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CCNA Exam Prep (Exam 640-802), Second Edition

Book Description

The CCNA Exam Prep, Second Edition,  is an in-depth training guide for the new CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification from Cisco. Published in the popular Exam Prep series, the book incorporates all the topics tested in this newly-revised exam, including new security, VPN, wireless, IPv6, and troubleshooting coverage. The authors emphasize sub-netting concepts because this is historically a difficult roadblock for Cisco certification candidates. This Exam Prep covers all the exam objectives and will give you a thorough understanding of each testable concept in addition to real-world configuration examples for configuring a wide range of Cisco devices. The Prep begins with an objectives quick reference and includes chapter summaries with a list of key terms, exercises, review questions, and an exam on chapter content with detailed answers. Exam Preps include notes, tips, cautions, and exam alerts to help you focus on important issues. If you are preparing for this exam you will find the Exam Prep series to be the complete certification solution for the CCNA exam.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedications
  2. About the Authors
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. We Want to Hear from You!
  5. Reader Services
  6. Cisco ICND1/ICND2/CCNA Exam Objectives
    1. Cisco ICND1 Exam Objectives
      1. Exam Description
      2. Exam Topics
        1. Describe the operation of data networks
        2. Implement a small switched network
        3. Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements for a small branch office
        4. Implement a small routed network
        5. Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN
        6. Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats
        7. Implement and verify WAN links
    2. Cisco ICND2 Exam Objectives
      1. Exam Description
      2. Exam Topics
        1. Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications
        2. Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network
        3. Configure and troubleshoot basic operation and routing on Cisco devices
        4. Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network
        5. Implement and verify WAN links
    3. Cisco CCNA Exam Objectives
      1. Exam Description
      2. Exam Topics
        1. Describe how a network works
        2. Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications
        3. Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network
        4. Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic router operation and routing on Cisco devices
        5. Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN
        6. Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats
        7. Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network
        8. Implement and verify WAN links
  7. Introduction
    1. How This Book Helps You
    2. Network Hardware and Software Requirements
    3. Advice on Taking the Exam
  8. 1. Standard Internetworking Models
    1. Introduction
    2. What Is an Internetwork?
    3. Types of Internetworks
      1. Local Area Network (LAN)
      2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
      3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
      4. Storage Area Network (SAN)
      5. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    4. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
      1. Upper Layers
      2. Application Layer
      3. Presentation Layer
      4. Session Layer
      5. Lower Layers
      6. Transport Layer
      7. Network Layer
      8. Data Link Layer
        1. Media Access Control (MAC)
        2. Logical Link Control (LLC)
      9. Physical Layer
      10. OSI Layered Communications
    5. TCP/IP Model
      1. Application Layer
      2. Transport Layer
        1. TCP
        2. UDP
      3. Internet Layer
        1. IP
        2. ICMP
        3. ARP, RARP, and Proxy ARP
      4. Network Interface Layer
    6. Cisco 3-Layer Hierarchical Model
      1. Access Layer
      2. Distribution Layer
      3. Core Layer
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    8. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 1.1. OSI Layered Model Identification
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  9. 2. Physical Layer Networking Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. Network Topologies
      1. The Bus Topology
      2. The Ring Topology
      3. The Star Topology
      4. The Mesh Topology
    3. Cabling
      1. Coaxial Cable
      2. Twisted-Pair Cable
        1. Straight-Through Cable
        2. Cross-Over Cable
        3. Rolled Cable
      3. Fiber-Optic Cable
    4. Wireless
      1. Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
      2. Infrared
      3. Bluetooth
    5. Physical Layer Devices
      1. Repeaters
      2. Hubs
      3. Network Interfaces
