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Cathodic Corrosion Protection Systems

Book Description

Corrosion is a naturally occurring cost, worth billions in the oil and gas sector. New regulations, stiffer penalties for non-compliance and aging assets are all leading companies to develop new technology, procedures and bigger budgets catering to one prevailing method of prevention, cathodic protection. Cathodic Corrosion Protection Systems: A Guide for Oil and Gas Industries trains on all the necessary reports, inspection criteria, corrective measures and critical standards needed on various oil and gas equipment, structures, tanks, and pipelines. Demands in the cathodic protection market have driven development for better devices and methods, helping to prolong the equipment and pipeline’s life and integrity. Going beyond just looking for leaks, this handbook gives the engineer and manager all the necessary tools needed to put together a safe cathodic protection system, whether it is for buried casing while drilling, offshore structures or submarine pipelines.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Biography
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. 1. Principle of Electrochemical Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
    1. 1.1. Behavior of Buried or Immersed Metals in the Absence of CP
    2. 1.2. Cathodic Protection
    3. 1.3. Considerations Applicable to Most Types of Structures
    4. 1.4. Safety Aspects
  10. 2. Application of Cathodic Protection
    1. 2.1. Criteria for Cathodic Protection
    2. 2.2. Buried Pipes
    3. 2.3. Tanks Exteriors
    4. 2.4. Submerged Pipelines
    5. 2.5. Offshore Structures and Ship Hulls
    6. 2.6. Tank, Pipe, and Water Box Interiors
    7. 2.7. Well Casings
    8. 2.8. Types of Cathodic Protection Systems
    9. 2.9. Equipment and Facilities for Impressed Current Systems
    10. 2.10. Cathodic Protection of Buried Steel Pipes
    11. 2.11. Cathodic Protection In-Plant Facilities
    12. 2.12. Cathodic Protection of Vessel and Tank Internals
    13. 2.13. Cathodic Protection of Marine Structures
    14. 2.14. Anodic Protection
  11. 3. Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for Buried Pipelines and Marine Structures
    1. 3.1. Principles of Cathodic Protection
    2. 3.2. Methods of Applying Cathodic Protection
    3. 3.3. Protection Potentials
    4. 3.4. Current Density
    5. 3.5. Coatings
    6. 3.6. Calcareous Scales
    7. 3.7. Choice of a Cathodic-Protection System
    8. 3.8. Anode Resistance
    9. 3.9. Impressed-Current System
    10. 3.10. Galvanic Anode System
    11. 3.11. Design Principle of Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
    12. 3.12. Anode Location
    13. 3.13. Anodic Protection
  12. 4. Materials and Cathodic Protection Systems
    1. 4.1. Impressed Current Anodes
    2. 4.2. Manufacturing of Materials
    3. 4.3. Anode Casting
    4. 4.4. Lead Wire-to-Anode Connection
    5. 4.5. Anode Lead Wire
    6. 4.6. Properties
    7. 4.7. Dimensions and Weights
    8. 4.8. Carbonaceous Backfill for Impressed Current Anodes
    9. 4.9. Galvanic Anodes for Underground Applications (Magnesium and Zinc)
    10. 4.10. Chemical Backfill for Galvanic Anodes
    11. 4.11. Method for the Determination of the Anode-to-Core Resistance of Galvanic Anodes
    12. 4.12. Galvanic Anodes for Submerged Applications (Magnesium and Zinc)
    13. 4.13. Method for the Determination of the Anode-to-Core Resistance of Galvanic Anodes
    14. 4.14. Bracelet-Type Galvanic Anodes for Submarine Pipelines (Aluminum and Zinc)
    15. 4.15. Anode Core Steel Works
    16. 4.16. Method for the Determination of the Anode-to-Core Resistance of Galvanic Anodes
    17. 4.17. Method for the Determination of the Consumption Rate of Aluminum Anode Alloys Immersed in Seawater
    18. 4.18. Method for the Determination of the Closed-Circuit Potential of Aluminum Anodes Immersed in Seawater
    19. 4.19. Cast Galvanic Anodes for Fixed Offshore Installations (Aluminum)
