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CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition

Book Description

CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, is a best of breed Cisco exam study guide that focuses specifically on the objectives for the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam. Senior instructor and best-selling author Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. Material is presented in a concise manner, focusing on increasing your understanding and retention of exam topics.

  • Master CCIE 350-001 exam topics with the official study guide

  • Assess your knowledge with chapter-opening quizzes

  • Review key concepts with foundation summaries

  • Practice with hundreds of exam questions on the CD-ROM 

  • CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, presents you with an organized test preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. “Do I Know This Already” quizzes open each chapter and allow you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Foundation Topic sections present detailed overviews of all exam objectives. Key Topic icons allow you to identify and quickly review the most important exam topics. Foundation summaries reinforce key exam concepts with review exercises and important tables.

    The companion CD-ROM contains a powerful testing engine that allows you to focus on individual topic areas or take complete, timed exams. The assessment engine also tracks your performance and provides feedback on a chapter-by-chapter basis, presenting question-by-question remediation to the text and laying out a complete study plan for review.

    Well regarded for its level of detail, assessment features, and challenging review exercises and practice questions, this completely revised and updated third edition helps you master the concepts and techniques that will enable you to succeed on the exam the first time.

    CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.

    Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He currently teaches QoS, MPLS, and CCNA courses for Skyline Advanced Technology Services (http://www.skyline-ats.com). Wendell has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, and as an instructor and course developer and has taught authorized Cisco courses for the majority of the last 14 years.

    The official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, including:

  • Bridging and LAN switching

  • IP addressing, IP services, and TCP, UDP, and application protocol details

  • Layer 3 forwarding concepts

  • EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP routing protocols

  • Quality of service (QoS)

  • Frame Relay

  • MPLS

  • IP Multicast

  • IPv6

  • Router and switch security

  • Companion CD-ROM

    The CD-ROM contains an electronic copy of the book

    and more than 250 practice questions for the CCIE Routing and Switching written exam, all available in study mode, test mode, and flash card format.

    This volume is part of the Exam Certification Guide Series from Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed exam preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears.