    6. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    7. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 2.1. UTP Cable Categories
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
    8. Suggested Readings and Resources
  10. 3. Data Link Networking Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. Data Link Protocols
      1. Token Ring
      2. FDDI
      3. Ethernet at the Data Link Layer
        1. Ethernet Addressing
        2. Ethernet Framing
    3. Physical Ethernet Standards
      1. Ethernet
        1. 10BASE2
        2. 10BASE5
        3. 10BASE-T
        4. 10BASE-FL
      2. Fast Ethernet
        1. 100BASE-T4
        2. 100BASE-TX
        3. 100BASE-FX
      3. Gigabit Ethernet
        1. 1000BASE-T 802.3ab
        2. 1000BASE-X 802.3z
      4. 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE)
      5. Long Reach Ethernet
    4. Data Link Layer Devices
      1. Bridges
      2. Switches
    5. Duplex
    6. Microsegmentation
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    8. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 3.1. IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Standards
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  11. 4. General Network Security
    1. Introduction
    2. Classes of Attack
      1. Access Attacks
        1. Password Attacks
        2. Trust Exploitation
        3. Port Redirection
        4. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks
      2. Reconnaissance Attacks
        1. Packet Sniffers
        2. Ping Sweeps
        3. Port Scans
        4. Information Queries
      3. Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks
        1. Distributed DoS (DDoS)
        2. TCP SYN
        3. Smurf Attack
    3. Mitigating Network Threats
      1. AAA
      2. Cisco ACLs
      3. Cisco IOS Secure Management Features
        1. SSH
        2. SNMP
        3. Syslog
        4. NTP
      4. Encryption Protocols
      5. Security Appliances and Applications
    4. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    5. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 4.1. Mitigation Methods
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  12. 5. IP at the Network Layer
    1. Introduction
    2. Network Layer Functions
    3. IP Addressing and Formats
      1. Binary
        1. Converting Binary to Decimal
        2. Converting Decimal to Binary
      2. Hexadecimal
        1. Converting Decimal to Hexadecimal
      3. IP Address Classes
      4. Subnet Masks
      5. Private (RFC 1918) Addressing
    4. Subnetting IP
      1. Calculating Hosts in a Subnet
      2. Calculating Networks in a Subnet
        1. Zero Subnet Rule
      3. The Increment
      4. Determining the Range of Valid IPs
    5. IPv6
      1. IPv6 Communications
      2. IPv6 Address Format
      3. Types of IPv6 Addresses
        1. Link-Local Address
        2. Unique/Site-Local Address
        3. Global Address
        4. Multicast Address
      4. Autoconfiguration
      5. Integrating IPv4 and IPv6
      6. ICMPv6
    6. Network Layer Devices
      1. Routers
      2. Layer 3 Switches
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    8. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 5.1. Converting Binary to Decimal
        2. 5.2. Converting Decimal to Binary
        3. 5.3. Converting Decimal to Hexadecimal
        4. 5.4. Binary Chart
        5. 5.5. Identify the Network ID
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  13. 6. Introduction to Cisco Routers and Switches
    1. Introduction
    2. Interfaces and Modules
      1. LAN Interfaces
      2. WAN Interfaces
        1. BRI
        2. Synchronous Serial
        3. Asynchronous Serial
        4. HSSI
        5. T1 Controller Card
        6. Data Communications Equipment (DCE)
        7. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)
    3. Cisco Memory Components
      1. ROM
      2. Flash
      3. RAM
      4. NVRAM
    4. Cisco Internetworking Operating System
      1. Feature Sets
      2. IOS Image File Naming
    5. Cisco Router Models and Features
    6. Cisco Switch Models and Features
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    8. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 6.1. Cisco Memory Components
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  14. 7. Foundation Cisco IOS Operations
    1. Introduction
    2. Terminal Options
      1. Console Port
      2. Auxiliary Port
      3. Telnet
      4. HTTP and HTTPS
      5. SSH
    3. Router/Switch Startup Procedures
      1. POST
      2. Bootstrap
        1. ROMmon
      3. IOS Loading
      4. Configuration Loading
        1. Setup Mode
        2. Password Recovery
    4. Navigating the IOS
      1. User EXEC
      2. Privileged EXEC
      3. Global Configuration
        1. Interface Configuration
        2. Line Configuration
      4. Context-Sensitive Help
      5. Abbreviations
      6. Shortcut Keys
      7. Common Syntax Errors
    5. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    6. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 7.1. Navigating a New Router