    20. 4.20. Requirements
    21. 4.21. CP Cables
    22. 4.22. Specific Cable Requirements
    23. 4.23. Quality Assurance Provisions
    24. 4.24. Tests
    25. 4.25. Fabrication and Inspection of Monolithic Insulating Joints
    26. 4.26. Approved Welding Processes
    27. 4.27. Coating
    28. 4.28. Quality Assurance Provisions
    29. 4.29. Tests
    30. 4.30. Flange Insulation Kit
    31. 4.31. Polypropylene Rope
    32. 4.32. Split Bolt Connector (Line Tap)
    33. 4.33. Rubber Splicing Tape
    34. 4.34. Thermit Weld (Cad Weld) Powder
  13. 5. Monitoring Cathodic Protection Systems
    1. 5.1. Criteria for Cathodic Protection
    2. 5.2. Periodic Inspection
    3. 5.3. Potential Survey of Buried Steel Pipes
    4. 5.4. Potential Survey of Cathodically Protected Reinforced Concrete
    5. 5.5. Potential Survey of Offshore Structures
    6. 5.6. Inspection of Rectifiers
    7. 5.7. Inspection of Ground Bed
    8. 5.8. Inspection of Offshore Sacrificial Anodes
    9. 5.9. Current Survey
    10. 5.10. Inspection Following Failure Report
    11. 5.11. Inspection and Survey for Efficiencies of Coatings
    12. 5.12. Data Recording and Analysis
    13. 5.13. Interferences
    14. 5.14. Meters and Equipment
    15. 5.15. Potentiometer and Voltmeter
  14. 6. Test Methods
    1. 6.1. Test Methods for the Short Circuit Point
    2. 6.2. American Society for Testing and Material Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel Bar in Concrete
    3. 6.3. Subsea Pipeline CP Survey Method
    4. 6.4. Line Current Survey Test Method
    5. 6.5. Computer Modeling of Offshore CP Systems Utilized in CP Monitoring
    6. 6.6. Coating Resistance Measurement Method
    7. 6.7. Test Method and Calculation for “Attenuation Constant”
    8. 6.8. Coating Inspection by the Pearson Method
    9. 6.9. Coating Inspection by the C-Scan System
    10. 6.10. Coating Evaluation by Electromagnetic Current Attenuation Survey
    11. 6.11. Close Interval Pipe-to-Soil Potential Survey
    12. 6.12. An Example for Cathodic Field Interference Test Method
    13. 6.13. Tests for Electrical Continuity
  15. 7. Installation of Cathodic Protection Systems
    1. 7.1. Galvanic Anodes
    2. 7.2. Impressed Current Anodes
    3. 7.3. Transformer/Rectifier Equipment
    4. 7.4. Excavation and Backfilling
    5. 7.5. Installation of CP Systems for Buried Pipelines
    6. 7.6. Installation of Galvanic Anode Systems
    7. 7.7. Installation of CP Systems for Compact Buried Structures
    8. 7.8. Installation of CP Systems for Internal Surfaces
    9. 7.9. Installation of CP Systems for Marine Structures
    10. 7.10. Submarine Pipelines
    11. 7.11. Electrical Measurements and Tests
    12. 7.12. Tests Prior to Installation of CP on Buried or Immersed Structures
    13. 7.13. Tests during the Commissioning Period
    14. 7.14. Specialized Surveys
  16. 8. Commissioning of Cathodic Protection Systems
    1. 8.1. Precommissioning Inspection and Check
    2. 8.2. Hookup and Commissioning
    3. 8.3. Commissioning Survey
    4. 8.4. Commissioning Report
    5. 8.5. Installation of Electrical Isolation Equipment
    6. 8.6. Thermit Welding of CP Leads
    7. 8.7. Pipe Preparation
    8. 8.8. Thermit Weld Preparation and Procedure
    9. 8.9. Control of Interference Currents on Foreign Structures
    10. 8.10. Notifying Owners of Other Structures for Interference Testing
    11. 8.11. Interference Testing
    12. 8.12. Criteria for Limiting Corrosion Interaction
    13. 8.13. Telluric Current
    14. 8.14. AC Effects
    15. 8.15. Measurement of Soil Resistivity
    16. 8.16. Field Procedures
    17. 8.17. Frequency of Measurement
    18. 8.18. Measurement of Electrode Resistance
    19. 8.19. Current Drainage Survey
    20. 8.20. Determination In situ of the Redox Potential of Soil
    21. 8.21. Inspection of CP Installations
    22. 8.22. Installation in Hazardous Atmospheres
  17. Additional List of Reading on Retrofitting
  18. Glossary of Terms
  19. Index