    Category: Cisco Press—Cisco Certification

    Covers: CCIE Routing and Switching written exam 350-001 v3.1

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
    3. About the Contributing Author
    4. About the Technical Reviewers
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. Icons Used in This Book
    7. Command Syntax Conventions
    8. Foreword
    9. Introduction
      1. Why Should I Take the CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam?
      2. CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam 350-001
      3. About the CCIE Routing and Switching Official Exam Certification Guide, Third Edition
        1. Book Organization
        2. Book Features
    10. I. LAN Switching
      1. 1. Ethernet Basics
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex
            1. RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring
            2. Auto-negotiation, Speed, and Duplex
              1. CSMA/CD
              2. Collision Domains and Switch Buffering
            3. Basic Switch Port Configuration
          2. Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing
            1. Types of Ethernet Addresses
            2. Ethernet Address Formats
            3. Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field
          3. Switching and Bridging Logic
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      2. 2. Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Virtual LANs
            1. VLAN Configuration
              1. Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs
              2. Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs
              3. Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs
            2. Private VLANs
          2. VLAN Trunking Protocol
            1. VTP Process and Revision Numbers
            2. VTP Configuration
              1. Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs
              2. Storing VLAN Configuration
          3. VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q
            1. ISL and 802.1Q Concepts
            2. ISL and 802.1Q Configuration
              1. Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs
              2. Trunk Configuration Compatibility
            3. Configuring Trunking on Routers
            4. 802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      3. 3. Spanning Tree Protocol
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol
            1. Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports
              1. Electing a Root Switch
              2. Determining the Root Port
              3. Determining the Designated Port
            2. Converging to a New STP Topology
              1. Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM
              2. Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding
            3. Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks
            4. STP Configuration and Analysis
          2. Optimizing Spanning Tree
            1. PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast
              1. PortFast
              2. UplinkFast
              3. BackboneFast
              4. PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast Configuration
            2. PortChannels
              1. Load Balancing Across PortChannels
              2. PortChannel Discovery and Configuration
            3. Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
              1. Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (RPVST+)
            4. Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s
          3. Protecting STP
            1. Root Guard and BPDU Guard: Protecting Access Ports
            2. UDLD and Loop Guard: Protecting Trunks
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    11. II. IP
      1. 4. IP Addressing
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. IP Addressing and Subnetting
            1. IP Addressing and Subnetting Review
              1. Subnetting a Classful Network Number
              2. Comments on Classless Addressing
            2. Subnetting Math
              1. Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address
              2. Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses—Binary
              3. Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses
              4. Determining All Subnets of a Network—Binary
              5. Determining All Subnets of a Network—Decimal
            3. VLSM Subnet Allocation
            4. Route Summarization Concepts
              1. Finding Inclusive Summary Routes—Binary
              2. Finding Inclusive Summary Routes—Decimal
              3. Finding Exclusive Summary Routes—Binary
          2. CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT
            1. Classless Interdomain Routing
            2. Private Addressing
            3. Network Address Translation
              1. Static NAT
              2. Dynamic NAT Without PAT
              3. Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation
              4. Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      2. 5. IP Services
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP
            1. ARP and Proxy ARP
            2. RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP
            3. DHCP
          2. HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP
          3. Network Time Protocol
          4. SNMP
            1. SNMP Protocol Messages
            2. SNMP MIBs
            3. SNMP Security
          5. Syslog
          6. Web Cache Communication Protocol
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    12. III. IP Routing
      1. 6. IP Forwarding (Routing)