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  15. 8. Foundation Cisco Configurations
    1. Introduction
    2. Global Configuration
      1. Altering the Boot Sequence
      2. Changing the Hostname
      3. Creating a Login Banner
      4. Assigning a Password for Privileged EXEC Mode
      5. Domain Name–Specific Commands
      6. Enabling SSH
    3. Line Configurations
      1. Securing Console Access to User EXEC
      2. Securing Auxiliary Access to User EXEC
      3. Securing Telnet and SSH Access to User EXEC
    4. Router Interface Configurations
      1. Assigning an IP Address
      2. Enabling the Interface
      3. LAN-Specific Commands
      4. WAN-Specific Commands
    5. Saving Configurations
    6. Using the show Command to Get Information
      1. Verifying Your Configurations
      2. Viewing Interface Statuses and Statistics
        1. show interfaces Command
        2. show ip interface brief Command
        3. show controller Command
      3. IOS File Version show Commands
    7. Troubleshooting Commands
    8. Backing Up and Restoring Configurations and IOS Using TFTP
    9. Neighbor Discovery with CDP
    10. Using Telnet for Virtual Terminal Access
      1. Terminal Monitor
    11. IOS DHCP
    12. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    13. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 8.1. Configuring a New Router
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  16. 9. Understanding the Cisco SDM
    1. Introduction
    2. Getting Started
    3. Global Configurations
      1. Changing the Hostname, Banner, Domain Name, and Secret Password
      2. Router Access
      3. DNS
      4. DHCP
    4. Router Interface Configurations
      1. Assigning an IP Address
      2. Enabling the Interface
      3. Saving and Verifying Your Configurations
    5. Monitoring
    6. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    7. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 9.1. SDM Configuration
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  17. 10. Introduction to Routing and Routing Protocols
    1. Introduction
    2. The Default Gateway
      1. Verifying and Troubleshooting the Default Gateway
    3. Routing Sources
      1. Administrative Distance
    4. Static Routes
      1. Configuring Static Routes
      2. Floating Static Routes
    5. Default Routes
    6. Configuring Static and Default Routes with SDM
    7. Verifying Static and Default Routes
      1. Dynamic Routing Protocols
      2. Routing Metrics
      3. Classful and Classless Routing Updates
      4. VLSM
        1. Route Summarization
      5. Interior and Exterior Gateway Routing Protocols
      6. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
      7. Link-State Routing Protocols
      8. Advanced Distance Vector/Hybrid Routing Protocols
    8. The Routing Table Revisited
    9. Routing Redistribution
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    11. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 10.1. Create a Static and Default Route
        2. 10.2. Create a Summary Route
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  18. 11. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
    1. Introduction
    2. Distance Vector Operations
      1. Routing Loops
    3. Routing Loop Mitigation
      1. Counting to Infinity
      2. Split Horizon
      3. Route Poison, Poison Reverse, and Hold-Down Timers
      4. Triggered Updates
      5. Invalid/Dead Timers
    4. RIP
      1. RIP Characteristics
      2. RIP Configuration
      3. Passive Interfaces
      4. RIPv2 Characteristics
      5. RIPv2 Configuration
      6. RIPv2 Update Authentication
      7. Configuring RIP with SDM
      8. RIP Verification
      9. Troubleshooting RIP
    5. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    6. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 11.1. Configure RIPv2 Router A
        2. 11.2. Configure RIPv2 Router B
        3. 11.3. Verify Routing
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  19. 12. Link-State and Hybrid Routing Protocols
    1. Introduction
    2. Link-State Operations
    3. OSPF
      1. OSPF Characteristics
        1. OSPF Areas
          1. Backbone Area
          2. Stub Area
        2. OSPF Metrics
        3. Router ID
        4. OSPF Topologies
          1. DR/BDR Elections
      2. OSPF Initialization
      3. Introduction to Configuring OSPF
        1. Wildcard Masks
      4. OSPF Network Configuration
      5. Additional OSPF Commands
      6. Configuring OSPF with SDM
      7. Verifying OSPF
      8. Troubleshooting OSPF
    4. Balanced Hybrid Operations
    5. EIGRP
      1. EIGRP Characteristics
        1. Successor and Feasible Successor Routes
        2. DUAL Algorithm in Action
      2. EIGRP Stub Routing
      3. EIGRP Configuration
        1. The Bandwidth Bandwagon
        2. Unequal-Path Load Balancing
        3. IP Default Network
        4. EIGRP Stub Routing Configuration
