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Causality, Probability, and Time by Samantha Kleinberg

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5

Inferring Causality

Thus far, I have discussed the types of causes that will be identified, how they can be represented as logical formulas, and how the definitions hold up to common counterexamples. This chapter addresses how these relationships can be inferred from a set of data. I begin by examining the set of hypotheses to be tested, the types of data one may make inferences from, and how to determine whether formulas are satisfied directly in this data (without first inferring a model). Next, I discuss how to calculate the causal significance measure introduced in the previous chapter (εavg) in data, and how to determine which values of this measure are statistically significant. I then address inference of relationships and their timing ...

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