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. IP Forwarding
            1. Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding
            2. Building Adjacency Information: ARP and Inverse ARP
              1. Frame Relay Inverse ARP
              2. Static Configuration of Frame Relay Mapping Information
              3. Disabling InARP
            3. Classless and Classful Routing
          2. Multilayer Switching
            1. MLS Logic
            2. Using Routed Ports and PortChannels with MLS
            3. MLS Configuration
          3. Policy Routing
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      2. 7. RIP Version 2
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. RIP Version 2 Basics
          2. RIP Convergence and Loop Prevention
            1. Converged Steady-State Operation
            2. Triggered (Flash) Updates and Poisoned Routes
            3. RIP Convergence When Routing Updates Cease
            4. Convergence Extras
          3. RIP Configuration
            1. Enabling RIP and the Effects of Autosummarization
            2. RIP Authentication
            3. RIP Next-Hop Feature and Split Horizon
            4. RIP Offset Lists
            5. Route Filtering with Distribute Lists and Prefix Lists
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      3. 8. EIGRP
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. EIGRP Basics and Steady-State Operation
            1. Hellos, Neighbors, and Adjacencies
            2. EIGRP Updates
            3. The EIGRP Topology Table
          2. EIGRP Convergence
            1. Input Events and Local Computation
            2. Going Active on a Route
              1. Stuck-in-Active
              2. Limiting Query Scope
          3. EIGRP Configuration
            1. EIGRP Configuration Example
            2. EIGRP Load Balancing
            3. EIGRP Authentication
            4. EIGRP Automatic Summarization
            5. EIGRP Split Horizon
            6. EIGRP Route Filtering
            7. EIGRP Offset Lists
            8. Clearing the IP Routing Table
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      4. 9. OSPF
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. OSPF Database Exchange
            1. OSPF Router IDs
            2. Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent
              1. Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process
              2. Flooding LSA Headers to Neighbors
              3. Database Descriptor Exchange: Master/Slave Relationship
              4. Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs
            3. Designated Routers on LANs
              1. Designated Router Optimization on LANs
              2. DR Election on LANs
            4. Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types
              1. Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks
              2. Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA
            5. SPF Calculation
            6. Steady-State Operation
          2. OSPF Design and LSAs
            1. OSPF Design Terms
              1. OSPF Path Selection Process
            2. LSA Types and Network Types
              1. LSA Types 1 and 2
              2. LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs
              3. Removing Routes Advertised by Type 3 LSAs
              4. LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2
              5. OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types
            3. Stubby Areas
            4. Graceful Restart
            5. OSPF Path Choices That Do Not Use Cost
              1. Choosing the Best Type of Path
              2. Best-Path Side Effects of ABR Loop Prevention
          3. OSPF Configuration
            1. OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process
            2. Alternatives to the OSPF Network Command
            3. OSPF Filtering
              1. Filtering Routes Using the distribute-list Command
              2. OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering
              3. Filtering Type 3 LSAs with the area range Command
            4. Virtual Link Configuration
            5. Configuring OSPF Authentication
            6. OSPF Stub Router Configuration
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
          2. Further Reading
      5. 10. IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, and Default Routing
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance
            1. Configuring Route Maps with the route-map Command
              1. Route Map match Commands for Route Redistribution
              2. Route Map set Commands for Route Redistribution
            2. IP Prefix Lists
            3. Administrative Distance
          2. Route Redistribution
            1. Mechanics of the redistribute Command
              1. Redistribution Using Default Settings
              2. Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags
            2. Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map
            3. Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers
              1. Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance
              2. Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags
              3. Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes
          3. Route Summarization
            1. EIGRP Route Summarization
            2. OSPF Route Summarization
          4. Default Routes
            1. Using Static Routes to 0.0.0.0, with redistribute static
            2. Using the default-information originate Command
            3. Using the ip default-network Command
            4. Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      6. 11. BGP