        5. EIGRP Configuration Using SDM
      4. EIGRP Verification
      5. EIGRP Troubleshooting
    6. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    7. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 12.1. Configure EIGRP Router A
        2. 12.2. Configure EIGRP Router B
        3. 12.3. Verify Routing
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  20. 13. Foundation Switching Operations
    1. Introduction
      1. Switching Functionality
    2. Frame Transmission Methods
      1. Store-and-Forward
      2. Cut-Through
      3. Fragment-Free
    3. Half- and Full-Duplex Connections
    4. Switching Design
    5. Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. Root Bridge
      2. Root Ports
      3. Designated Ports
      4. Blocked Ports
    6. Port State Transitions
    7. Initial Switch Configurations
      1. Assigning a Management IP Address to a Switch
      2. Defining a Default Gateway
      3. IP Assignment Using DHCP
      4. Configuring Multiple Switch Interfaces
    8. Configuring and Verifying Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. Changing Priority and Port Cost
      2. Verifying Spanning Tree Protocol
    9. Troubleshooting Basic Switch Connectivity
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    11. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 13.1. Basic Switch Configuration
        2. 13.2. Force the Election
        3. 13.3. Witness the Wonders of STP
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  21. 14. Enhanced Switching Operations
    1. Introduction
    2. Cisco Enhancements to Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. PortFast and BPDU Guard
      2. UplinkFast
      3. BackboneFast
      4. Configuring Cisco STP Enhancements
      5. EtherChannel
    3. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. Spanning Tree Similarities
      2. RSTP Port States and Roles
      3. RSTP Link and Edge Types
      4. BPDUs and Topology Changes
      5. Rapid Transition
    4. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    5. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 14.1. Time Flies with PortFast
        2. 14.2. Imagine the Wonders of RSTP
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  22. 15. Virtual LANs
    1. Introduction
    2. Overview of VLANs
      1. VLAN Membership Methods
      2. The Management VLAN
      3. Configuring and Verifying VLANs
    3. VLAN Trunking
      1. ISL Trunks
      2. 802.1q Trunks
        1. Native VLANs
      3. Configuring and Verifying ISL and 802.1Q Trunks
        1. Dynamic Trunking with DTP
    4. VLAN Trunking Protocol
      1. VTP Modes
        1. Server Mode
        2. Client Mode
        3. Transparent Mode
      2. VTP Pruning
    5. Configuring and Verifying VTP
    6. InterVLAN Routing
      1. Router on a Stick
      2. Switched Virtual Interfaces
    7. Voice VLANs
    8. Troubleshooting VLAN
    9. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    10. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 15.1. Create Your VTP Domain
        2. 15.2. VLAN Creation and Assignment
        3. 15.3. 802.1q Trunking
        4. 15.4. InterVLAN Routing
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  23. 16. Implementing Switch Security
    1. Introduction
    2. Securing Physical Access to the Catalyst Switch
    3. Securing Terminal Access to the Catalyst Switch
      1. To Telnet or Not to Telnet
      2. Additional IOS Security Practices
    4. Layer 2 Security
      1. Port Security
        1. Static MAC with Port Security
        2. Verifying Port Security
      2. VLAN Security
      3. VTP Passwords
      4. “See”DP
    5. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    6. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 16.1. The Impregnable IOS
        2. 16.2. Layer 2 Security To-Do
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  24. 17. Understanding Wireless Networking
    1. Introduction
    2. The Business Case
    3. The Players in the 802.11 Market
    4. Entering the Radio Frequency World
      1. Understanding Wireless Transmission
      2. Unlicensed RF Bands
      3. The Key to Successful Wireless: Channel Surfing
    5. The 802.11 Standards Family
      1. Party Like It’s 1999: 802.11a and 802.11b
      2. 2003 Delivers: 802.11g
      3. The Next Generation: 802.11n
    6. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    7. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 15.1. Designing a Wireless Network
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Readings and Resources
  25. 18. Wireless Security and Implementation Considerations
    1. Introduction
    2. Understanding the Threats
      1. War Driving
      2. Direct Hacking
      3. Employee Ignorance
    3. Deploying a Secure Wireless Network
      1. Wireless Encryption
        1. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
        2. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
        3. Wi-Fi Protected Access, Reloaded (WPA2 and 802.11i)
