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Categorical Data Analysis Using The SAS® System, 2nd Edition by Gary G. Koch, Charles S. Davis, Maura E. Stokes

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2.5. Odds Ratio and Relative Risk

Measures of association are used to assess the strength of an association. There are numerous measures of association available for the contingency table, some of which are described in Chapter 5, “The s × r Table.” For the 2 × 2 table, one measure of association is the odds ratio, and a related measure of association is the relative risk.

Consider Table 2.5. The odds ratio compares the odds of the Yes proportion for Group 1 to the odds of the Yes proportion for Group 2. It is computed as

The odds ratio ranges from 0 to infinity. When OR is 1, there is no association between the row variable and the column variable. ...

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