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Building BGP Neighbor Relationships
            1. Internal BGP Neighbors
            2. External BGP Neighbors
            3. Checks Before Becoming BGP Neighbors
            4. BGP Messages and Neighbor States
              1. BGP Message Types
              2. Purposefully Resetting BGP Peer Connections
          2. Building the BGP Table
            1. Injecting Routes/Prefixes into the BGP Table
              1. BGP network Command
              2. Redistributing from an IGP, Static, or Connected Route
              3. Impact of Auto-Summary on Redistributed Routes and the network Command
              4. Manual Summaries and the AS_PATH Path Attribute
              5. Adding Default Routes to BGP
              6. ORIGIN Path Attribute
            2. Advertising BGP Routes to Neighbors
              1. BGP Update Message
              2. Determining the Contents of Updates
              3. Example: Impact of the Decision Process and NEXT_HOP on BGP Updates
              4. Summary of Rules for Routes Advertised in BGP Updates
          3. Building the IP Routing Table
            1. Adding eBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table
            2. Backdoor Routes
            3. Adding iBGP Routes to the IP Routing Table
              1. Using Sync and Redistributing Routes
              2. Disabling Sync and Using BGP on All Routers in an AS
              3. Confederations
              4. Configuring Confederations
              5. Route Reflectors
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
          2. Further Reading
    13. IV. QoS
      1. 12. Classification and Marking
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Fields that Can Be Marked for QoS Purposes
            1. IP Precedence and DSCP Compared
            2. DSCP Settings and Terminology
              1. Class Selector PHB and DSCP Values
              2. Assured Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values
              3. Expedited Forwarding PHB and DSCP Values
            3. Non-IP Header Marking Fields
              1. Ethernet LAN Class of Service
              2. WAN Marking Fields
              3. Locations for Marking and Matching
          2. Cisco Modular QoS CLI
            1. Mechanics of MQC
            2. Classification Using Class Maps
              1. Using Multiple match Commands
              2. Classification Using NBAR
          3. Classification and Marking Tools
            1. Class-Based Marking (CB Marking) Configuration
              1. CB Marking Example
              2. CB Marking of CoS and DSCP
              3. Network-Based Application Recognition
            2. CB Marking Design Choices
            3. Marking Using Policers
            4. QoS Pre-Classification
            5. Policy Routing for Marking
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      2. 13. Congestion Management and Avoidance
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Cisco Router Queuing Concepts
          1. Software Queues and Hardware Queues
          2. Queuing on Interfaces Versus Subinterfaces and Virtual Circuits
          3. Comparing Queuing Tools
          4. Queuing Tools: CBWFQ and LLQ
            1. CBWFQ Basic Features and Configuration
            2. Defining and Limiting CBWFQ Bandwidth
            3. Low-Latency Queuing
            4. Defining and Limiting LLQ Bandwidth
            5. LLQ with More Than One Priority Queue
            6. Miscellaneous CBWFQ/LLQ Topics
            7. Queuing Summary
          5. Weighted Random Early Detection
            1. How WRED Weights Packets
            2. WRED Configuration
          6. Modified Deficit Round-Robin
          7. LAN Switch Congestion Management and Avoidance
            1. Cisco 3550 and 3560 Switch Ingress Queueing
            2. Cisco 3550 Switch Egress Queuing
            3. Cisco 3560 Switch Egress Queuing
            4. Cisco 3550 Congestion Avoidance
            5. Cisco 3560 Congestion Avoidance
            6. Comparisons Between Cisco 3550 and 3560 Switches
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
      3. 14. Shaping and Policing
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Traffic-Shaping Concepts
            1. Shaping Terminology
            2. Shaping with an Excess Burst
            3. Underlying Mechanics of Shaping
            4. Traffic-Shaping Adaptation on Frame Relay Networks
          2. Class-Based Shaping Configuration
            1. Tuning Shaping for Voice Using LLQ and a Small Tc
            2. Configuring Shaping by Bandwidth Percent
            3. CB Shaping to a Peak Rate
            4. Adaptive Shaping
          3. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Configuration
            1. FRTS Configuration Using the traffic-rate Command
            2. Setting FRTS Parameters Explicitly
            3. FRTS Configuration Using LLQ
            4. FRTS Adaptive Shaping
            5. FRTS with MQC
          4. Policing Concepts and Configuration
            1. CB Policing Concepts
              1. Single-Rate, Two-Color Policing (One Bucket)
              2. Single-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets)
              3. Two-Rate, Three-Color Policer (Two Buckets)
            2. Class-Based Policing Configuration
              1. Single-Rate, Three-Color Policing of All Traffic
              2. Policing a Subset of the Traffic
              3. CB Policing Defaults for Bc and Be
              4. Configuring Dual-Rate Policing
              5. Multi-Action Policing
              6. Policing by Percentage
            3. Committed Access Rate
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    14. V. Wide-Area Networks