      2. Wireless Authentication (802.1x)
      3. Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
    4. Wireless Implementation Guidelines
      1. Understanding Wireless Topologies
      2. Understanding Wireless Data Rates
      3. General Wireless Implementation Steps
      4. Wireless Troubleshooting
        1. Client Troubleshooting
        2. Wireless Access Point Troubleshooting
    5. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    6. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Review Questions
      2. Exam Questions
      3. Answers to Review Questions
      4. Answers to Exam Questions
      5. Suggested Readings and Resources
  26. 19. Using Cisco Access Lists
    1. Introduction
    2. Access List Concepts
    3. Functions of an Access List
      1. Packet Filtering
      2. Quality of Service
      3. Dial-on-Demand Routing
      4. Network Address Translation
      5. Route Filtering
    4. Standard Access Lists
      1. Configuration of Standard Access Lists
      2. Placement of Standard Access Lists
      3. Standard Access List Examples
        1. Isolating Networks
        2. Isolating a Network from Specific Hosts
        3. Isolating the Internal Network from the Internet
        4. Restricting VTY Access
    5. Extended Access Lists
      1. Configuration of Extended Access Lists
      2. Practical Extended Access List Examples
        1. Blocking a Subnet
        2. Restricting by Protocol
        3. Restricting by Network
    6. Named Access List
    7. Verifying Access Lists
      1. show running-config
      2. show ip interface
      3. show ip access-lists
    8. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    9. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 19.1. Configuring an Access List to Restrict Telnet Access
        2. 19.2. Configuring an Access List to Allow Basic Web Access
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Reading and Resources
  27. 20. Enabling Internet Connectivity with NAT
    1. Introduction
    2. NAT Concepts
      1. Static NAT
      2. Dynamic NAT
      3. NAT Overload and Port Address Translation
    3. NAT Terminology
    4. Configuring NAT Using Cisco SDM
      1. Configuring NAT Overload
        1. Advanced NAT Wizard
        2. Edit NAT Configuration
    5. Verifying NAT Configuration
    6. Troubleshooting NAT
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    8. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Review Questions
      2. Exam Questions
      3. Answers to Review Questions
      4. Answers to Exam Questions
      5. Suggested Reading and Resources
  28. 21. Command-Line NAT Implementation
    1. Introduction
    2. Reviewing NAT Concepts
    3. NAT Configurations
      1. Static NAT
        1. Scenario 1
        2. Scenario 2
      2. Dynamic Pool Translations
        1. Scenario 3
      3. NAT Overload
        1. Scenario 4
    4. Verifying NAT Operation
    5. Troubleshooting NAT Operation
    6. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    7. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercise
        1. 21.1. Configuring NAT for a Home Network Environment
      2. Exam Questions
      3. Answers to Exam Questions
      4. Suggested Readings and Resources
  29. 22. Wide Area Network Connections
    1. Introduction
    2. WAN Connection Types
      1. Leased Lines
        1. In the Field
      2. Circuit-Switched Networks
      3. Packet-Switched Networks
      4. Broadband
      5. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
      6. Metropolitan Ethernet (Metro Ethernet)
    3. The WAN Physical Layer
    4. WAN Data Link Encapsulations
      1. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
      2. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
      3. Cisco High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
      4. X.25 Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB)
      5. Frame Relay
      6. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
      7. PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) and PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
    5. Cisco HDLC
    6. PPP
      1. Sub-Layer 1: ISO HDLC
      2. Sub-Layer 2: Link Control Protocol (LCP)
        1. Authentication
          1. PAP
          2. CHAP
        2. Callback
        3. Compression
          1. Stacker
          2. Predictor
          3. Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression
        4. Multilink
      3. Sub-Layer 3: Network Control Protocol
    7. Configuring PPP
      1. Authentication
      2. Compression
    8. Verifying PPP
    9. Troubleshooting PPP
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    11. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 22.1. Troubleshooting PPP Connections
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Reading and Resources
  30. 23. Frame Relay
    1. Introduction
    2. Frame Relay Overview
    3. Virtual Circuits
      1. Hub and Spoke Design
      2. Partial Mesh Design
      3. Full Mesh Design
