP Address and Default Gateway
        3. Showing Switch Status
        4. Managing MAC Addresses
        5. MAC Address Configuration
      4. Understanding Switch Security
        1. Configuring Password Security
          1. Configuring Console Password
          2. Configuring Telnet Password
          3. Configuring Enable and Secret Passwords
        2. Configuring Login Banner and MOTD
        3. SSH Access
        4. Securing vty Access
          1. Wildcard Masks
          2. Configuring and Applying vty Access Lists
        5. Implementing and Verifying Port Security
        6. Securing Unused Ports
      5. VLANs
        1. VLAN Characteristics
        2. VLAN Operation
        3. VLAN Assignment
        4. Adding and Assigning VLANs
        5. Verifying VLANs
      6. Maximizing the Benefits of Switching
        1. Microsegmentation
        2. Duplex Communication
        3. Configuring and Verifying Port Duplex
        4. Physical Redundancy in an Ethernet LAN
        5. Spanning Tree Protocol
      7. Troubleshooting Switch Issues
        1. Identifying and Resolving Media Issues
        2. Identifying and Resolving Access Port Issues
          1. Media-Related Issues
          2. Duplex Issues
          3. Speed Issues
    4. 7. Extending the LAN
      1. Exploring Wireless Networking
        1. Difference Between WLANs and LANs
        2. Radio Frequency Transmission
        3. 802.11 Standards
      2. WLAN Security
        1. WLAN Security Threats
        2. Mitigating Security Threats
        3. Evolution of Wireless LAN Security
      3. Wireless Client Association
        1. 802.1x on a WLAN
        2. WPA and WPA2 Modes
      4. Implementing a WLAN
        1. WLAN Service Area and Data Rates
        2. Access Point Configuration
        3. Steps to Implement a Wireless Network
      5. Wireless Troubleshooting
  5. III. Connecting LANs
    1. 8. Exploring the Functions of Routing
      1. Router Overview
        1. Router Function
        2. Key Information a Router Needs
        3. Routing Versus Routed
        4. Path Determination
        5. Routing Table
      2. Dynamic Routing Protocols
      3. Routing Methods
      4. Understanding Binary Basics
      5. Constructing a Network Addressing Scheme
        1. Subnet Mask
        2. Default Subnet Masks
        3. How Routers Use Subnet Masks
        4. Broadcast Addresses
        5. Identifying Subnet Addresses
        6. How to Implement Subnet Planning
      6. Configuring Static Routes
        1. Default Route
      7. Verifying Routing
    2. 9. Configuring a Cisco Router
      1. Starting a Router
      2. Router Components
      3. Logging In to the Router
      4. Displaying Router Status
      5. Configuring a Router
        1. Major Command/Subcommand Relationship
        2. Assigning a Router Name Example
        3. Configuring a Serial Interface
        4. Enabling or Disabling an Interface Example
        5. Configuring an Interface IP Address Example
        6. Verifying Interface Configuration
      6. Exploring the Packet-Delivery Process
      7. Using Common IOS Tools
      8. Router Security
        1. Configuring Router Passwords: Console and Telnet
        2. Configuring Router Passwords: Enable and Secret Passwords
        3. Configuring Login Banner and MOTD
        4. SSH Access
        5. Securing vty Access
          1. Wildcard Masks
          2. Configuring and Applying vty Access Lists
      9. Cisco Router and Security Device Manager
        1. Cisco SDM User Interface
        2. SDM Wizards
      10. Configuring a Router as a DHCP Server
        1. DHCP
        2. Using a Router as a DHCP Server
        3. DHCP/Bootp Relay Agent
        4. Monitoring DHCP Server Function
      11. Accessing Remote Devices with Telnet or SSH
  6. IV. Connecting Networks
    1. 10. Understanding WAN Technologies
      1. WAN Technologies Overview
        1. WANs Versus LANs
        2. WAN Access and the OSI Model
        3. WAN Devices
        4. Understanding Serial WAN Interfaces
        5. WAN Review
        6. WAN Cabling
        7. Layer 2 Encapsulation Protocols
        8. Multiplexing
        9. WAN Communication Link Options
      2. Enabling the Internet Connection
        1. Packet-Switched Communications
        2. Digital Subscriber Line
          1. DSL Types and Standards
          2. DSL Equipment
          3. DSL Standards
          4. DSL Limitations and Advantages
        3. Cable
          1. Cable Limitations and Advantages
      3. Introducing NAT and PAT
        1. NAT Terminology
      4. Configuring the DHCP Client and PAT Using SDM
        1. Verifying NAT and PAT Configuration
      5. Configuring Serial Encapsulation
        1. Configuring HDLC
        2. Configuring PPP