      1. 15. Frame Relay
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Frame Relay Concepts
            1. Frame Relay Data Link Connection Identifiers
            2. Local Management Interface
            3. Frame Relay Headers and Encapsulation
            4. Frame Relay Congestion: DE, BECN, and FECN
              1. Adaptive Shaping, FECN, and BECN
              2. The Discard Eligibility Bit
          2. Frame Relay Configuration
            1. Frame Relay Configuration Basics
            2. Frame Relay Payload Compression
            3. Frame Relay Fragmentation
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    15. VI. IP Multicast
      1. 16. Introduction to IP Multicasting
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Why Do You Need Multicasting?
            1. Problems with Unicast and Broadcast Methods
            2. How Multicasting Provides a Scalable and Manageable Solution
          2. Multicast IP Addresses
            1. Multicast Address Range and Structure
            2. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
              1. Multicast Addresses for Permanent Groups
              2. Multicast Addresses for Source-Specific Multicast Applications and Protocols
              3. Multicast Addresses for GLOP Addressing
              4. Multicast Addresses for Private Multicast Domains
            3. Multicast Addresses for Transient Groups
            4. Summary of Multicast Address Ranges
            5. Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses
          3. Managing Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP
            1. Joining a Group
            2. Internet Group Management Protocol
            3. IGMP Version 2
              1. IGMPv2 Host Membership Query Functions
              2. IGMPv2 Host Membership Report Functions
              3. IGMPv2 Solicited Host Membership Report
              4. IGMPv2 Unsolicited Host Membership Report
              5. IGMPv2 Leave Group and Group-Specific Query Messages
              6. IGMPv2 Querier
            4. IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Interoperability
              1. IGMPv2 Host and IGMPv1 Routers
              2. IGMPv1 Host and IGMPv2 Routers
            5. IGMPv2 Timers
            6. IGMP Version 3
            7. Comparison of IGMPv1, IGMPv2, and IGMPv3
          4. LAN Multicast Optimizations
            1. Cisco Group Management Protocol
            2. IGMP Snooping
            3. Router-Port Group Management Protocol
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
          2. References in This Chapter
      2. 17. IP Multicast Routing
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Multicast Routing Basics
            1. Overview of Multicast Routing Protocols
              1. Multicast Forwarding Using Dense Mode
              2. Reverse Path Forwarding Check
              3. Multicast Forwarding Using Sparse Mode
            2. Multicast Scoping
              1. TTL Scoping
              2. Administrative Scoping
          2. Dense-Mode Routing Protocols
            1. Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode
              1. Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages
              2. Source-Based Distribution Trees
              3. Prune Message
              4. PIM-DM: Reacting to a Failed Link
              5. Rules for Pruning
              6. Steady-State Operation and the State Refresh Message
              7. Graft Message
            2. LAN-Specific Issues with PIM-DM and PIM-SM
              1. Prune Override
              2. Assert Message
              3. Designated Router
              4. Summary of PIM-DM Messages
            3. Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
            4. Multicast Open Shortest Path First
          3. Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols
            1. Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode
              1. Similarities Between PIM-DM and PIM-SM
              2. Sources Sending Packets to the Rendezvous Point
              3. Joining the Shared Tree
              4. Completion of the Source Registration Process
              5. Shared Distribution Tree
              6. Steady-State Operation by Continuing to Send Joins
              7. Examining the RP’s Multicast Routing Table
              8. Shortest-Path Tree Switchover
              9. Pruning from the Shared Tree
            2. Dynamically Finding RPs and Using Redundant RPs
              1. Dynamically Finding the RP Using Auto-RP
              2. Dynamically Finding the RP Using BSR
              3. Anycast RP with MSDP
              4. Summary: Finding the RP
            3. Bidirectional PIM
            4. Comparison of PIM-DM and PIM-SM
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    16. VII. Security
      1. 18. Security
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Router and Switch Device Security
            1. Simple Password Protection for the CLI
              1. Better Protection of Enable and Username Passwords
            2. User Mode and Privileged Mode AAA Authentication
              1. Using a Default Set of Authentication Methods
              2. Using Multiple Authentication Methods
              3. Groups of AAA Servers
              4. Overriding the Defaults for Login Security
            3. PPP Security
          2. Layer 2 Security
            1. Switch Security Best Practices for Unused and User Ports
              1. Port Security
              2. Dynamic ARP Inspection
              3. DHCP Snooping
              4. IP Source Guard
              5. 802.1X Authentication Using EAP
              6. Storm Control