    4. Frame Relay Terminology
      1. Permanent Virtual Circuit
      2. Switched Virtual Circuit
      3. Local Management Interface
      4. Data Link Connection Identifier
      5. Local Access Rate
      6. Committed Information Rate
      7. Backwards Explicit Congestion Notification
      8. Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
      9. Discard Eligible
    5. The Nature of NBMA Networks
    6. Subinterfaces
      1. Multipoint Subinterfaces
      2. Point-to-Point Subinterfaces
    7. Address Mapping in Frame Relay
      1. Inverse ARP
      2. Static Mappings
    8. Configuring Frame Relay
      1. Configuring Frame Relay for a Single Neighbor
      2. Configuring Frame Relay That Uses a Multipoint Interface
      3. Configuring Frame Relay That Uses Point-to-Point Interfaces
    9. Verifying Frame Relay
      1. show frame-relay lmi
      2. show frame-relay pvc
      3. show frame-relay map
    10. Troubleshooting Frame Relay
    11. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    12. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Exercises
        1. 23.1. Configuring Frame Relay in a Partial Mesh Environment
      2. Review Questions
      3. Exam Questions
      4. Answers to Review Questions
      5. Answers to Exam Questions
      6. Suggested Reading and Resources
  31. 24. Understanding VPN Connectivity
    1. Introduction
    2. Understanding VPN Connectivity
      1. VPN Benefits and Considerations
      2. Types of VPNs
        1. Site-to-Site VPNs
        2. Remote-Access VPNs
    3. The Pieces That Make a VPN Tick
    4. Understanding IPsec
      1. Encryption
      2. Diffie-Hellman
      3. Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
      4. Authentication/Data Integrity
      5. IPsec Protocols
    5. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
    6. Apply Your Knowledge
      1. Review Questions
      2. Exam Questions
      3. Answers to Review Questions
      4. Answers to Exam Questions
      5. Suggested Readings and Resources
  32. Fast Facts
    1. OSI Model in Review
      1. Application Protocols Supported by the Application Layer
    2. Network Domains
    3. Cabling, Lines, and Services
    4. MAC Addressing
    5. Framing and Duplex Types
    6. WAN Interfaces
    7. Memory Types
    8. IOS File Naming Conventions
    9. Utilities Using ICMP
    10. Network Security
      1. Access Attacks
      2. Reconnaissance Attacks
      3. Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks
    11. Mitigating Network Threats
    12. IP Addressing
      1. Classless Addressing
      2. Private Ranges
      3. Subnetting
    13. IPv6
      1. Types of IPv6 Addresses
      2. Integrating IPv4 and IPv6
    14. Layer 3 Functions
    15. IOS Terminal Access Methodologies
    16. IOS Boot Processes
    17. IOS Navigation
      1. Context-Sensitive Help
      2. Terminal Editing Keys
      3. Syntax Errors
    18. Global Configuration Commands
    19. Securing the IOS
      1. SSH
    20. Interface Configuration Commands
    21. Switch Commands
    22. The copy Command
    23. The show Command
      1. Interface Status
    24. Cisco Discovery Protocol
    25. Telnet
    26. DHCP
    27. Switches
      1. Duplex Connections
      2. Spanning Tree Protocol IEEE 802.1d
        1. STP Configuration
        2. STP Topology Changes and Enhancements
        3. EtherChannel
    28. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. RSTP Convergence
    29. Virtual LANs (VLANs)
      1. VLAN Configuration
      2. Voice VLANs
    30. Trunks
      1. Trunk Configuration
    31. VLAN Trunking Protocol
      1. VTP Configuration
    32. InterVLAN Routing
      1. Port Security
    33. Routing Characteristics
      1. Routing Sources
      2. Static and Default Routes
    34. Dynamic Routing Protocols
      1. Routing Metrics
      2. Interior and Exterior Gateway Routing Protocols
      3. Classful and Classless Routing Updates
      4. Routing Protocol Classes
      5. Redistribution
    35. Distance Vector Routing Loop Mitigation
    36. RIP and RIPv2
      1. RIP Configuration
        1. RIPv2 Configuration
      2. Verifying and Troubleshooting RIP
    37. OSPF Characteristics
      1. OSPF Configuration
      2. Verifying and Troubleshooting OSPF
    38. EIGRP Characteristics
      1. EIGRP Configuration
      2. Verifying and Troubleshooting EIGRP
    39. Passive Interfaces
    40. Wireless Networking
    41. Wireless Security and Implementation
    42. Cisco Access Lists
      1. TCP Ports
      2. UDP Ports
    43. Network Address Translation (NAT)
    44. Wide-Area Networks
    45. Frame Relay
    46. VPN Connectivity
  33. Practice Exam
  34. Answers to Practice Exam
    1. Answers at a Glance
    2. Answers with Explanations
  35. What’s on the CD-ROM
    1. Multiple Test Modes
      1. Study Mode
      2. Certification Mode
      3. Custom Mode
    2. Attention to Exam Objectives
    3. Installing the CD
    4. Creating a Shortcut to the MeasureUp Practice Tests
    5. Technical Support
  36. Glossary