**3**

Probability, Logic, and Probabilistic Temporal Logic

**3.1. Probability**

Whether we want to determine the likelihood of a stock market crash or if people with a given gene have a higher risk of a disease, we need to understand the details of how to calculate and assess probabilities. But first, what exactly are probabilities and where do they come from? There are two primary views. The *frequentist* view says that probabilities relate to the proportion of occurrences in a series of events. For example, the probability of a coin coming up heads being 1/2 means that with a large number of coin flips, half should be heads and half tails. The probability then corresponds to how often something ...

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