            2. General Layer 2 Security Recommendations
          3. Layer 3 Security
            1. IP Access Control List Review
              1. ACL Rule Summary
              2. Wildcard Masks
            2. General Layer 3 Security Considerations
              1. Smurf Attacks, Directed Broadcasts, and RPF Checks
              2. Inappropriate IP Addresses
              3. TCP SYN Flood, the Established Bit, and TCP Intercept
            3. Context-Based Access Control
              1. TCP Versus UDP with CBAC
              2. CBAC Protocol Support
              3. CBAC Caveats
              4. CBAC Configuration Steps
            4. Dynamic Multipoint VPN
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    17. VIII. MPLS
      1. 19. Multiprotocol Label Switching
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding
            1. MPLS IP Forwarding: Data Plane
              1. CEF Review
              2. Overview of MPLS Unicast IP Forwarding
              3. MPLS Forwarding Using the FIB and LFIB
              4. The MPLS Header and Label
              5. The MPLS TTL Field and MPLS TTL Propagation
            2. MPLS IP Forwarding: Control Plane
              1. MPLS LDP Basics
              2. The MPLS Label Information Base Feeding the FIB and LFIB
              3. Examples of FIB and LFIB Entries
              4. Label Distribution Protocol Reference
          2. MPLS VPNs
            1. The Problem: Duplicate Customer Address Ranges
            2. The Solution: MPLS VPNs
            3. The MPLS VPN Control Plane
              1. Virtual Routing and Forwarding Tables
              2. MP-BGP and Route Distinguishers
              3. Route Targets
              4. Overlapping VPNs
            4. The MPLS VPN Data Plane
              1. Building the (Inner) VPN Label
              2. Creating LFIB Entries to Forward Packets to the Egress PE
              3. Creating VRF FIB Entries for the Ingress PE
              4. Penultimate Hop Popping
          3. Other MPLS Applications
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    18. IX. IP Version 6
      1. 20. IP Version 6
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. IPv6 Addressing and Address Types
            1. IPv6 Address Notation
              1. Address Abbreviation Rules
            2. IPv6 Address Types
              1. Unicast
              2. Aggregatable Global Addresses
              3. Link-Local Addresses
              4. IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses
              5. Assigning an IPv6 Unicast Address to a Router Interface
              6. Multicast
              7. IPv6 Multicast Address Format
              8. Anycast
              9. The Unspecified Address
            3. IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration
              1. EUI-64 Address Format
          2. Basic IPv6 Functionality Protocols
            1. Neighbor Discovery
              1. Neighbor Advertisements
              2. Neighbor Solicitation
              3. Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation
              4. Duplicate Address Detection
              5. Neighbor Unreachability Detection
            2. ICMPv6
            3. Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding
            4. DNS
            5. CDP
            6. DHCP
          3. Access Lists and Traffic Filtering
          4. IPv6 Static Routes
          5. IPv6 Unicast Routing Protocols
          6. OSPFv3
            1. Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3
            2. Virtual Links, Address Summarization, and Other OSPFv3 Features
            3. OSPFv3 LSA Types
            4. OSPFv3 in NBMA Networks
            5. Configuring OSPFv3 over Frame Relay
            6. Enabling and Configuring OSPFv3
            7. Authentication and Encryption
          7. EIGRP for IPv6
            1. Differences Between EIGRP for IPv4 and for IPv6
            2. Unchanged Features
            3. Route Filtering
            4. Configuring EIGRP for IPv6
          8. Quality of Service
            1. QoS Implementation Strategy
            2. Classification, Marking, and Queuing
            3. Congestion Avoidance
            4. Traffic Shaping and Policing
          9. Tunneling Techniques
            1. Tunneling Overview
            2. Manually Configured Tunnels
            3. Automatic IPv4-Compatible Tunnels
            4. IPv6 over IPv4 GRE Tunnels
            5. Automatic 6to4 Tunnels
            6. ISATAP Tunnels
            7. NAT-PT
          10. IPv6 Multicast
            1. Multicast Listener Discovery
              1. Explicit Tracking
            2. PIM
              1. PIM DR Election
              2. Source-Specific Multicast
              3. PIM BSR
              4. Additional PIM Concepts and Options
            3. IPv6 Multicast Static Routes
            4. Configuring Multicast Routing for IPv6
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Fill in Key Tables from Memory
            2. Definitions
            3. Further Reading
    19. X. Appendixes
      1. A. Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
        15. Chapter 15
        16. Chapter 16
        17. Chapter 17
        18. Chapter 18
        19. Chapter 19
        20. Chapter 20
      2. B. Decimal to Binary Conversion Table
      3. C. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Updates: Version 1.0
        1. Always Get the Latest at the Companion Website
        2. Technical Content
      4. Glossary
      5. D. IP Addressing Practice
        1. Subnetting Practice
        2. 25 Subnetting Questions
          1. Suggestions on How to Attack the Problem
          2. Question 1: Answer
          3. Question 2: Answer
          4. Question 3: Answer