          1. PPP Configuration Options
          2. Establishing a PPP Session
          3. Enabling PPP
          4. PPP Authentication Protocols
          5. Configuring PPP Authentication
        3. Verifying the Serial Encapsulation Configuration
      6. Frame Relay
        1. Frame Relay Terminology
      7. ATM and Cell Switching
    2. 11. RIP Routing
      1. Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview
        1. IGP and EGP
        2. Classes of Routing Protocols
        3. Routing Ranges with Administrative Distance
      2. Classless Versus Classful Routing
      3. Distance Vector Route Selection
        1. How Information Is Discovered with Distance Vectors
        2. Routing Metrics
      4. Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops
        1. Split Horizon
        2. Hold-Down Timers
        3. Route Poisoning
        4. Poison Reverse
        5. Triggered Updates
      5. RIP
        1. RIPv1 and RIPv2 Comparisons
        2. RIP Timers
        3. Configuring and Verifying RIP
        4. Displaying the Routing Table
        5. Troubleshooting RIP
    3. 12. Managing Your Network Environment
      1. Discovering Neighbors on the Network with CDP
        1. Implementation of CDP
      2. Managing Router Startup and Configuration
        1. Router Components
        2. ROM Functions
        3. How a Cisco Device Locates and Loads IOS Images
        4. The Configuration Register
      3. Managing IOS Images
        1. Backing Up and Upgrading IOS Images
        2. Cisco IOS copy Command
        3. Troubleshooting
  7. I. LAN Switching
    1. 1. Implementing VLANS and Trunks
      1. VLANs
        1. VLAN Characteristics
        2. VLAN Operation
        3. Supported VLANs
        4. VLAN Port Membership Modes
        5. Trunking
      2. VLAN Trunking Protocol
        1. How VTP Works
        2. VTP Example
        3. VTP Modes
        4. VLAN Database
        5. VTP Advertisements
        6. VTP Versions
        7. VTP Pruning
        8. Default VTP Configuration
      3. Configuring VTP, VLANs, and Trunks
        1. VTP Command
        2. Configuring VTP on a 2960
        3. Adding, Modifying, and Deleting a VLAN on a 2960
        4. Configuring a Trunk Link
        5. Defining Allowed VLANs
        6. Assigning Ports to a VLAN on a 2960
    2. 2. Redundant Switching and STP
      1. Redundant Switched Topology Issues
        1. Broadcast Storms
        2. Multiple Frame Transmission
        3. MAC Database Instability
        4. Multiple Loops
      2. Spanning Tree Protocol
        1. Spanning Tree Operation
        2. Selecting the Root Bridge
        3. Spanning Tree Election Criteria
        4. Port States
        5. Spanning Tree Recalculation
        6. Time to Convergence
      3. PortFast
        1. Configuring PortFast
      4. Per-VLAN STP+ (PVST+)
        1. PVST+ Extended Bridge ID
      5. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w)
        1. Per-VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Plus (PVRST+)
        2. Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
        3. RSTP Port Roles
        4. New BPDU Format
        5. Edge Port
        6. Point-to-Point Link
        7. Link Type
        8. Configuring RSTP
          1. Enabling PVRST+
          2. Configuring the Root and Backup Root Switch
          3. Verifying PVRST+
      6. EtherChannel
      7. Securing the Expanded Network
        1. Physical Security
        2. Switch Security
        3. Implementing and Verifying Port Security
        4. Securing Unused Ports
        5. Port-Based Authentication
    3. 3. Troubleshooting Switched Networks
      1. General Troubleshooting Suggestions
      2. Troubleshooting Port Connectivity Problems
        1. Hardware Issues
        2. Cable Type
        3. Verify Port Information
        4. Port Errors
        5. Port Connectivity Problem Summary
      3. Troubleshooting VLANs
        1. Troubleshooting Collision Domain Issues
        2. Troubleshooting Slow IntraVLANs
        3. Troubleshooting InterVLAN Connectivity
        4. Troubleshooting Trunking
      4. Troubleshooting VTP
      5. Adding a New Switch to a VTP Domain
      6. Troubleshooting Spanning Tree
  8. II. Routing
    1. 4. Routing Operations and VLSM
      1. Routing Overview
      2. Dynamic Routing Overview
        1. Autonomous Systems
        2. Administrative Distance
        3. Routing Protocol Classes
      3. InterVLAN Routing
        1. Dividing Physical Interfaces into Subinterfaces
        2. Configuring Subinterfaces for InterVLAN Routing
      4. Distance Vector Routing
        1. How Information Is Discovered with Distance Vectors
        2. Examining Distance Vector Routing Metrics
        3. Updating Routing Tables
