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Causality, Probability, and Time by Samantha Kleinberg

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2

A Brief History of Causality

2.1. Philosophical Foundations of Causality

When discussing causality and causal inference we must first distinguish between the thing itself and how to recognize it. Most scientific work on causality involves developing methods for providing evidence for causal relationships, while work in philosophy addresses what it means for something to be a cause. This philosophical work is not immediately applicable to practical problems, but it provides a necessary starting point for work by computer scientists, epidemiologists, and economists. This section introduces readers not familiar with the philosophical literature to how philosophers have conceptualized causality and why this problem is still unsolved after centuries ...

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