          5. Question 4: Answer
          6. Question 5: Answer
          7. Question 6: Answer
          8. Question 7: Answer
          9. Question 8: Answer
          10. Question 9: Answer
          11. Question 10: Answer
          12. Question 11: Answer
          13. Question 12: Answer
          14. Question 13: Answer
          15. Question 14: Answer
          16. Question 15: Answer
          17. Question 16: Answer
          18. Question 17: Answer
          19. Question 18: Answer
          20. Question 19: Answer
          21. Question 20: Answer
          22. Question 21: Answer
          23. Question 22: Answer
          24. Question 23: Answer
          25. Question 24: Answer
          26. Question 25: Answer
        3. Discovering All Subnets When Using SLSM: 13 Questions
          1. Question 1: Answer
          2. Question 2: Answer
          3. Question 3: Answer
          4. Question 4: Answer
          5. Question 5: Answer
          6. Question 6: Answer
          7. Question 7: Answer
          8. Question 8: Answer
          9. Question 9: Answer
          10. Question 10: Answer
          11. Question 11: Answer
          12. Question 12: Answer
          13. Question 13: Answer
        4. Discovering the Smallest Inclusive Summary Route: 10 Questions
          1. Question 1: Answer
          2. Question 2: Answer
          3. Question 3: Answer
          4. Question 4: Answer
          5. Question 5: Answer
          6. Question 6: Answer
          7. Question 7: Answer
          8. Question 8: Answer
          9. Question 9: Answer
          10. Question 10: Answer
        5. Discovering the Smallest Exclusive Summary Routes: 5 Questions
          1. Question 1: Answer
          2. Question 2: Answer
          3. Question 3: Answer
          4. Question 4: Answer
          5. Question 5: Answer
      6. E. Key Tables for CCIE Study
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
        15. Chapter 15
        16. Chapter 16
        17. Chapter 17
        18. Chapter 18
        19. Chapter 19
        20. Chapter 20
      7. F. Key Tables for CCIE Study
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
        15. Chapter 15
        16. Chapter 16
        17. Chapter 17
        18. Chapter 18
        19. Chapter 19
        20. Chapter 20
      8. G. IEEE 802.11 Fundamentals
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. 802.11 Physical Layer Standards
            1. 802.11a
            2. 802.11b
            3. 802.11g
            4. 802.11n
            5. Comparison of 802.11 Standards
          2. Wireless System Configuration
            1. Infrastructure Mode Configuration
            2. Ad Hoc Mode Configuration
          3. Wireless Hardware Components
            1. Radio Cards
            2. Access Points
            3. Antennas
            4. Repeaters
            5. Bridges
            6. Routers
            7. Radio Frequency Peripherals
          4. Infrastructure Mode Operation
            1. Scanning
              1. Passive Scanning
              2. Active Scanning
            2. Connecting with a Network
            3. Data Transfer
            4. Roaming
          5. Ad Hoc Mode Operation
          6. Wireless Configuration Parameters
            1. SSID
            2. RF Channels
            3. Transmit Power
            4. Data Rates
            5. Power-Save Mode
            6. RTS/CTS
            7. Fragmentation
            8. RTS/CTS and Fragmentation Summary
          7. Wireless Medium Access
          8. Wireless Security
            1. WEP
            2. TKIP
            3. AES
            4. WPA
            5. Open System Authentication
            6. Shared Key Authentication
            7. Virtual Private Networks
            8. Comparing Wireless Security
          9. RF Signal Concepts
            1. Modulation
            2. RF Signal Characteristics
            3. Gain
            4. Signal-to-Noise Ratio
            5. Spread Spectrum
            6. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
            7. FCC Rules
            8. RF Interference
            9. Multipath
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Definitions
            2. Further Reading
          2. Answers to “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Questions
      9. H. Wireless LAN Solutions
        1. “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz
        2. Foundation Topics
          1. Cisco Structured Wireless-Aware Network
            1. Wireless Domain Services
            2. Intrusion Detection System
            3. Cisco SWAN Hardware
            4. Cisco Wireless LAN Hardware
            5. CiscoWorks Wireless LAN Solution Engine
              1. Automatic Access Point Configuration
              2. Assisted Site Surveys
              3. Centralized Firmware Updates
              4. Dynamic Grouping
              5. VLAN Configuration
              6. Multiple Service Set Identifier Support
              7. Customizable Thresholds
              8. Fault Status
              9. Intrusion Detection System
              10. Security Policy Monitoring
              11. Secure User Interface
              12. Air/RF Scanning and Monitoring
              13. Self-Healing Functions
              14. Reporting, Trending, Planning, and Troubleshooting
          2. Applying Wireless LANs in Enterprises
            1. Enterprise Security
            2. Voice Services
          3. Public Wireless LANs
          4. Small Office and Home Wireless LANs
        3. Foundation Summary
          1. Memory Builders
            1. Definitions
            2. Further Reading
          2. Answers to “Do I Know This Already?” Quiz Questions