        4. How Routing Loops Occur in Distance Vector Protocols
        5. Split Horizon
        6. Route Poisoning
        7. Poison Reverse
        8. Triggered Updates
        9. Hold-Down Timers
      5. Link-State Routing
      6. Advanced Distance Vector Routing
      7. Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)
      8. Summarizing Routes
      9. Summarizing Routes in Discontinuous Networks
    2. 5. Implementing OSPF in a Single Area
      1. OSPF Terminology
      2. Router ID
      3. Hello Packet
      4. LSAs
      5. OSPF Network Types
      6. Configuring OSPF
      7. Verifying OSPF
      8. Load Balancing with OSPF
        1. Per-Destination and Per-Packet Load Balancing
        2. Load Balancing with Different Costs
      9. Authentication with OSPF
        1. Configuring Plain-Text Authentication
        2. Verifying Plain-Text Authentication
        3. Configuring MD5 Authentication
        4. Verifying MD5 Authentication
      10. Troubleshooting OSPF
        1. Troubleshooting Neighbor States
        2. Troubleshooting Routing Table
        3. Troubleshooting Commands
    3. 6. Implementing EIGRP
      1. EIGRP Features
      2. EIGRP Terminology
      3. EIGRP Path Calculation
      4. Configuring and Verifying EIGRP
      5. Load Balancing with EIGRP
      6. EIGRP Authentication
      7. Troubleshooting EIGRP
        1. EIGRP Neighbor Troubleshooting
        2. EIGRP Route Troubleshooting
        3. Troubleshooting MD5 Authentication
  9. III. Access Lists and Managing Address Spaces
    1. 7. Managing Traffic with ACLs
      1. Packet Filtering
      2. Types of Access Lists
      3. Access List Operations
        1. Access List Process Options
        2. Protocol Access List Identifiers
        3. Testing Against Access List Statements
        4. Wildcard Masking
        5. IP Access List Entry Sequence Numbering
      4. Guidelines for Placing Access Lists
      5. Additional Types of ACLs
        1. Dynamic ACLs
        2. Reflective ACLs
        3. Time-Based ACLs
      6. Configuring IP Access Lists
        1. Guidelines for Implementing Access Lists
        2. Configuring Standard IP Access Lists
        3. Configuring Extended IP Access Lists
        4. Using IP Access List Entry Sequence Numbers
        5. Configuring Named Access Lists
        6. Applying Access Lists
        7. Creating Dynamic Access Lists
        8. Verifying Access List Configuration
      7. Virtual Terminal (vty) Access Lists
      8. Troubleshooting Access Lists
    2. 8. Managing Address Space with NAT and IPv6
      1. NAT Terminology
      2. Configuring Static NAT
      3. Configuring Dynamic NAT
      4. Configuring PAT
      5. Verifying NAT and Resolving Translation Table Issues
      6. Transitioning to IPv6
        1. Format of IPv6 Addresses
        2. Types of IPv6 Addresses
        3. Assigning IPv6 Addresses
        4. Routing with IPv6
          1. Static Routing
          2. RIPng
          3. OSPFv3
          4. EIGRP for IPv6
        5. Strategies for Implementing IPv6
        6. Configuring IPv6
  10. IV. Extending the Network into the WAN
    1. 9. Establishing Serial Point-to-Point Connections
      1. Understanding Serial WAN Interfaces
      2. WAN Review
        1. WAN Connection Types
        2. Layer 2 Encapsulation Protocols
      3. Configuring Serial Point-to-Point Encapsulation
        1. Configuring HDLC
        2. Configuring PPP
          1. PPP Configuration Options
          2. Establishing a PPP Session
          3. Enabling PPP
        3. PPP Authentication Protocols
        4. Configuring PPP Authentication
      4. Verifying the Serial Encapsulation Configuration
    2. 10. Establishing Frame Relay Connections
      1. Frame Relay Stack
      2. Frame Relay Terminology
      3. Frame Relay Topologies
      4. Frame Relay Address Mapping
      5. LMI Signaling Process
      6. How Service Providers Map Frame Relay DLCIs
      7. Configuring Frame Relay
        1. Configuring Basic Frame Relay
        2. Configuring a Static Frame Relay Map
      8. Resolving Reachability Issues in Frame Relay
      9. Configuring Subinterfaces
      10. Configuring Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
      11. Configuring Multipoint Subinterfaces
      12. Verifying Frame Relay
      13. Troubleshooting Frame Relay
    3. 11. Introducing VPN Solutions
      1. What Is a VPN?
        1. Benefits of VPNs
        2. Types of VPNs
      2. Cisco Easy VPN
      3. Cisco IOS IPsec/SSL VPNs
      4. VPN Components
      5. Introducing IPsec
        1. Confidentiality
        2. Encryption Algorithms
        3. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
        4. Data Integrity
        5. Authentication
      6. IPsec Protocol Framework